Intermediate Bangla - [PDF Document] (2024)

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Intermediate Bangla

(Bengali)

b AMlA

Clinton B. Seely

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First published, 1985 (1392 baÆAÂ) First LINCOM edition, 2002 (1409 baÆAÂ)

First Acrobat®-formatted PDF digital edition, 2006 (1413 baÆAÂ)

©Clinton B. Seely

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Foreword Intermediate Bangla is aimed at native English-speaking students of the Bangla language who have completed An Introduction to Bengali: Part I , by Edward C. Dimock, Jr., Somdev Bhattacharji, and Suhas Chatterjee (2nd printing; New Delhi: Manohar, 1976) and An Introduction to Bengali: Part II , by Somdev Bhattacharji (reprinted; Chicago, 1988). I take for granted that the material presented in those two books has been learned already. An alternative to the two introductory volumes is Bengali: A Complete Course for Beginners (Teach Yourself Books) , by William Radice (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1994). Intermediate Bangla could be used profitably during the second year of language study in conjunction with A Bengali Prose Reader (for Second-Year Students) , by Edward C. Dimock, Jr. and Somdev Bhattacharji (reprinted, Chicago, 1988). In the third year, most students would do well to read diverse selections of Bangla writing such as those presented in parts two and three of An Advanced Course in Bengali , by Ernest Bender and Theodore Riccardi, Jr. (Philadelphia: South Asia Regional Studies; University of Pennsylvania, 1978). Knowledge of the grammar covered in Intermediate Bangla will enhance the student's comprehension of those readings and should increase his/her reading speed. I drew heavily upon material in An Advanced Course in Bengali for examples of the grammatical points covered in Intermediate Bangla. Both second- and third-year students would benefit immensely from Bengali Reference Grammar , by W.L. Smith (Stockholm: Association of Oriental Studies, 1997). Each of the twenty lessons in Intermediate Bangla is divided into four sections: a short selection of Bangla; two grammar sections; and useful information in or about the language. Lesson 1 is an exception to that pattern; it has been designed primarily as a review of features of the written language, including spelling and punctuation, and of pronunciation of spoken Bangla. In all the lessons, I have tried to give illustrative phrases or sentences for grammar points drawn from published Bangla texts. The reader will notice a number of quotations are attributed to "Anon." Long before I began writing this book, I had been gathering material to use in my Bangla courses. I did not always note the author of those passages as I was making my collections for class. Consequently, when I came to cite them in this book, I found myself unable to provide with certainly the author's name for many of those passages, and thus I attribute them to "Anon." There is one writer whose work I have cited often and to whom I would like to give explicit credit and special thanks. Ketaki Kushari Dyson, accomplished author in both English and Bangla, provided me with numerous and wonderful specimens of the language, through her much acclaimed play rAetr frod (Kolkata: Dey's, 1997). The preparation of Intermediate Bangla was originally made possible many years ago by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education. I want to thank Professors Edward C. Dimock, Jr., Anisuzzaman, Probal Dasgupta, and Ernest Bender, as well as Professor Bender's then teaching assistant, Professor Sagoree Sengupta, for reading the first incarnation of this book and offering emendations and advice, some of which I have

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incorporated into this revised edition. More recently, Professors Tista Bagchi and Mithi Mukherjee, and also Debali Mookerjea, Rochona Majumdar, and Edward Yazijian, all of whom at one time served as my teaching assistant, have proofread most of the manuscript, for which I am grateful. Since the book is stored on magnetic computer disks, I can easily continue to revise the text from time to time and would appreciate hearing from anyone who has suggestions or corrections. I can be contacted at:

The University of Chicago Department of South Asian Languages and Civilizations

[emailprotected]

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TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD . . . . . iii BANGLA-ROMAN ALPHABET TRANSLITERATION TABLE . . . . . x

LESSON 1 . . . . . 1 I. Types of Bangla II. Spelling III. Punctuation IV. Pronunciation

LESSON 2 . . . . . 28 I. ÉithAs (1): kalakAtA [History (1): Kolkata] II. Indefinite, Interrogative, and Correlative Pronouns: 1st-, 2nd-, and Honorific 3rd-persons III. jaenÄ/janÄa, haey, pae• "for" IV. Months, Seasons, & Annual Holidays

LESSON 3 . . . . . 40 I. ÉithAs (2): òAkA [History (2): Dhaka] II. Indefinites A) reduplication of B) with nA between reduplication C) with Çr D) with fY/YA III. bael A) PAP B) conjunction "that" C) postposition "as, called" D) conjunction "because" IV. Calendric Systems

LESSON 4 . . . . . 54 I. saMabAd [News] II. Correlatives III. fYna, YAet, pAeC A) to express purpose B) to express emphasis in commands C) to express desire D) to express similarity E) to express vagueness IV. Dates of the Month

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LESSON 5 . . . . . 65 I. fKlAúulA [Sports] II. Verbal Noun A) in the locative case B) with mA÷a III. paéYa»a, Åbaiú "until, etc." IV. Percentage, Fractions, Base-16 Numerals, and Arithmetic

LESSON 6 . . . . . 74 I. ÅiBúAn [Dictionary (entry)] II. Verbal Noun in the Genitive Case A) with postposition B) with following noun C) with ÇeC/fnÉ, nay III. kaõA "word, story; about" IV. Common Terms of Address & Reference (other than genuine kinship terms)

LESSON 7 . . . . . 88 I. „a˙AbAbalI [List of proposals] II. Emphasis A) modifiers B) inverted syntax C) É suffix D) lengthened consonants E) ä suffix and paéYa»a F) rhetorical interrogatives ik, kata G) 'Kanaaa added to verb III. jAnA "to know" IV. Common University & Government Terminology

LESSON 8 . . . . . 99 I. jAtIya sMgIt [National anthem(s)] II. Reflexive (& Intensive) Pronouns III. sabAÉ/sakael, sab/sakal "everybody, all" IV. Political Geography

LESSON 9 . . . . . 110

I. samAelocanA [Criticism] II. Passives A) verbal noun + 3rd-person of haäyA B) verbal noun + 3rd-person of YAäyA C) bael (àek%%, kAek%, YAek% bael%) D) mArA YAäyA and passives with paRA

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III. mata A) noun B) postposition requiring genitive C) suffix IV. Time of Day

LESSON 10 . . . . . 128 I. ïAgata BASaN [Welcoming address] II. Auxiliary Verbs A) ÇsA/YAäyA B) fdäyA/fnäyA C) õAkA/ÇC- D) äóA, paRA, fPlA, basA III. haey, iheseb/ihsAeb "as" IV. Kinship Terms

LESSON 11 . . . . . 142 I. kaibtA [Poetry] II. Causative Verbs A) "strengthened" stem-vowel & "double" causatives B) mock causatives C) alternative causative markers D) 3-Å•ara verbs III. Verbs "to be" IV. Prefixes

LESSON 12 . . . . . 171

I. ibçaekoS [Encyclopedia (entry)] II. Adjectives A) with genitive B) with suffix C) past active participle D) past passive participle E) verbal noun without genitive F) verbal noun + genitive III. Adverbs A) adverb and adverb only B) adjectives used as C) made from adjectives and nouns IV. Suffixes

LESSON 13 . . . . . 198 I. iciópa÷a [Personal letters]

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II. Infinitives A) reduplicated B) reduplicated, separated by nA C) with predicate adjective D) balaet E) as conditional conjunctive III. Pronouns Made from Adjectives IV. Salutations & Complimentary Closings

LESSON 14 . . . . . 209 I. raiskatA [Humor] II. Infinitive + Another Verb (1st of 2) III. lAgA IV. Postpositions: Optional Genitive Case

LESSON 15 . . . . . 225 I. ib≥Apan [Advertisem*nt] II. Infinitive + Another Verb (2nd of 2) A) with õAkA, continual/continuous B) with pArA, fdäyA, permission C) with pArA, pAäyA, ability D) with fnÉ/nAÉ, ÇeC, obligation III. Éey "what's-its-name" & Åmuk "a certain person" IV. Postpositions: Required Genitive Case

LESSON 16 . . . . . 244

I. cairt [Biography] II. Infinitive/Verbal Noun + Another Verb III. Onomatopoeic Words IV. Postpositions: No Particular Case

LESSON 17 . . . . . 262 I. saMêAra ib%baraN [Description of an establishment] II. "Objects" of Compound Verbs: Genitive/Objective Case III. Genitive-3rd-Person (Dative) Constructions IV. Postpositions: Objective Case (idey and iney)

LESSON 18 . . . . . 271 I. ib≥ ai‡ [Notice/Announcement] II. Conditional Clauses with Yaid A) tA hael/tAhael (tAÉel), taeb, fto B) tense restrictions C) haäyA, ÇC- D) Yaidä, Yaid-bA

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III. Conditional Conjunctive A) tA hael, etc. B) with 3rd-person of haäyA C) with 3rd-person of calA D) with pArA E) with bAcA F) with par IV. Common Expressions

LESSON 19 . . . . . 292 I. ib≥An [Science] II. Imperatives A) with fg, idik B) with correlative (+ nA fkna) III. Conjunctions IV. More Common Expressions

LESSON 20 . . . . . 305

I. kaeõopakaõan [Conversation] II. The Negative A) nA (fn%), in/nAÉ, fnÉ/nAÉ, (naäyA) B) nA precedes verb C) nA as the conjunction "or" D) àkaTA nA àkaTA "one or another" E) nA as filler word F) either/or, neither/nor, nA hay III. The Definite Article (a.k.a qualifier) and Numbers IV. Interjections, (mild) Expletives, and Other Emphatics

ANSWER KEY . . . . . 336 GLOSSARY . . . . . 347 INDEX . . . . . 369

Bangla English

APPENDICES . . . . . 379

1. Verb Conjugations: CALIT & SADHU 2. Pronoun & Noun Declensions: CALIT & SADHU 3. Cardinal & Ordinal Numbers

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Bangla-Roman alphabet phonetic transliteration table

Å Ç É Ñ Ö Ü á à â ä ã ]/o a i i u u ri e/@ oi o ou

~ M H ~ Y h

k K g G X k kh g gh Y

c C j J \ c ch j jh ñ

T ó D/R ò/ô N

T Th D/R Dh/Rh N

t õ d ú n t th d dh n

p P b B m p ph b bh m

Y/y r l Z S s h j/y-e-o r l s s s/S h

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Intermediate Bangla Lesson 1-I

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LESSON 11

I. TYPES OF BANGLA

Any living language shows change over time, reflected not only in the vocabulary but also in the grammar. Couple that with regional variations in the language and one readily sees that an attempt to describe a language, as I do here, is always going to be inadequate. At various places in the book I have tried to indicate something of the variety found over time and place. But the learner needs to beware: what may be ungrammatical today, in one place, for one speaker, may already be or in the future become grammatical and acceptable elsewhere, for another speaker. Bangla has two standard "languages," actually two forms of one and the same language: sAúu BASA ("the SADHU or literary or pristine language") and cail%t BASA ("the CALIT or colloquial or current language"). Anyone unfamiliar with these terms should review Part III "Introduction—Relationship of Calit, Likhita calit, and Sadhu-bhasa Bengali" and Lessons 26-29 of An Introduction to Bengali, Part II , by Somdev Bhattacharji. During the 19th century the SADHU form of Bangla gradually became standardized and was used for creative literature and formal writing of all sorts. It differs somewhat from the Bangla found in pre-nineteenth-century texts and from the various forms of spoken Bangla, both then and now. During the first several decades of the 20th century, creative writers, Pramatha Caudhuri and Rabindranath Tagore foremost among them, began to switch from SADHU to CALIT as the medium for literature. By the middle of the century, most authors were writing in CALIT. Now, at the start of the 21st century, except in the editorial columns of a newspaper here and there, Kolkata's Çna«dabAjAra pai÷kA for one, this literary diglossia has all but disappeared.2

1As with the spelling of the language, so with the spelling of the capital cities: Bangladesh's capital, formerly Dacca, has long since become known as Dhaka; West Bengal's capital, Calcutta until recently, is now officially Kolkata. All of these spelling changes reflect more closely the pronunciation of the words in Bangla. 2For those interested in "diglossia" in Bangla, i.e., the two (but sometimes more) levels or forms or registers of the one language, see "Diglossia in Bangladesh and Language Planning Problems," by Udaya Narayana Singh, and "Diglossia in Bangla: A Study of Shifts in the Verbal Repertoire of the Educated Classes in Dhaka, Bangladesh," by

Bangla is the language spoken by Bengalis. Bengali is both the name of a people as well as the older name, in English, for the language. Though "Bengali" is still used extensively to designate the language, "Bangla" is encountered more and more these days in both written and spoken English. "Bangla" and "Bengali" are simply two names, two spellings in Roman script, for the one language.1

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Intermediate Bangla Lesson 1-I

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CALIT Bangla is also called calait% or, more descriptively, kaõÄa BASA ("the spoken language"). There are many variations of spoken Bangla, as there are of any spoken language. One sometimes is told the sweetest, the ideal, form of spoken Bangla is that which is uttered in Nabadwip or Shantipur in West Bengal. What is called, in English, "standard" colloquial Bangla, however, is basically the language spoken and written by educated middle- and upper-class Bengalis living in Kolkata and Dhaka. Compare section 1 of both Lesson 2 and Lesson 3. The selection in Lesson 2 was written by a West Bengali for young West Bengali readers; the selection in Lesson 3 is by a Bangladeshi author for young Bangladeshi readers. Both are excellent examples of standard colloquial Bangla. SADHU/CALIT BANGLA The differences between SADHU and CALIT are found (A) primarily and most consistently in the verbs (see Appendix 1), (B) in the pronouns (see Appendix 2) and case endings on nouns, and (C) in the choice of vocabulary. A. Verbs The PRESENT tense in SADHU is the same as in CALIT except: 1. V É-stem (see Appendix I for classes of verbs) verbs add h: SADHU CALIT gAih% gAÉ gAih%s gAs gAh agAä gAeh%n gAn gAeh% gAy 2. The verb "not to be," (a contraction of nA and the verb haäyA) also adds h: SADHU CALIT naih% naÉ naih%sa nas nah anaä naeh%na nan naeh% nay

3. Some writers do not elide vowels in any SADHU verb ending, even with vowel-final verb stems, e.g., haey%n instead of han "you [honorific] are."

Afia Dil, both in Joshua A. Fishman, et al., eds. The Fergusonian Impact, Vol. 2, Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language (Berlin, New York, Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruyter, 1986), pp. 431-49 and 451-65. Also, see the PhD dissertation by Paromita Chakraborti, “Diglossia in Bengali” (University of New Mexico, 2003).

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The (1) FUTURE, (2) SIMPLE PAST, (3) PAST HABITUAL/PAST CONDITIONAL tenses, the (4) INFINITIVE, (5) CONDITIONAL CONJUNCTIVE, and (6) ALTERNATIVE VERBAL NOUN with bA all add É to the verb stem: SADHU CALIT fd%iK%ba fd%Kaba fd%iK%lAm fd%KalAm fd%iK%tAm fd%KatAm fd%iK%et% fd%Kaet% fd%iK%el% fd%Kael% fd%iK%bA- fd%KabA- EXCEPT: 1. V É-stem verbs add h before the É: SADHU CALIT gAih%ba gAÉba etc. 2. The verb "not to be" also adds h before the É, in the conditional conjunctive: SADHU CALIT naih%el %naÉel% etc. 3. fd%äyA and fn%äyA use the "high" stem in the future: SADHU CALIT id%ba, in%b afd%ba, fn%ba etc.

In nineteenth-century texts, the 3rd-person ordinary future may be fb%k, instead of fb%: ftomAek%ä ÇmAed%r saeÆ% YAÉet% haÉeb%k| "You too must come with us." (Advanced Bengali, p. 102) Also, the 1st-person simple past may be nu, instead of lAma: inZA-raeN% saMhAir%nu Çim% raGubaer%| "I slew the best of Raghus in night battle." (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

IMPERATIVES: Some writers do not elide vowels in any SADHU verb ending, even with vowel-final verb stems, e.g., id%Ön instead of id%n, "please give."

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The PRESENT and PAST CONTINUATIVES add Éet% to the verb stem: SADHU CALIT fd%iK%et%iC %fd%KaiC% fd%iK%et%iC%lAm fd%KaiC%laAm etc. EXCEPT: 1. V É-stem verbs add h before Éet%: SADHU CALIT gAih%et%iC% gAÉiC% etc. 2. fd%äyA and fn%äyA elide one É: SADHU CALIT id%et%iC %id%i∞C% etc. The PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLE (PAP) and the PRESENT and PAST COMPLETIVES add ÉyA to the verb stem: SADHU CALIT fd%iK%yA fd%eK% fd%iK%yAiC% fd%eK%iC% fd%iK%yAiC%lAm fd%eK%iC%lAm etc. EXCEPT: 1. V É-stem verbs h before ÉyA: SADHU CALIT gAih%yA fg%ey% etc. 2. fd%äyA and fn%äyA elide one É: SADHU CALIT id%yA, in%yA id%ey%, in%ey% etc. 3. The PAP of YAäyA is usually ig%yA, but some writers use YAÉyA|

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The VERBAL NOUN without bA is the same in both SADHU and CALIT. SADHU CALIT karA karA EXCEPT: 1. Several of the V É-stem verbs add h + Ç to the stem: SADHU CALIT rahA raäyA

2. All CALIT verbs with a stem vowel of "e" (except fd%äyA and fn%äyA) have a stem vowel of "i" in SADHU; those with a stem vowel of "o" in CALIT have a stem vowel of "u" in SADHU:

SADHU CALIT il%KA fl%KA ZunA fZonA

"@"-stem vowels, written with an "à" character, are NOT altered in SADHU: SADHU CALIT fd%KA fd%KA

NOR are "], a, i, u"-stem vowels altered in SADHU:

SADHU CALIT balA balA õAkA õAkA ij%rAeno ij%rAeno/ij%erAeno GumAeno GumAeno/GuemAeno B. Pronouns (and case endings on nouns) Whereas the distinctions between SADHU and CALIT are, in the verbal system, clear and maintained, in the pronominal system there is more overlapping (consult Appendix 2). Third-person pronominal stems in SADHU display an added syllable hA, and genitive and objective plurals—for both nouns and pronouns—have an optional ending not found in CALIT. SADHU CALIT ÉhA à/àÉ

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tAhArA tArA ÇmAid%eg%r or (ÇmAed%r) ÇmAed%r ÇmAid%gaek% or ÇmAed%r, ÇmAed%raek% (ÇmAed%r, ÇmAed%raek%) paiƒ%taid%eg%r or (paiƒ%taed%r) paiƒ%taed%r CA÷aid%gaek% or CA÷aed%r, CA÷aed%raek% (CA÷aed%r, CA÷aed%raek%)

Note: Some authors used in SADHU what could be considered CALIT forms of the genitive and objective plurals, given above in parentheses; also see Exercises #3, below.

A number of suffixes, besides the rA ending, are used in SADHU (less frequently in CALIT) to indicate the (usually human, but not always) nominative plural for nouns: gaN b&«da samUha In addition to the four cases found in CALIT (nominative, genitive, objective, and locative), there is a separate VOCATIVE CASE used in SADHU and some older CALIT literature. It appears with masculine nouns ending in Ö aand á and with feminine nouns ending in Ç, Ñ, and á—Ö becomes ä, á becomes ÅH, Ç becomes à, and Ñ becomes É: NOMINATIVE VOCATIVE i„%yA "dear one" i„%ey% "ah, dearest" fd%bI "goddess, lady" fd%ib% "Goddess!" „aBu "lord" „aeBo% "Lord!" %ip%ta&/ip%tA "father" %ip%taH "O Father" mAta&/mAtA "mother" mAtaH "O Mother" ib%úAta&/ib%úAtaA "providence" fh% ib%úAtaH "hey Providence"

Examples of nineteenth-century vocatives, from Michael Madhusudan Datta:

ib%lAsabatI| äelo madain%ek%, àkabAra fd%K` ta, BAÉ, ÇmAra muKaKAnA Çja Çrais%et% fk%mana fd%KAecÄ%? Vilasavati: 'O Madanika, look, sister, how does my face appear to you in this mirror today?'

rAjA| fd%ib%, tuim% k&ˆAek% àkabAra àKAen% DAka ta| The king: 'My dear queen, please call Krishna here.'

tapaiï%nI| „aeBo, ftomAraÉ É∞CA| Tapasvini: 'Lord, whatever be your wish.'

k& akumArI| ip%taH, Çpain% Åen%ka id%na ÇmAra ÖdÄAen% padAépaNa kaer%na nAÉ, tA Çja àkabAra caluna! Krishnakumari: 'Father, you've not set foot in my garden for a long, so today, do come!'

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C. Vocabulary Bangla vocabulary is divided into four groups: TATSAMA words (words that have come into Bangla from Sanskrit with no modifications), TADBHAVA words (words that came from Sanskrit originally but which have changed somewhat), DESI words (words that are considered indigenous and for which no parent language is discernible), and BIDESI words (words that are of a "foreign" origin—from Arabic, Persian, Portuguese, or English, for example). On the whole, there tend to be more "tatsama" words in SADHU than in CALIT; there are more "tadbhava" words and words of unknown or foreign origin in CALIT. Within CALIT itself, however, vocabulary can range widely from the very colloquial to the rather eloquent. SADHU and CALIT, particularly CALIT as found in formal writing, share a considerable amount of vocabulary. Several very common words, however, are marked as either CALIT or SADHU: SADHU CALIT Åep%•A fc%ey%/cAÉet% "than" saih%t saeÆ%/sAeõ "with" in%kaT/in%kaeT% kAeC% "near, to" haÉet %fõ%ek% "from" in%kaT haÉet% kAC fõ%ek% "from [a person]" nAÉ fn%É negative of ÇC-(Kolkata) nAÉ in% negative of completive tenses (Kolkata) KOLKATA/DHAKA STANDARD COLLOQUIAL BANGLA As mentioned above, "standard" colloquial Bangla is essentially the language of educated middle- and upper-class Kolkata- and Dhaka-resident Bengalis. To be sure, within Kolkata and Dhaka, even among the educated, there are linguistic differences. Still then, it is often said that Kolkata Bangla, in general, is the standard present-day colloquial language. For the most part, the Bangla written by educated Bengalis in Dhaka is quite similar to standard colloquial Bangla; there are some differences in the spoken language, however. One notices, for instance, that Bangla is spoken much more rapidly in Dhaka than it is in Kolkata. Certain individual words are pronounced somewhat differently in each place (see section IV, Pronunciation, below). Given the fact that Bangladesh is mainly Muslim and West Bengal more prominently Hindu, one might expect to find a greater number of Perso-Arabic words in Dhaka Bangla than in standard colloquial Bangla. And there are such Perso-Arabic words in Dhaka speech, but not overwhelmingly so. One also readily finds in standard colloquial Bangla (Kolkata Bangla) certain Perso-Arabic words for which a more Sanskritic synonym is current in Dhaka's Bangla. Several very common words, though, may mark the speaker as either from West Bengal or Bangladesh:

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BANGLADESH WEST BENGAL fgosal cAn, ëAn "bath" fgo˙`/fgAZ`ta mAMasa "meat" nAÉ in% negative of completive tenses nAÉ fn%É negative of ÇC- nA˙A/nAZ`tA jal-KAbAr "breakfast snack" pAin% jal "water" REGIONAL DIALECTS (Ç¥ail%k ÖpaBASA) Bangladesh and West Bengal together (i.e., "Bengal"), about the size of Illinois and Indiana combined, have a number of regional Bangla dialects, some mutually unintelligible. Two of the most extreme cases are those spoken in Sylhet and Chittagong, the former bordering on Assam, the latter on Burma. Professors at the University of Chittagong who are not native Chittagonians, for instance, cannot necessarily understand a conversation between two of their colleagues who were born and brought up in the Chittagong area. Other regional differences are less pronounced. For a brief comparison of eight dialects from around Bengal, including Sylheti and Chittagonian Bangla, see the selection by Sunitikumar Chatterjee in Advanced Bengali, pp. 230-31.3 Exercises—CALIT and SADHU 1. Read and translate:

"Ç’acair%t' ÉMair%jI 1849 sAel%r fs%p`eT%Íar mAes% fd%eb%«‹a bAbu ä Çim% ÇsAm „aed%Z fd%KabAr janÄa kÄAp`eT%n ih%k`el% sAeh%eb%r fn%t&e‘% YamunA nAmak ¯TImAer% caiR%, taKan ÇmAr baey%s ft%ÉZ baCar| ÇmarA gaÆAsAgar tArapar baRa su«daraban id%ey% ÇsAem%r id%ek% YAÉ| baRa su«daraban id%ey% fY%et% fY%et% fd%KalAm fY% àÉ àkaiT% •u‹a „aNAlI àta fCoeTo fY% ¯TImAr tAet% iP%raet% pAer% nA, tAr paer%É àman àkaiT% caäRA nadI fY% samu‹aib%eZ%S| ÇmarA ¯TImAer%r Öpair%BAg fõ%ek% dUrabI•aN id%ey% fd%KatAm äpAer% hair%N caraeC%, bAeG%r DAk àk rAe÷% fZonA ig%ey%iC%la| àkaid%n ÇmarA YAi∞C%, fd%KalAm su«darabaen% fY% sakal kAóuer% kAó kATaet% YAy tAr maeúÄ% àkajan fnOeko kaer% ¯TImAer%r kAeC% àes% kAe‡%n sAeh%baek% balala fY% ÇmAed%r bAüd Puir%ey% fg%eC%, àkaTu bAüd ä guil% ÇmAed%r id%n, ÇmarA àÉ marA hair%N ÇpanAek% id%i∞C%| fs%É hair%NaiT% fs%Éid%naÉ tArA iZ%kAr kaer%eC%|

3For additional material on the dialects of Chittagong and Dhaka, see Punya Sloka Ray, Muhammad Abdul Hai, and Lila Ray, Bengali Language Handbook (Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1966), pp. 80-97.

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Intermediate Bangla Lesson 1-I

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kAe‡%n balael%n fY% ÉMalaƒ hael% àÉ hair%eN%r dAm 50 TAkA hata, BAratabaeéS% ÅÓa guil%bAüed%r ib%in%maey% tA pAäyA fg%la| ÇmAed%r „aetÄ%ek%r kAC fõ%ek% KAÉKaraec%r janÄa kAe‡%n sAeh%b 4 TAkA kaer% in%et%n ik%… fp%T Baer% fK%et% id%et%n nA| àman kAe‡%n ÇmarA kaKan fd%iK% in%| âbAr ÇmAed%r BAgÄa£aem% ärakama kAe‡%n jueT%iC%la| kAe‡%n sAeh%b fboú hay Çr f~b%ec% fn%É| it%in% fY% floek% àKan õAkun nA fk%na, ÅbaZÄa â ÅÓa KAbAr fd%äyAr janÄa it%in% àKan Ånuta‡a hae∞C%n sae«d%ha fn%É|

2. Read and compare the following SADHU original with the above CALIT version:

"Ç’acair%t' ÉMarAjI 1849 sAel%r fs%p`eT%Íar mAes% fd%eb%«‹a bAbu ä Çim% ÇsAm „aed%Z fd%iK%bAr janÄa kÄAp`eT%n ih%k`el% sAeh%eb%r fn%t&e‘%r ÅúIn YamunA nAmak ÛTImAer% ÇerohaN kair%, taKan ÇmAr bayaHa£am ft%ÉZ baösar| ÇmarA gaÆAsAgar taöpar baRa su«daraban id%yA ÇsAmAiB%mueK% gaman kair%| baRa su«daraban id%yA YAÉet% YAÉet% fd%iK%lAm fY% àÉ àkaiT% •u‹a „aNAlI àta •u‹a fY% ÛTImAr tAhAet% iP%ir%et% pAer% nA, tAhAr ÅbÄabaih%ta paer%É àman àkaiT% ib%˙IéNa nadI fY% samu‹aib%eZ%S| ÇmarA ÛTImAer%r Öpair%BAg haÉet% dUrabI•aN ŸArA fd%iK%tAm äpAer% hair%N cair%et%eC%, bÄAeèG%r DAk àk rAe÷%et% ZunA ig%yAiC%la| àkaid%n ÇmarA YAÉet%iC% fd%iK%lAm su«darabaen% fY% sakal kAóuir%yA kAó kAiT%et% YAy tAhAr maeúÄ% àkajan fnOkA kair%yA ÛTImAer%r in%kaT Çis%yA kAe‡%n sAeh%baek% bail%la fY% ÇmAid%eg%r bAüd PurAÉyA ig%yAeC%, ik%i¥%ö bAüd ä guil% ÇmAid%gaek% id%Ön, ÇmarA àÉ marA hair%N ÇpanAek% id%et%iC%| fs%É hair%NaiT% fs%Éid%naÉ tAhArA iZ%kAr kair%yAeC%| kAe‡%n bail%el%n fY% ÉMalaƒ haÉel% àÉ hair%eN%r dAm 50 TAkA haÉta, BAratabaeéS% ÅÓa guil%bAüed%r ib%in%maey% tAhA pAäyA fg%la| ÇmAid%eg%r „aetÄ%ek%r in%kaT haÉet% KAÉKarac daüN kAe‡%n sAeh%b 4 TAkA kair%yA laÉet%n ik%… fp%T Bair%yA KAÉet% id%et%n nA| àman kAe‡%n ÇmarA kaKan fd%iK% nAÉ| âbAr ÇmAid%eg%r BAgÄa£aem% âûp kAe‡%n juiT%yAiC%la| kAe‡%n sAeh%b fboú hay Çr jIib%ta nAÉ| it%in% fY% floek% àKan õAkun nA fk%na, ÅbaZÄa â ïaÓa ÇhAr fd%äyAr janÄa it%in% à•aeN% Ånuta‡a haÉet%eC%n sae«d%ha nAÉ|

(rAjanArAyaN basu, "Ç’acair%t' [1m saMa araN, 1909; 4éõ saMa araN;

kalakAtA: äir%ey%∆T buk fkoÈpAin%, 1961], p&Ha 42-43|) 3. Rewrite the following in CALIT: Change all verbs and pronouns into their standard CALIT forms. Consult a Bangla-to-Bangla dictionary on words which either you do not recognize or you think might have a more common (and therefore probably a more CALIT) synonym; if such a synonym exists, substitute it, with an appropriate case ending where needed, for the more SADHU word present in the following passage.

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pa÷a sUcanA ^YAhArA bAÆAlA BASAy ègaÃa bA sAmaiy%k pa÷a „acAer% „ab&–a haey%n, tAhAid%eg%r ib%eZ%S durad&ÛTa| tAhArA Yata Ya”a kaün nA fk%na, fd%ZIya k&taib%dÄa saÈ„adAy „AyaÉ tAhAid%eg%r racanA pAeó% ib%muK| ÉMarAij%i„%ya k&taib%dÄagaeN%r „Ay iê%r ≥An ÇeC% fY%, tAhAed%r pAeó%r fYogÄa ik%CuÉ bAÆAlA BASAy il%iK%ta haÉet% pAer% nA| tAhAed%r ib%eb%canAy bAÆAlA BASAy fl%Kak mAe÷%É hay ta ib%dÄAbuiÿ%hIn, il%ip%-fkOZal-ZUnÄa; nay ta ÉMarAij%-ègaeÃ%r ÅnubAdak| ^tAhAed%r ib%çAs fY%, YAhA ik%Cu bAÆAlA BASAy il%ip%baÿa hay, tAhA hay ta ÅpAóÄa, nay ta fkona ÉMarAij% ègaeÃ%r CAyA mA÷a; ÉMarAij%et% YAhA ÇeC%, tAhA Çr bAÆAlAy paiR%yA Ç’AbamAnanAr „aeyojan ik%?

("baÆadaéZan,' 1m Kaƒa, 1m saMaKÄA [1lA Fb%ZAK, 1279], p&Ha 1|)

II. SPELLING A. "Initial" vowel letters, as opposed to their "post-consonantal" forms, are used initially

(as the first letter) in a word. In modern Bangla, three "initial" vowels—É, Ö, and ä—can also be used noninitially, usually following another vowel:

É id%É "I give"; sAÉi÷%Z "thirty-seven"; taKanaÉ "just then" Ö baÖ "wife"; fn%Öl "mongoose"; ÇÖZ "early ripening," name of one of the

three standard rice crops ä YAäyA "to go"; Çim%ä "I too"; àKanaä "even now"

The "initial" vowels Å, Ç may be found noninitially in a limited number of words, mainly those of Arabic origin where a prefix is present:

fb%ÇÉnI "illegal" (without [fb] the law [ÇÉn]+ adjectival suffix [Ñ]) Even these words tend to be spelled without the initial Å, Ç vowels:

fb%yAdaib% "impudence" (without [fb%] courtesy [Çdab] + nominalizing suffix [É]) (Advanced Bengali, p. 115)

The "initial" vowel à is found noninitially in the word Åtaàb ("hence, thus, so") and in genitive case endings after (1) consonant-final words in quotation marks as well as (2) numerals whose pronounced form ends in a consonant:

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"ÉÖ àn'àr saMaêA "an organization of the UN" 1923-àr fs%epT%Íaer% bAbA mArA YAbAr par baCar duey%ek%r maeúÄ%É sae«d%Z Öeó% YAy| "Within a couple of years after father died, in September of 1923, Sandesh ceased

publication." (Satyajit Ray) 4-àr k: "column 4"

Vowel sequences are commonly written with the second vowel in its "post-consonantal" form, attached to the consonant called Å»aHaêa Å:

iZ%•aiy%÷I "woman teacher"; id%ey% PAP of "to give"; dueyo "boo, fie" B. Some writers make a distinction between the interrogative indicator (ik%) and the

pronoun/adjective "what" (kI) by using the "long i" (Ñ-kAr, called dIGIkAr) for the pronoun/adjective. The "rule of thumb" is the following: If "ki" translates in English as "what," then use the "long i."

tuim% ik% kAj karaCa? "Are you working?" tuim% kI kAj karaCa? "What work are you doing?"

Most writers, however, use the "short i" (É-kAr, called øaiï%kAr) in both situations. Both words, no matter how they are spelled, are pronounced alike; the intonation pattern for the above two sentences is different (see Intro Bengali, pp. 63-64). C. Some writers use an apostrophe in the (1) 2nd-person future imperative, (2) infinitive, (3)

conditional conjunctive, and (4) PAP forms of verbs with the stem vowel of Å, thereby indicating that the stem vowel in these forms is indeed "high":

1. kAl mA«‹Aej% fn%em% YA karabAr hay k'ero| "Tomorrow, disembark at Madras and do what you have to do." (Advanced Bengali, p. 110) 2. "kaib%tA'r ègAhak h'et% hay Çiç%n fõ%ek%_ "One must become a subscriber of Kavita from the month of Asvin—" (Lesson 15, I) 3. „akAeZ%r janÄa fl%KA pAóAet% h'el% ió%kAnA-fl%KA iT%ik%T-lAgAeno KAm saeÆ%É fd%eb%n_ "If you have to mail in a contribution intended for publication, send along with it an

addressed, stamped envelope—" (Lesson 15, I) 4. fs% BAla k'er% rAÕA kaer%| "He cooks well."

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D. Since the à vowel is pronounced both "e" and "@," some writers use the "j]-phola" + "Ç-

kAr," in place of the more standard "à-kAr" to indicate when the "@" sound, not the "e" sound, is called for:

. . . YaKain% dÄAeKo nA fk%na BAelo ftomAr lAgaeb%É| ". . . no matter when you look at it, you'll enjoy it." (Lesson 3, I) fs% Yaid% jal nA pAlaeT%eC% fto dÄAeKo hayata maer%É fg%eC%| "If he doesn't change the water, then, take a look, perhaps it [the mAgur fish] has died."

(Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

Though normally the "j]-phola (Ä)," itself a consonant, is joined to another (preceding) consonant, an initial "@" sound in a foreign word is transliterated into Bangla script by the unconventional spelling of joining the "j]-phola" to a vowel, either the vowel "Å + Ä (+ Ç-kAr)" or the vowel "à + Ä (+ Ç-kAr)": ÅÄAkaiT%BaBAeb% "actively," pronounced "@kTivbhabe" (Advanced Bengali, p. 170) àÄeBnu "avenue," pronounced "@venu"

E. The final inherent vowel of common adjectives, if pronounced, may be written (as an

ä-kAr) but need not be: BAla or BAelo

Whether or not the apostrophe is used, the two verb forms in example #4 above are pronounced differently—the PAP with a "high" stem vowel ("o") and the 3rd-person ordinary present tense with a "low" stem vowel ("]"). Some publications, in Bangladesh particularly, indicate the high vowel in the PAP by printing an "ä-kAra|" All three following sentences are pronounced the same: fs% BAla ker% rAÕA kaer| "She cooks well." fs% BAla k'er% rAÕA kaer| "He cooks well." fs% BAla fkoer% rAÕA kaer%| "She cooks well."

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The pronunciation is the same in both cases. Writers do not necessarily adopt one or the other convention consistently. Within a given piece of writing the same adjective may be spelled both with and without the ä-kAr|

àKaeno ("even now, still"), taKaeno ("even then, still"), kaKaeno ("sometimes, ever"), and fkoeno ("some, any"), allow for three different spellings:

fkona, fkoeno, fkonaä kaKana, kaKaeno, kaKanaä, etc. F. An "o" ending on (1) present tense consonant-final verb stems, (2) other tense inflections,

(3) and the causative verbal noun, may be written (as an ä-kAr) but need not be: 1. 2nd-person ordinary present tense—kara or kaero 2. 1st-person future—karaba or karaebo 2nd-person present completive—kaer%Ca or kaer%eCo 3rd-person simple past—karala or karaelo 3. causative verbal noun—karAna or karAeno The 2nd-person ordinary future imperative of verbs with the stem vowel of Å usually has either the high vowel written in (as an ä-kAra) or an apostrophe, to distinguish it from the present imperative: future imperative—fkora or fkoero or k'ra or k'ero (See section C above.) present imperative—kara or kaero

Both the 2nd-person ordinary and 2nd-person familiar present imperatives of the verbs basA ("to sit") and ÇsA ("to come") are EXCEPTIONS to the rules on formation of the imperative.

The general rules for 2nd-person imperatives (in Kolkata) include the following: 2nd-person ordinary present imperative = the present tense 2nd-person familiar present imperative = "low" stem of the verb

The 2nd-person ordinary present imperatives of both basA and ÇsA use the high-

stem vowel (in Kolkata Bangla but not necessarily in Dhaka Bangla) : fbosa or fboeso, NOT the expected basa or baeso jAnAlA Kuel% id%i∞C%| fbosa, maiN%kA id%| "I'll open the window. Please sit down, Manika-di." (Jibanananda Das)

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GaaiR% fd%eK% samIra bael%_ió%ka ÇeC%, tuim% fboeso| KAin%ka•aNa samaya ÇeC%| "Glancing at his watch, Samir said, 'OK, sit down. I've got a little time.'" (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay) àsa or àeso, NOT the expected Çsa or Çeso4 à•uiN% cael% àsa "Come immediately!" fm%ey% kaih%la, hAta úuey% BAta KAeb% àeso bAbA, Çim% fb%eR% id%ey%ic%| "His daughter said, 'Come, Father, wash your hands and have your rice. I've

served it.'" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) The 2nd-person familiar present imperative of basA is fbos`, NOT the expected bas` ÇmAed%r sakael%r mAJaKAen% Çis%yA fbos`! "Come sit amongst all of us!" (Advanced Bengali, p. 132) The 2nd-person familiar present imperative of ÇsA is Çy, NOT the expected

Çs` à•uiN% cael% Çya "Come immediately!" kaih%la, àka kAja kara nA mA, maeh%Zaek% nA hay úaer% idey% Çya| "He said, 'Why don't you do this, Daughter. Instead [of serving the rice to me],

get Mahesh [their bullock] and give it to him." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

Remember: The "hasanta" or "halanta" ( ` ), as in fbos`, indicates that the inherent vowel, present in all consonants, is not pronounced.

Both ordinary present and future 2nd-person imperative tense endings on vowel-final verb stems are almost always spelled with the "initial" vowel ä, although the Å»aHaêa Å with ä-kAr is also encountered:

YAä, sometimes YAeyo fY%ä, sometimes fY%eyo

fd%eKo fY%na PuRut kaer% pAil%ey% fY%eyo nA| "Look here, don't suddenly go darting off now." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

G. The locative case ending, to review (see Intro Bengali, pp. 60, 108), is either "te" or "e."

Generally, "te" is for vowel-final words; "e" is for both consonant-final and vowel-final

4In Dhaka's dialect, Çeso is, in fact, regularly heard.

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words. More specifically, "e" is for consonant-final words and may be used on monosyllabic words that end in a vowel (or a glide of two vowels). The "te" is, generally, for multisyllabic words that end in a vowel, but either "te" or "e" can be used with multisyllabic words that end in a vowel.

The "e" locative case ending for monosyllabic vowel-final words (and words ending in one of the two "high" vowels "i" or "u") is spelled ey%, whereas the "e" ending on multisyllabic vowel-final words is spelled ya%:

gA "body" gAey% "on the body" ^gA "village" ^gAey% "in the village" iG% "drawn butter" iG%ey% "in drawn butter" duÉ% "book" duÉey% "both," locative subject baÉ% "book" baÉ%ey% "in the book" guü-laGu duÉey% im%il%ey% . . . "The light and the serious both together . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 146)

but

kalakAtA "Kolkata" kalakAtAy "in Kolkata" fkoõA "what place" fkoõAy "where, at what place" ickAego "Chicago" ickAegoy "in Chicago" fPoeTo "photo" fPoeToy "in the photograph" Ée∞C% "wish" Ée∞C%y "according to the wishes [of]" fC%el% "boy" fC%el%y "boys," locative subject i^p%eR% "stool" i^p%eR%y "on the stool" fm%eJ%/fm%ej% "floor" fm%eJ%y "on the floor" Åen%kaguelo fC%el%y im%el fK%lA kaer%, baes% baes% fd%iK%| "I sit and watch a bunch of boys playing." (Advanced Bengali, p. 115)

These may also use the "te" ending:

kalakAtA "Kolkata" kalakAtAy or kalakAtA%et% "in Kolkata" fm%eJ%/fm%ej% "floor" fm%eJ%y or fm%eJ%%et% "on the floor"

Consonant-final words may use the "ete" ending, which looks to be a double locative: naKa "fingernail" naeK%et% "by/with nails" (Advanced Bengali, p. 166) H. With vowel-final verb stems, the "e" ending on PAPs is always spelled ey%; the "e"

representing a 3rd-person ordinary present tense ending is always spelled ya:

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Zuey% PAP, "having lain down" fZoy pres., "he/she lies down" in%ey% PAP, "having taken" fn%y pres., "she/he takes" fn%ey% PAP, "having bathed" nAy pres., "he/she bathes" I. Since there is no difference in pronunciation between the two "i" vowels, either one, in

some but not all words, is accepted as correct; the same applies to the two "u" vowels:

bARI, bAiR% "house" pAKI, pAiK% "bird" Üin%Z, Öin%Z "nineteen" The three "s" letters, all pronounced "sh" (unless in conjunction with a dental consonant), also show some propensity to be interchanged: ij%in%S, ij%in%s, ij%in%Z "thing" ZARI, ZAiR%, sARI, sAiR% "sari" Only in certain words are alternative spellings allowed; in most words, one and only one "s" or "i/u" is acceptable. J. Nasals, when the first member of a conjunct-consonant, conjoin with consonants in their own

baéga ("group"): X with ka, Ka, ga, Ga, e.g., Å≠a "mathematical problem; mark, sign" \ with ca, Ca, ja, Ja, e.g., ma¥a "stage, platform" N with Ta, óa, Da, òa, e.g., Ga∆TA "hour; bell" n with ta, õa, da, úa, e.g., jÄA»a "alive" m with pa, Pa, ba, Ba, e.g., kaÈpamAn "trembling, quivering" S is usually found with T,a and sa with ta, although in words borrowed from English one may find sa conjoined with Ta: ¯TImAr as well as ÛTImAr "steamer, steamship" English loan-words in Bangla often present a problem for the English speaker. Transliterated into Bangla phonetics, the words may not be immediately recognizable. Since they are English,

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Bangla-to-English dictionaries tend not to include such words. If a word is not found in your dictionary, try pronouncing it to yourself. You may hear a familiar word spoken in a Bangla accent, possibly with a Bangla case ending. Quotation marks are placed around the English loan-words in the following sentences from Advanced Bengali, p. 273: sama˙a sAmair%k bAih%nIek% à•uiN% iP%ir%ey% in%ey% fY%et% haeb% "bÄArAek%'| "All military troops must be sent back to the ________ immediately." ÇÉn-Z&¨KalAr BAr fn%eb% "puil%Z' ä pUéba pAik%˙An "rAÉeP%las' baih%nI| "The ________ and the East Pakistan ________ shall take responsibility for law and

order." "mAraZAl' kAnun Åib%laeÍ% „atÄAhAr karaet% haeb%| "________ law must be withdrawn without delay." K. Though X and the "anusvara" (M a ) are phonetically identical, the former is a fully fledged

consonant whereas the latter is not, which means that X may have a post-consonantal vowel sign attached to it but Ma may not:

bAMalA or bAXalA (or bAÆAlA in SADHU) "Bangla [the adjective and the language]" bAXAlI (or bAÆAlI) but NOT bAMaAlI "Bengali [the person]" L. Since the "visarga" (H a) in the final position of a multisyllabic word is not pronounced,

it is often omitted: CORRECT SPELLING COMMON SPELLING Å»ataHa ("at least") Å»ata Éta˙ataHa ("here and there") Éta˙ata £amaZaHa ("gradually") £amaZa punaHa ("again") puna saÈBabataHa ("probably") saÈBabata M. In the SADHU language, the consonant following a "reph-r" (é ) is doubled; in CALIT, the

doubling is usually absent:5 SADHU CALIT mUié– mUiét% sUéYÄ sUéYa úaéÎ úaéma 5In 1936, the Calcutta University reformed the spelling conventions; the doubling of consonants in association with "reph-r" was eliminated for written Bangla generally, in both SADHU and CALIT forms of the language. I thank Anisuzzaman for calling this to my attention.

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The pronunciation in CALIT tends to reflect the spelling, i.e., the consonants following the "r" are not doubled. However, the "r-phola" (è ) doubles the pronunciation of the preceding consonant, even though that doubling is not reflected in the spelling. For example, ib%èZAm is pronounced "bissram," not "bisram." N. SPELLING ORALLY The names of the Bangla letters are given in Intro Bengali, Part II. Just as the roman alphabet can be referred to in English as one's "A-B-C's," the Bangla alphabet is often referred to by the first two consonants, "k], kh]," or by the first two vowels, "], a," or by the first two of each, "], a, k], kh]."

Çraä kata Zata sahaîa ègAma raey%ec%, fY%KAen% "ka' "Ka' fZ%KAbAraä bae«doba˙a fn%É| "How many hundreds of thousands more villages are there where not even provisions for

teaching the A-B-C's exist." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) tadupair% tAra lÄAiT%na BASAra k&it%‘a pAäyAra mata ≥Ana ÇeC%, ègIka BASAra ÅÇkaKaä fs% jAen%| "Moreover, he has the intelligence to gain proficiency in the Latin language; he also

knows the Greek alphabet." (Ghulam Murshid) One spells orally by giving the name of the letters. For example, kama ("less, little") is spelled by saying "k] m]." When post-consonantal vowel symbols are attached to a consonant or when consonants are combined into ligatures, known as Yu°A•ara in Bangla, then the locative case is used with the previous letter. The word ik% ("what, interrogative indicator") would be spelled orally "k]e hrossikar (also hr]sso ikar)"; ib%èZAm would be "b]e hrossikar talobbo s]e r]pholae akar m]."

(ÇbAra bael%, fjora id%ey%, ¯paÛTatara Ö∞cAraeN%) §Iba, kaey% laey% dIéGa ÑkAra ba| [stage directions] "(She says it again, forcefully, with clearer pronunciation) 'klib,

[meaning: "impotent"] k]e l]e dirgho ikar b].'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) III. PUNCTUATION Except for the sentence-final full-stop or period, in place of which modern Bangla uses the ~dAiR%, also called ib%rAm (|), all punctuation marks used in English are used in modern Bangla. In medieval Bangla, the only punctuation mark was the ~dAiR%, used once at the end of a hemistitch (|) and twice at the end of a couplet (ˇ). ABBREVIATIONS: In modern Bangla, several different punctuation marks are used after abbreviations. The most common is the ib%saéga (Ha):

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DAHa (DA°Ar) "Dr." DHa (D°r) "Dr.," specifically someone with a Ph.D. degree ‹aHa (‹aÛTabÄa) "see, vide" punaHa/puHa (punaca) "postscript, PS" (literally, "once again") p&Ha (p&ıA) "p." (page) „AHa („AÉeB%T) "Pvt." as in "Pvt. Ltd." f„oHa (f„oeP%esor) "Prof." im%Ha (im%¯TAr/im%ÛTAr) "Mr." fmOHa (fmOlabI) "Maulvi, Maulavi" a Muslim cleric il%Ha (il%im%eT%D) "Ltd." as in "Pvt. Ltd."

Newspaper articles continued on another page may contain instructions such as the following: (8m p&Ha 6-àr kaHa ‹aHa) "(See the 8th page, sixth column.)" Other abbreviations may end in the Ånuïar (Ma ):

fkoMa (fkoÈpAnI) "Co." tAMa (tAir%K) "date" naMa (naÍar) "no." as in "no. 1" bAMa (bAMalA) "Bangla" saMa (saMa˘&ta) "Sanskrit"

Bangla also uses the period (sometimes the comma and sometimes no punctuation at all) after initials, generally of English words or letters. For example, from the signature line following the welcoming address cited in Lesson 10, I: à. àm. jaih%üi◊%n KAn "A. M. Jahiruddin Khan" Other examples: is%. ÇÉ. iT%. ˘Im "C. I. T. Scheme"

"kaib%tA'r ègAhak h'et% hay Çiç%n fõ%ek%_main%-ÅéDaer% bAiéS%k cAdA pAió%ey% ik%MabA iB%. ip%. ft%| "One must become a subscriber of Kavita from the month of Asvin—by sending the

annual subscription via money order or V. P. [Value Payable Post]." (Lesson 15, I) DAHa à, ib%, àm, kAib%l Çh`em%d àm,à, àl,àl,ib%, àm,ib%,àÉc,ÇÉ (kail%kAtA) 737, dai•%N

ZAhajAhAn pur (ÇmatalA) òAkA, fPon: 400871 "Dr. A. B. M. Kabil Ahmed, M.A. L.L.B. M.B.H.I (Kolkata) 737 South Sahjahanpur

(Amtala) Dhaka, ph. 400871" (Lesson 15, I)

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. . . àbaM fs%KAn haÉet% ib%çaib%dÄAlaey%r „ada–a ib%, à, ÖpAiú %saéba„aõaem% „A‡a haÉyA fD%puTI mÄAij%eÙ%iT% kaéma „A‡a han|

". . . and from there, after becoming the first to receive the B.A. degree given by the University, he [Bankimcandra] obtained a position as a Deputy Magistrate." (Advanced Bengali, p. 107)

(And, some publications use a single dot or small circle midway between the mA÷A [the horizontal line atop a letter] and the bottom of a letter to punctuate an abbreviation; see Jnanendramohan Das, bAÆAlA BASAr ÅiB%úAn, for examples.) Consult the preface of a dictionary for abbreviations found therein; common grammatical terms include the following:

Å„a. (Å„acail%ta) "archaic, not current" ÅiZ%. (ÅiZ%ÛTa) "slang" ÅZu. (ÅZuÿa) "incorrect" ègA. (ègAmÄa) "rustic" (i.e., used in the village but not standard colloquial Bangla) Å. (ÅbÄay) "indeclinable" (i.e., postposition, conjunction, interjection, adverb) i£. (i£%yA/i£%yApad) "verb" ib%. (ib%eZ%SÄa) "noun" ib%N (ib%eZ%SaN) "adjective" s. (saébanAm) "pronoun" puMa. (puMail%Æa) "masculine gender" ˚IMa. (˚Iil%Æa) "feminine gender" §Ib. (§Ibail%Æa) "neuter gender" Ö. pu. (Ö–am puüS) "first person" ma. pu. (maúÄam puüS) "second person" „. pu. („aõam puüS) "third person"

PUBLICATION TITLES: Bangla does not normally use underlining or a type font equivalent to italic; publication titles are placed in single quotation marks in Bangla: "kaib%tA'r "of Kavita magazine"

Note: The genitive case ending is NOT included in the quotation marks: "fd%Z'àr "of Desh magazine" whereas the locative case ending is sometimes included "„aBAkaer%' "in Prabhakar magazine" (Advanced Bengali, p. 107) EMPHASIS: Double or single quotes are sometimes used around a word or phrase to add emphasis, as is an exclamation mark at the end of the sentence.

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QUOTED DIALOGUE: Bangla frequently does not enclose direct quotations within quotation marks. If quotation marks are used, the British convention is generally followed: single quotes first and double quotes for quoted material within a quotation. IV. PRONUNCIATION The pronunciation of Bangla is, happily for the language learner, rather predictable. Just two situations require help from a native speaker of the language or a pronouncing dictionary.6 The two unpredictable situations involve the vowels à and Å: A. à may be pronounced "e" as in "ate" or "@" as in "at." (as in "We ate at Joe's.") àKAen% "here" uses the "e" pronunciation "ekhane" but àKan "now" uses the "@" pronunciation "@khon" As a general rule. the "@" pronunciation is possible only in the initial syllable of a word, but precisely which initial syllables with an à or à-kAr are to be pronounced "e" and which "@" is not predictable. It should be remembered that, according to vowel alternation (see Intro Bengali, pp. 76-77), a following "high vowel" ("i" or "u") would "raise" any initial "@" to "e": à•uiN% "just now" uses the "e" pronunciation "ekkhuni" An à-kAr in a non-initial syllable will be pronounced "e."

B. Å may be pronounced (1) "]" as in "bought" or (2) "o" as in "boat" or (3) not at all.

6Not all Bangla dictionaries indicate pronunciation. Three that do are Jnanendramohan Das, bAÆAlA BASAr ÅiB%úAn (first published, 1917; 2nd ed. Calcutta: The Indian Publishing House, 1937); Naren Biswas, bAMlA Ö∞cAraNa ÅiB%úAna (Dhaka: Bangla Akademi, 1990); and Subhas Bhattacarya, bAMlA Ö∞cAraNa ÅiB%úAna (Calcutta: Sahitya Samsad, 1992).

In a few cases, à/à-kAr is pronounced slightly "lower" than "e," comparable to the letter "e" in the English words "let, met, net" (also see Intro Bengali, p. 50). This "lower" pronunciation of à-kAr occurs in ALL HONORIFIC VERB ENDINGS with àn, e.g., kaer%n, karaeb%n, karael%n, etc.

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Generally, in a word with more than one Å (initial or inherent vowel), the first occurrence is pronounced "]" and the last is pronounced "o":

for example: ÅbaêA is pronounced "]bostha" taKan is pronounced "t]khon"

However, there are many exceptions to the above general rule. Two inherent vowels may both be pronounced "]" or may both be pronounced "o":

for example: saÈBaba is pronounced "s]mbh]b" „aõama is pronounced "prothom"

A dictionary that indicates pronunciation (or a native speaker) is needed to determine whether the inherent vowel is, in fact, pronounced at all:

for example: Çpain is pronounced "apni," not "aponi" ÅtIt is pronounced "otit," not "otito" but

bÄatIta is pronounced "betito," not "betit" Useful rules concerning the pronunciation of Å:

B.1. The inherent vowel is ALWAYS PRONOUNCED (and, except in an initial syllable, always pronounced "o") FOLLOWING A CONJUNCT CONSONANT (i.e., two or more consonants written as one letter):

basa»a "spring; smallpox" is pronounced "b]sonto" saébajanIn "public; universally good," is pronounced "s]rbojonin"

B.2. When the initial vowel Å is a negative prefix (see Intro Bengali, p. 284), it is

unaffected by the vowel alternation rules and remains "]" even when the following vowel is "high":

Åsuêa "unwell, ill," is pronounced "]suStho" ÅpUéba "unprecedented, wonderful," is pronounced "]purbo"

B.3. When Å precedes a conjunct consonant whose final member is the "j]-phola," the

Å is pronounced "o":

ÅnÄa "other, another," is pronounced "onno" satÄaij%ö "Satyajit," is pronounced "sottojit"

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B.4. When two nouns are compounded to form one word and the first noun ends in an inherent vowel, that vowel is often pronounced, and pronounced "o":

flokagIit%a "folksong" is pronounced "lokogiti," even though the first word, flok

(people), is by itself pronounced "lok" ≥Anat&ˆA "thirst for knowledge," is pronounced "g@notrisna," even though ≥Ana

(knowledge) is by itself pronounced "g@n"

Listen: In some words, the Å is "]" in Bangladesh and "o" in West Bengal:

úan "wealth, riches" is "dh]n" in the east and "dhon" in the west of Bengal naK "fingernail," is "n]kh/n]k" in the east and "nokh/nok" in the west Åim%ya "Amiya [a man's name]," is pronounced "]miyo" by those who come from

parts east of Kolkata,"omiyo" by those from Kolkata or parts west

C. Å»aHaêa Y is always pronounced "j," exactly like bagéIya ja:

YAÉ "I go," is pronounced "jai" sUéYa "sun," is pronounced "surjjo" or "surjo"

D. Å»aHaêa Å, pronounced differently in different environments, is usually predictable:

Takes on the phonetic value of the vowel that is attached to it:

fn%äyA "to take," is pronounced both "naoa" and "neoa" ib%ey% "wedding, marriage," is pronounced "bie" ÅnuYAyI "according to," is pronounced "onujai"

In the following sequences only, the Å»aHaêa Å itself is pronounced, as a "semi-vowel glide," like the "y" in the English word "yet":

7The second pronunciation is the one most often heard in the Kolkata dialect, though all three possibilities can be found in the several dictionaries that indicate pronunciation.

The pronunciation of the inherent vowel within a given word may—in some words, but not all words—vary from speaker to speaker, although it is always either "]" or "o": samay, for instance, is pronounced three different ways:

"s]moe" or "som]e" or "s]m]e"7

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Åya for example—bayas "age" "b]yos" ÅyA for example—dayA "mercy, kindness" "d]ya" Åeyo for example—„aeyojan "necessity" "proyojon" ÇyA for example—mAyA "illusion; fondness" "maya" Çyu for example—ÇyuHa "lifetime" "ayu" Çeyo for example—Çeyojan "preparation" "ayojon" Ö/Üya for example—BUyasI "repeated, profuse" "bhuyosi"

Pronounced "e," if no vowel attached and preceding vowel not "high":

òAkAy "in Dhaka," is pronounced "Dhakae" kay "how many," is pronounced "k]e" fd%y "he/she gives," is pronounced "d@e"

Pronounced "o," if no vowel attached and (a) the preceding vowel is "high" or (b)

the word is an adjective ending in the sequence àya:

BAratIya "Indian," is pronounced "bharotio" pAnIya "drinkable; an alcoholic beverage," is pronounced "panio" Åe≥ %ya "unintelligible, incomprehensible," is pronounced "]gge~o" èZaeÿ%ya "venerable, esteemed," is pronounced "Sroddheo"

E. Y-PalA:

In initial syllables, it changes the phonetic value of the vowels Å and Ç into "@" (but does not affect the other vowels):

bÄa°a "spoken, uttered," is pronounced "b@kto" KÄAt "famous, renowned," is pronounced "kh@to"

but cÄuta "dislocated, dislodged," is pronounced "cuto" fjÄı "elder, eldest," is pronounced "jesTho" fjÄoit% "light, brilliance," is pronounced "joti"

Note: A following "high" vowel affects the pronunciation of the sequence Y-PalA + the inherent vowel but not the sequence Y-PalA + Ç-kAra:

bÄai°% "individual, person," is pronounced "bekti" (affected) bÄait%£ama "exception; violation," is pronounced "betikrom" (affected) KÄAit% "fame, renown," is pronounced "kh@ti" (not affected) bÄAiú% "disease," is pronounced "b@dhi" (not affected)

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In noninitial syllables, it doubles the preceding consonant (the one to which the Y-PalA is

attached):

kAbÄ "poetry," is pronounced "kabbo" If the preceding consonant is ha, the conjunct consonant is pronounced "jjh":

sahÄa "endurable, bearable; endurance, fortitude," is pronounced "sojjho" If the preceding vowel is the inherent vowel, the Y-PalA raises "]" to "o":

banÄA "a flood," is pronounced "bonna" The Y-PalA produces the "@" sound in the initial syllable only, though there are exceptions:

kalÄAN "well-being; beneficial," is pronounced both "koll@n" and "kollan" ib%KÄAta "famous, renowned," is pronounced "bikkh@to" and "bikkhato"

F. ba-PalA is (1) sometimes pronounced, (2) sometimes not, (3) and at other times serves to

double the consonant with which it is in conjunction. ba-PalA is pronounced "b" when:

(a) it is the first letter of a word, even when that word is preceded by a prefix or by another word (as in a compound):

ÖeŸ%g "worry, concern, anxiety," is pronounced "udbeg" (prefix Öt + fb%g) ib%dÄueŸ%g "lightning speed," is pronounced "biddudbeg" (ib%dÄuö "lightning" + fb%g "speed")

Though normally the Y-PalA is joined to a preceding consonant, an initial "@" sound in a foreign word is conveyed by the unconventional spelling (as noted above in section II) of either "Å + Ä (+ Ç-kAr)" or "à + Ä (+ Ç-kAr)": àÄAkaiT%BaBAeb% "actively," pronounced "@kTivbhabe" (Advanced Bengali, p. 170) ÅÄeBnu "avenue," pronounced "@venu"

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(b) it is in conjunction with the letter ma: kaÍal "blanket," is pronounced "k]mbol" laÍA "tall, long," is pronounced "l]mba"

saÍaeŒ% "about, concerning" may be pronounced either "s]mbondhe" or "s]mmondhe" (you may see it spelled saÎaeŒ% as well)

b-PalA is not pronounced at all when in the initial syllable: ïAmI "husband; swami," is pronounced "sami" b-PalA, in all other situations, doubles the consonant it is with:

„ait%Ÿa«ŸI "adversary, competitor," is pronounced "protiddondi" (the last ba-PalA has no effect on an already "doubled" "nd") ib%ŸAn "learned, erudite," is pronounced "biddan" ib%eŸ%S "malice, animosity," is pronounced "biddes" bIra‘a "valor, heroism," is pronounced "birotto" Åeù%SaN "investigation, search," is pronounced "]nneson" or "onneson"

G. •a is the only conjunct with a name all its own, "khi]"; it is pronounced "kh" initially and

"kkh" internally in a word:

•amA "forgiveness, pardon," is pronounced "kh]ma" la•aN "sign; characteristic; omen," is pronounced "l]kkhon" or "lokkhon"

H. The "w" sound is produced by "o" or "u" in combination with another vowel:

"o" + "a" ir%k`ZAäyAlA "rickshaw puller," is pronounced "riksawala/riksaoala" "u" + "i" ÖÉl "will and testament," is pronounced "wil/uil"

I. The "u" sound is produced by the vowels "i" + "u":

ÉÖerop "Europe," is pronounced "iurop/yurop" ÉÖin%BAiés%iT% "university," is pronounced "iunibharSiTi/yunivarSiTi"

J. The mysterious—(now you hear it, now you don't!)—initial "i" or "e" sound: Words

borrowed from English that begin with "s" followed by "k" or "p" or "t" add the "i" or "e" sound before the "s," e.g., "school" is often pronounced "iskul" in Bangla.

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fZyAladA ÉiÛT%Zaen% YAÉ, saeŒ%TA kAiT%ey% Çis%, Çelo ∏AlAbAra dAy ^bAec%| "I go to Sealdah station ('isTiZ]n'), I spend the evening there, and thus am spared the expense of lighting a light." (Rabindranath Tagore)

Conversely, when a word-initial "i" or "e" sound precedes the "sk, sp, st" in an English borrowing, the Bangla pronunciation often drops that initial "i" or "e," e.g., the "esplanade," a very prominent locale in central Kolkata, is often pronounced "Spl@neD" in Bangla.

"YA CAraepokA dAdA, kI haeb% fsoPAy baes%| fbZa ÇeC% Çpain% YA fhoka kAlIbAbu'_fGoSamaiÔ%ka f¯T%eTra Öik%la bai≠ %ma da–a balael%|

"'What horrible bedbugs, brother! What will happen were I to sit on the sofa? But you seem to be in fine shape, Kali Babu,'—said Bankim Datta, the attorney for the Ghose-Mallik estate ('STeT')." (Jibanananda Das)

It is clear that Bangla pronunciation (phonetics) does allow for word-initial "sk, sp, st" and word-initial "isk, isp, ist," though the latter series is more "foreign," occurring in borrowings from European languages, English among them.

¯kaŒa "Sk]ndho," "the shoulder" (from Sanskrit) ˙aÊ "St]bdho," "stupified, stunned" (from Sanskrit)

¯paéZa "Sp]rso," "touch, contact" (from Sanskrit)

ÉZakApan/ɯkApana "iskapon," "the spade suit in cards" (from Dutch, "schopen") Éi˙%ir%/Éi % "iStiri, iStri," "the act of ironing clothes" (from Portuguese, "estirar") ɯpAta "ispat," "steel" (from Portuguese, "espada")

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LESSON 22

I. ÉithAs (1): kalakAtA

àKan fY%KAen% fj%nAer%l fpo¯T Çip%es%r GaiR%äyAlA bAiR%, ÉMaer%jaed%r „aõam duéga Ft%ir% hala fs%ÉKAen%, lAladIiG% pARAy| rAjAr nAem% nAm| fPoéT ÖÉil%yAm| lAladIiG% Å¥ael%É taKan ÉMaer%jaed%r Gar-GAT| Çj YAek% lAladIiG% bael% ic%in%, taKan fs%TA iC%la ZuúuÉ àkaTA dIiG%| bAin%ey%iC%el%n fZ%eó%rA| â dIiG%r pAeR% iC%la baiR%ZAr sAbaéNa fcOúurIed%r ib%rAT kACAir% bAiR%| cAranak [jab cAranak, YAr hAet% 1690-y kalakAtAr jaœ] sutAnuiT%et% fn%em% â fcOúurIed%r kACAir% bAiR%r KAin%kaTA BARA in%ey% mAlapa÷a fr%eK%iC%el%n| fcOúurIrA kalakAtAr Kub puraeno bAis%e«d% Çr kAlIGAeT%r kAlIr „AcIn fs%bAÉta| Çkabaer%r Çmael% fb%hAlA fõ%ek% dai•%eN%çar paéYa»a jAyagAr àrA jaim%dAr| fdoel%r id%en% dAüN Öösab hata àÉ bAiR%et%| ÇbIer% lAl haey% Öóaeto dIiG%r jal| nAm tAÉ lAladIiG%| fk%Ö bael%n_fs% jaenÄ% nay, â dIiG%r pAeR% fY% fk%ÔA bAnAla ÉMaer%jarA, YAr Çr àk nAm lAl-ek%ÔA, tAraÉ CAyA paRaeto â dIiG%r jael%| fs%É jaenÄ% lAladIiG%| àbaMa lAegoyA rA˙Ar nAm lAlabAjAr|

pueéN%«du pa÷I, "kI kaer% kalakAtA haelo' (kalakAtA: Çna«da pAbail%ZAés, 1972), p&Ha 32-33|

II. INDEFINITE, INTERROGATIVE, & CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS: 1ST-, 2ND-, & HONORIFIC 3RD-PERSON

The indefinite (fk%Ö), interrogative (fk%, kArA), and correlative (fY%, YArA) pronouns are 3rd-person, usually 3rd-person ordinary, UNLESS influenced by the presence of a 1st- or 2nd-person pronoun or an implied honorific 3rd-person subject:

fk%Ö Çes% in%| "No one came." fk% Çsaeb%? "Who's coming?" fY% àes%eC% fs% nay| "He's not the one who came." (all 3rd-person ordinary)

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but k& aYA÷Aek% fk%ha fk%ha maúÄaYugIya ÉÖeroep%r Mystery àbaM Miracle Play r saeÆ% tulanA

kair%yAeC%n| "Some have compared the Krishna yatra with the Medieval European Mystery

and Miracle plays." (Advanced Bengali, p. 211) (Note 3rd-person honorific: The "scholars" [fk%ha fk%h] who compared the two

cultures' dramas are being shown respect.) In apposition, following a noun or pronoun, however, INDEFINITE, INTERROGATIVE, and CORRELATIVE pronouns take on the features of that noun or pronoun: A. INDEFINITES:

„aõama ra•aka| (Åègasara haÉyA) äeh%, ftomarA fk%Ö à flokaiT%ek% fc%na? "First guard: (coming forward) 'Hey, does any of you recognize this person?'"

(Or: Do any of you recognize this person?) (Michael Madhusudan Datta) ÇmarA fk%Ö fk%Ö à flokaiT%ek% ic%in%| "Some of us recognize this person." ^ärA fk%Ö nA fk%Ö à flokaiT%ek% fc%en%n? "Someone among them knows this person."

B. INTERROGATIVES:

Áajib%enoda sAta fC%el%ek% fD%ek% pAóAel%na| fk% rAjI ÇCaa? àek% àek% Caya fC%el% àka bAekÄ% jAin%ey% id%el% tArA fk%Ö rAjI naya|

"Brajabinod called his seven sons. 'Who of you is willing [to marry a certain woman]?' One after the other, six sons responded with one utterance that they were not willing." (Purnendu Patri)

fk% ÇCa ftomarA, ^bAcAä, ÇmAer% BUet% úarala fr%| "Who are you, save me, a ghost has got hold of me!" (Syed Hamidul Husain)

In the above examples of indefinite and interrogative pronouns, the personal pronoun may be put in the genitive case; verb endings remain the same, for the personal pronoun continues to be the effective subject:

ftomAed%r fk%Ö ik% à flokaiT%ek% fc%na? "Do any of you recognize this person?" ftomAed%r fk% rAjI ÇCaa? "Who of you is willing?"

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ftomAed%r fk%Ö fk%Ö fgomuKI paéYa»a fd%eK%Ca| "Some of you saw even Gomukhi [the source of the Ganges]." (Advanced Bengali, p. 109) fPoéT ÖÉil%yama kael%ej% ÇrabI-PArasI paRAet%na musalamAen%rA, ^tAed%ra fk%Ö ek%Ö ib%el%et%

fh%il%bArI kael%ej%ä ÅúÄApanA karaet% YAna| "Muslims used to teach Arabic and Persian at Fort William College, and some of

them went to England to give instruction at Haileybury College also." (Anon.)

However, if the postposition maeúÄ% ("among") is interposed between the personal and the indefinite or interrogative pronouns, then the indefinite or interrogative need not be colored by the preceding personal pronoun in the genitive case, and the verb may be 3rd-person ordinary—or it may correspond in person to the genitive pronoun:

ftomAed%r maeúÄ% fk%Ö ik% à flokaiT%ek% fc%en%? "Do any of you recognize this person?" ftoed%r maeúÄ% fk% rAjI ÇeC%a? "Who of you is willing?"

or ftomAed%r maeúÄ% fk%Ö ik% à flokaiT%ek% fc%na? "Do any of you recognize this person?" ftoed%r maeúÄ% fk% rAjI ÇCaa? "Who of you is willing?"

C. CORRELATIVES:

ÇmarA YArA CA÷a ÇmarA paRAeZonA kair%| "We who are students study." ÇmarA YArA CA÷a tArA paRAeZonA kair%| "We who are students study."

Three variations of the above, though technically correct, are seldom

encountered: ÇmarA YArA CA÷a ÇmarA tArA paRAeZonA kair%| "We who are students study."

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YArA CA÷a ÇmarA paRAeZonA kair%| "We who are students study." YArA CA÷a tArA paRAeZonA kair%| "We who are students study."

As seen in the above examples, the correlative may be used in apposition to the personal pronoun, or one or the other pronoun (personal or correlative) may be unexpressed:

ÇmarA YArA saMa˘&et% iZ%i•%ta naÉ ÇmarAä Kuba sahaej% fY%-fkoeno bahubÄabah&t ib%eZ%SÄapaed%r àkAiú%k nAmA»ar BAbaet% pAir%|

"Even we who are not well versed in Sanskrit can think of many synonyms for any number of commonly used nouns." (Buddhadeva Bose)

ÇmarA YArA inñamaúÄaib%–a tArA ic%rakAlaÉ ÅéõaEn%it%ka id%ka fõ%ek% àÉ paéYAey% fõ%ek% YAebo,

fkonaid%naä äpaer% Öóaet% pAraebo nA, àÉ ÖpalaiÊ%et%É Caib% fZ%Sa hae∞C%| "We who are lower middle-class shall ever remain at this level, from an economic

point of view, and never shall be able to rise above that—the movie [by Ritwik Ghatak] ends on this realization." (Pralay Shur)

The postposition maeúÄ% ("among") can be interposed between the personal and the correlative pronoun. The verb can indicate whether the speaker includes him/herself in the group:

ÇmAed%r maeúÄ% YArA ái‘%ka GaTaek%ra Caib% fd%eK%iC%, bae%s õAkaebo| "Those among us who have seen Ritwik Ghatak's film shall remain seated." (speaker includes herself in the group of those who have seen the film)

ÇmAed%r maeúÄ% YArA ái‘%ka GaTaek%ra Caib% fd%eK%eC%, ÇmAek%% buiJ%ey% dAä| "Those of us who have seen Ritwik Ghatak's film, please explain it to me." (speaker excludes himself from the group of those who have seen the film)

Exercises—Translate (several renditions may be possible for any one sentence—consult the

Answer Key after working through the sentences on your own):

1) None of us has ever played cricket.

2) Some of them like very hot food. (use BAla lAgA)

3) Who of you will be going to Bangladesh next year?

4) Who of us believed that it would rain?

5) Those of you who finished the exam may leave.

6) Those of you who didn't come yesterday didn't get to meet Mrs. Huq.

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III. jaenÄ%/janÄa, haey% & pae•: POSTPOSITIONS MEANING "for,"

REQUIRING GENITIVE CASE ON PRECEDING WORD A. jaenÄ%/janÄa_(1) with HUMAN nouns and pronouns, somebody is the RECIPIENT or

BENEFICIARY of an action; and (2) with NONHUMAN nouns and pronouns, something is done (a) FOR THE PURPOSE OF or (b) DUE TO or BECAUSE OF something else, and (3), with TIME, FOR THE DURATION OF:

(human)—RECIPIENT or BENEFICIARY

fs% ÇpanAr jaenÄ% àÉ baÉ in%ey% àes%eC%| "She brought this book for you." (you received the book, were the beneficiary of it) fs% ÇmAed%r jaenÄ% mAC rAÕA karaeb%| "He is going to prepare some fish for us." (we'll eat the fish, will be the beneficiaries of the cooking)

(nonhuman)—FOR THE PURPOSE OF

hayata sa‡adaZ ZatAÂIr pUeéb%É àÉ ib%lui‡%r lIlA ÇraÈBa haÉyAiC%la àbaMa tAÉ BAÆA mai«d%r fm%rAmaet%r janÄa bA tAhAet% nUtan fd%bamUiét% êApanAr janÄa saiÎ%il%ta fc%ÛTAr ÅBAb GaiT%yAiC%la|

"Perhaps prior to the 17th century this process of abandonment had begun, and that is why there was a lack of any concerted effort to repair [for the purpose of repairing] the dilapidated temple or to install [for the purpose of installing] in it a new idol." (Advanced Bengali, p. 177)

The "verbal noun + genitive + jaenÄ%/janÄ" can be TRANSLATED with the English infinitive:

bahuid%n paer% GaTanAcae£% ÇbAr YaKan fs%É pu÷akanÄAed%r sA•Aö hala fs%id%n tAed%r pair%cay fd%bAr janÄa fs%KAen% tAed%r ip%tA-mAtA Öpaiê%t iC%la nA|

"Many days later when in the course of events that son and daughter met again, their mother and father were not present there to identify [for the purpose of identifying] them." (Advanced Bengali, p. 185)

(nonhuman)—DUE TO or BECAUSE OF

garaemr jaenÄ Çj ÇmarA bAÉer YAÉ in| "Because of the heat, we didn't go out today."

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(time)—DURATION

itn% id%enar% jaenÄ òAkAy YAi∞C%| "I'm going to Dhaka for three days."

B. haey%_another person acts IN PLACE OF or ON BEHALF OF somebody (but NOT

something—see [C] below):

it%in% ÇpanAr haey% fs%É baÉ maiN%r kAeC% f~pOeC% id%ey% fg%eC%n| "She delivered that book to Moni for you." (in place of you) fY% fkoeno bAXAlI CA÷a ÇpanAr haey% ÇpanAr ba°&tA paeR% fZonAet% pAer%| "Any Bengali student could read out your lecture for you." (on your behalf) sumaÀa ^tAed%r balael%n, Çim% rAjA≥Ay rAmaek% Çnaet %YAi∞C%, ik%… ÇpanArA daZaraõa ä rAem%r

pUjanIya, fs%janÄa Çim% ÇpanAed%r haey% rAjAek% ij%≥AsA k'er% Çis% it%in% in%‹A fõ%ek% Öeó%ä fk%na bAih%er% ÇsaeC%n nA|

"The wise counsel Sumantra said to them [the assembled sages], 'By the king's orders I am leaving to fetch Rama. However, all of you are revered by Dasharatha and Rama. Therefore, ON your BEHALF, I shall ask the king why he, though arisen from his slumber, does not come out [and personally greet you].'" (Advanced Bengali, p. 307)

fk%Ö ik%Cu balaiC%la nA fkoeno id%ka fõ%ek%| hair%lAlabAbura haey% dueTo kaõA balA Öic%ta naya ik%

kAero? "Nobody, from either side of the room, was saying anything. Shouldn't somebody

say a word or two FOR Harilal Babu [who is embarrassed and cannot speak for himself]?" (Jibanananda Das)

C. pae•%—(1) another person acts IN PLACE OF or ON BEHALF OF something (see B above),

or (2) something is viewed or interpreted FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF somebody (or something):

Be aware of the following compounded words —without the genitive: àjaenÄ%/àÉjanÄa "therefore, for this reason, consequently" fs%janÄa/fs%ÉjaenÄ% "therefore, for that reason, consequently" tAÉjaenÄ%/tAÉjanÄa "therefore, for that reason, consequently"

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IN PLACE OF or ON BEHALF OF

ÅBÄaéõanA kaim%iT%r pae•% Çim% àÉ saeÎ%laen% ÅMaZaègahaNakArI sakalaek% ä ib%eZ%SaBAeb% bAÉer% fõ%ek% Çgata „ait%in%iú%b&«daek% ïAgata jAnAÉ|

"On behalf of the reception committee, I welcome all participants at this conference, especially the representatives come from outside [outside of the Chittagong University community]." (from Lesson 10, I)

Çna«da pAbail%ZAés „AÉeB%T il%im%eT%eD%r pae•% Pain%BUSaN fd%b kaét&k 45 fb%in%yAeTolA fl%n

kail%kAtA 700009 fõ%ek% „akAiZ%ta àbaMa Çna«da f„%s àƒ pAbail%ek%Zan`s „AÉeB%T il%im%eT%eD%r pae•% iŸ%ej%«‹anAõ basu kaét&k ip% 248 is%. ÇÉ. iT. ˘Im naMa 6àm kail%kAtA 700054 fõ%ek% mui‹%ta|

"Published for Ananda Publishers Private Limited by Phanibhushan Deb from 45 Beniatola Lane, Kolkata 700009, and printed for Ananda Press and Publications Private Limited by Dvijendranath Basu from P-248 C.I.T. Scheme, No. 6M, Kolkata 700054."

FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF

ik%… ftomAr Baib%SÄaö gaeb%SaNAr pae•%ä àTA ÖpakArI haeb%| "However, for your future research also, it will be a benefit." (from Lesson 13, I) Çé‹a bAtAs, jal ä jaÆalAkIéNa jaim%, mAnueS%r kuiT%latama Za÷u saépakuel%r in%bAs ä

baMaZab&iÿ%r pae•% ÅtÄa»a ÅnukUl| "High humidity, water, and jungle-covered terrain are extremely favorable for

[from the perspective of] habitat and for the increase in numbers of man's most dangerous [lit. crooked] enemy, the snakes." (Advanced Bengali, p. 185)

musalamAn Yubakaed%raek% saitÄ%kAr „agait%ZIl rAjaEn%it%k fc%tanAy ÖŸuÿa kaer% 1947-àr par

tAed%raek% fnotun fn%t&‘adAen%r fY% saÈBAbanA iC%elo úaméIya rAjaEn%it%k ic%»Ar Pael% ^tAr pae•% fs%TA Çr saÈBab haey% äeó% in%|

"The possibility for giving new leadership after 1947 to the Muslim youths, whom he [Abul Hashim] had awakened to a truly progressive political consciousness, was, as a result of his religio-political ideas, no longer feasible for him." (Advanced Bengali, p. 262-63)

fs%Tuku ÇyAs Åen%ek%r pae•%É duHasAúÄa| "That little bit of effort for many people is arduous." (Pramathanath Bishi) Çer%, fboeso, fd%yA, ~dAiR%ey% fõ%eko nA| ~dAiR%ey õAkATA ftomAra pae•% ió%ka naya| "My goodness, sit down, Deya, don't remain standing. It's not right for you to

stand." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

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In a sentence with a predicate adjective, such as "Such and such is easy/arduous for so and so [human]," the "for" will be pae•%; frequently, BUT NOT ALWAYS, the subject of such a sentence is a verbal noun:

ÇmAr pae•% ÇsaeC% baCar bAMalAed%eZ% YAäyA Za°a haeb%| "Going to Bangladesh this coming year will be difficult for me." Or: "It will be difficult for me to go to Bangladesh this coming year." YAÉ fhoka, àka fd%Ra baCaer%ra maeúÄ% it%in% il%eK%eC%na Å»ata fcoe◊oiT% gafla ä àkaiT% ÖpanÄAsa|

Åen%ka fpZAdAra gadÄa fl%Kaek%ra pae•%ä àta fl%KA saÈBaba naya| "Be that as it may, within one or one and a half years he [Jibanananda Das] wrote

at least fourteen short stories and a novel. Even for many professional prose fiction writers, writing that much is not possible." (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

In sentences with "verbal noun + predicate adjective," especially in short sentences, pae•% may be omitted altogether:

ÇmAr bAMalAed%eZ% YAäyaA saÈBab haeb% nA| "My visiting Bangladesh won't be possible." Or: "It won't be possible for me to visit Bangladesh."

More than one "for," with different meanings, may appear in the same sentence:

ib%ip%nabAbur pae•% tAr jaenÄ% ik%Cu karA saÈBab nay| "It is not possible for Bipin Babu to do anything for him." (Satyajit Ray) ftomAr pae•% ÇmAr haey% ÇmAr mAey%r jaenÄ% ÖpahAr fk%nA sahaj haeb% nA| Literally: "From your perspective, buying a gift for my mother on my behalf

won't be easy." More naturally: "It won't be easy for you to buy a gift for my mother for me."

Exercises—Supply either jaenÄ%, haey%, or pae•% in the following sentences—consult the Answer

Key after working through the sentences on your own:

1) tArA mAiék%nI, fsjaenÄ% tAed%r @@@ ÉMaer%ij%et% gAn gAäyA ftman kaió%n nay|

2) àÉ f„%em%r kaib%tA àmain%É il%eK%iC%, ib%eZ%S kAür @@@ nay|

3) Çim% nA fg%el% Çpain% ÇmAr @@@ ^tAek% sAlAm jAin%ey% id%et% pAraeb%n ik%?

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4) ÇmAek% TAkA id%el% ftomAr @@@ fdokAen% ig%ey% ftomAr fC%el%em%ey%r @@@ pAóÄa baÉ ik%en% in%ey%

Çsaet% pAir%|

5) Çjaek% Çim% ftor @@@ ftor bAbAr kAeC% ig%ey% Ånumait% fc%ey% fn%ebo taeb% àÉ rakam kAj karA

ÇmAr @@@ Kub sahaj nay| IV. MONTHS, SEASONS, & ANNUAL HOLIDAYS The year, in Bangla, is divided into twelve months corresponding to six seasons. The following verse should help you to memorize the months in order and to associate those months with a particular season.

Fb%ZAKa FjÄ%ıa ègI˜ kAl ÇSAô èZAbN baéSA| BA‹a Çiç%n Zaraö kAl ÇkAZ hay ParasAˇ kAiét%k ÅèGAN fh%ma»a kAl mAeó% pAkA úAn| fpOS mAG ZIta kAl fCoTa id%namAnˇ PAflun Fc%÷a basa»a kAl gAeC% natun pAtA| maen% fr%eKo bAero mAs Cay átur kaõAˇ8

The above poem mentions the "Bangla" months. There are other calendric systems used in Bengal (calendric systems are discussed further in Lesson 3, IV). The following give the names of months in three such systems.

8Authorship unknown; I thank Tony K. Stewart, who collected this poem while at the American Institute of Indian Studies in Calcutta, for passing it on to me.

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baÆAÂa

Fb%ZAK

FjÄ%ıa

ÇSAô

èZAbaN

BA‹a

Çiç%n

kAiét%k

ÅègahAyaN/ÅèGAN

fpOS

mAG

PAflun

Fc%÷a

(solar year)

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

January

February

March

April a

ih%jarI

maharama

sPr

ribyl ÇÖyl

ribys sAnI

jmAidÖl ÇÖyl

jmAidÖs sAnI

rjb

ZAbAn

rmajAn

ZäyAl

ijlkd

ijlh≤

(lunar year)

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baÆAÂa, or what is called the Bangla year, is a solar calendar and therefore can be paired with that which is familiar to most of us as the Gregorian or Christian annual cycle (also a solar calendar). ihjarI, the Muslim calendric system, is based on a lunar calendar. Since the annual lunar cycle is shorter than the solar year by about two weeks, months in the Muslim calendar do not fall each and every year in the same season. Muslims—and Bengali Muslims are no exception—observe their religious holidays in accordance with the Muslim lunar calendar. In Bangla there is a saying, spoken by the Hindus about themselves: bAra mAes% ft%ra pAébaN—"in twelve months, thirteen festivals"—implying an abundance of festivals throughout the year, more even than one a month. There are in India and Bangladesh, as in all countries, a number of days of national and/or religious importance, some of them observed as official holidays and some not. The major public (sAébjnIn) festival for Bengali Hindus is Durga Puja, an autumnal celebration in worship (pUjA) of Goddess Durga (duégA). Among Bengali Muslims, the major public festival is the Eid celebration at the end of the lunar month of Ramzan (Ramadan), known as Ñd-Öla-iP%tara or frAjAra Ñda| In conjunction with a second Eid, Ñda-Öla-ÇjahA or fkArabAin%ra Ñd, an animal is sacrificed and family, friends, and the poor are fed with its flesh. Most Bengalis are either Muslim (musalamAn) or Hindu (ih%«du). A number of Bengali and non-Bengali Christians (spelled K&ÛTAn or K&¯TAn or ˝IÛTAn or ˝I¯TAn) live in both Bangladesh and West Bengal. The non-Bengali Christians are frequently referred to as Firingi (iP%ir%ÆI) in Bangla and either Anglo-Indian or Eurasian in English. Bangladesh, particularly in the Chittagong area, has among its citizenry Bengali and non-Bengali Buddhists (fbOÿa). The non-Bengali Buddhists are primarily Mog (mag) and Chakma (cAkamA) people from the Chittagong Hill Tracts area. In Kolkata, a thriving cosmopolitan city for the past two hundred years or so—it celebrated its tercentenary in 1990—one finds a number of ethnic groups of various religious persuasions, Hindu, Muslim, and Christian, to be sure, as well as Jain (Fj%na), Jew (ÉhudI), and Sikh (iZ%K). Islam and Hinduism being the predominant religions among Bengalis, the government and other official institutions in Bangladesh and West Bengal tend to include major Islamic and Hindu festivals as holidays. The University of Dhaka's calendar for 1981-82 A.D., for instance, listed the following holidays:

"1981-82 iZ%•A baeéS%r CuiT%r tAil%kA'

julAÉ 1-Çga¯T 19

ramajAn taösaha Zaeb%-kadar, jumAt-Öl-ib%dAä Ñd-Öl-iP%tar

ÅkeTobar 5-17

Ñd-Öl-ÇjahA taösaha ZaraökAlIn CuiT%, duégApUjA ä laßIpUjA

naeB%Íar 5-6 maharam naeB%Íar 7 jAtIya ib%‚aba id%bas iD%es%Íar 16 ib%jay id%bas iD%es%Íar 23 ÇeK%rI cAhAr fsoÍA iD%es%Íar 25 ˝IÛTamAs id%bas jAnuyArI * Ñed% im%lAdunanabI jAnuyArI 25-eP%ÁuyArI 6 ZItakAlIn CuiT% taösaha èZI pa¥amI

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fP%ÁuyArI * PAet%hA ÉyAjadaham mAéc 26 ïAúInatA id%bas ài„%l 15 bAMalA naba baéSa ài„%l 29 fZ%er% bAMalAr m&tÄu bAiéS%kI fm% 1 fm% id%bas fm% * fbaOÿa puiéN%mA fm *% Zaeb%-em%rAj jun 4-30 ègI˜kAlIn CuiT% taösaha Zaeb%-barAt ä ramajAn *%saió%k tAir%K paer% jAnAeno haeb%| ZahId id%bas ä jAtIya fZok id%bas (fP%ÁuyArI 21) raib%bAr paRAet% ÖeÔ%K karA hay nAÉ|

Further, it is noted in the calendar, Hindu employees of the University are allowed to take a holiday on any three of the following festival days:

jaœAÛTamI; duégA pUjA (sa‡amI); mahAlayA; kAlI pUjA; jagaÿA÷I pUjA; iZ%barAi÷%; fdola YA÷A; ÅÛTamI ëAn; Fc%÷a saMa£Ai»%

Buddhist employees, any three of the following:

ÇSAôI pUiéN%mA; maúu pUiéN%mA; Çiç%nI pUiéN%mA; mAGI pUiéN%mA; Fc%÷a saMa£Ai»% Christian employees, any three of the following:

baRa id%n; baRa id%en%r paer%r id%n; baRa id%en%r iŸ%tIya id%n; guD èPAÉeD%; ɯTAr sATAraeD% Exercises—Answer in complete sentences:

1) àKn fkon átu caleC?

2) bAMalA nababaéSa ÇmAed%r fkon mAes% paeR%?

3) K&ÛTAeÂ%r nababaéSa baÆAeÂ%r fkon mAes% paeR%?

4) baRaid%n baÆAeÂ%r fkon mAes% paeR%?

5) sAmaen%r it%n mAes% ik% ik% Öösab paRaeb%?

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LESSON 33

I. ÉithAs (2): òAkA

fY% lAl ÉeToyAlA ÉZkulaTAr kaõA balaiC% tAr pAeZ%É àkaTA masaij%d| Kub su«dar, Åen%k dUr fõ%ek% àes% fd%KAr maeto| ib%ek%el%, saŒÄAy, ik% fjÄoöëArAet%_YaKain% dÄAeKo nA fk%na BAelo ftomAr lAgaeb%É| masaij%daTAr sArA gAey% àkarAZ tArA iC%iT%ey% fd%yA haey%eC%| tAÉ àr nAm is%tArA masaij%d| ik%… Åen%k Åen%k Çeg% àr nAm iC%la ÇlAdA| ÇóAero Zataek%r fgoRAr id%ek% masaij%daTA bAin%ey%iC%el%n im%éjA fgolAm pIr| tAÉ Åen%kakAl úaer% àek% im%éjA fgolAm pIer%r masaij%d b'el%É ic%naeto sabAÉ| taKan masaij%daTA ÅnÄarakam iC%la| àta ∏ala∏ael% iC%la nA, iC%la nA tArAy tArAy CAäyA| „Ay payatAiÔ%Z baCar Çeg% ÇlIjAn bÄApArI pueroeno masaij%daTAek% natun k'er% tuel%iC%el%n| fò%r TAkAkaiR% Karac kaer% jApAnI Çr ib%el%tI nakZA karA cIen%mAiT%r TAil% Çin%ey%iC%el%n it%in% masaij%ed%r jaenÄ%| maen%r maeto k'er% tArAy tArAy sAij%ey% tulael%n masaij%d| fd%Kaet% fd%Kaet% masaij%ed%r fB%taer%-bAÉer% PueT% Öóaelo fco*k jueRoeno fZoBA| fkon` ÇlIjAn bÄApArI? fs%É fY% Åen%k rAet% pAÈpasur KaT KaT ZaÂa kaer% mAhutaTulIr gail% fp%üet%n it%in%? sAbAn Çr tAmAek%r ma˙a fdokAn iC%la YAr? hÄA, fs%É ÇlIjAn bÄApArIr hAet%É ÇóAero Zataek%r pueroeno masaij%d fp%el% natun ûp| Çr fs% kI ûp! kataid%n muØ haey% fc%ey% fõ%ek%iC% är gaÍuej%r id%ek%| sUiYÄ%mAmA ÅŒakAr guhAy luekoenor Çeg% tAr fZ%S hAis%Tuku YaKan Jair%ey% id%et%n is%tArA masaij%ed%r gaÍuej%, taKan maen% haeto gaÍujaguelo fY%na ma˙a pAiK%, fsonAil% nadIet% fn%ey% Öeó%eC%, à•uiN% pAKA fm%el% ÖRaet% Zuü karaeb% ÇbAr|

ZAmasur rAhamAn, "ì&it%r Zahar' (ca¿aègAm: iZ%Zu sAih%tÄa ib%tAn, 1386), p&Ha 20-21|

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II. INDEFINITES Together with indefinite pronouns (see Appendix 2), there are indefinite adjectives and adverbs. Four such indefinites ("someone, some, sometime, somewhere") are formed in Bangla by adding the suffix ä (or Ö) to corresponding interrogatives: fk% (pron., "who") + Ö = fk%Ö9 ("someone, anybody") fkon` (adj. "which") + ä = fkoeno ("some, any") kaKan (adv. "when") + ä = kaKaeno ("sometime, sometimes, anytime, ever") fkoõA (noun "what place") + ä = fkoõAä ("somewhere, anywhere")

fkoõAy "where" is really fko (the interrogative) + õA "place" + y (locative case ending), i.e., "to/at/in what place" = "where." The indefinite ä is added to the basic interrogative word, "what place," without its locative ending.

Though not really part of the above set, a fifth set of interrogative/indefinites is worth noting: ik% (pron./adj. "what") + (%C)u = ik%Cu ("something, anything; some, any") A. REDUPLICATION of INDEFINITES implies PLURAL:

fk%Ö fk%Ö KAeb% Çr fk%Ö KAeb% nA_tA haeb% nA, tA haeb% nA|10 "Some folks will eat and others won't—that can't be, that can't be." Çim% fkoeno fkoeno mAC KAÉ| "I eat some fish." (not all fish, but certain kinds of fish) it%in% kaKaeno kaKaeno àÉ cAey%r fdokAen% ~òu fm%er% YAn| "From time to time he drops by this tea shop for a moment." puraeno òAkAy fkoõAä fkoõAä bAkaraKAin% üiT% pAäyA YAy| "At some places in old Dhaka bakorkhani bread can be had." fs% àkTu àkTu bAMalA balaet% pAer%| "She speaks a little Bangla."

9The ä becomes Ö in CALIT—fk%Ö; but the SADHU form—fk%ha—displays the ä pronunciation. 10I thank Shaheed Qadri, who heard this chanted in a street procession in Dhaka, for passing it on to me.

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B. nA between REDUPLICATED INDEFINITES adds a DEGREE OF CERTAINTY

("someone/something/sometime/somewhere or other," but someone/etc. for sure):

kaénaäyAil%s ¯¡IT fò%r kAeC%, ik%… fs%É jaenÄ%É kAür nA kAür saeÆ% fd%KA haey% YAäyAr saÈBAbanA|

"Cornwallis Street is quite close by. However, for that very reason there is the distinct possibility of running into someone or other."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 146) suémAra maen% hay, Çsael% Öin% àmain% saba bAyanA†A kaer% kAÖek% nA kAÖek% saba samaya kAeC%

fp%et% cAna "It seemed to Surma that actually he [her maternal grandfather], making all these

demands, just wanted someone or other nearby all the time." (Dilara Hashem) fk%Ö nA fk%Ö mACaTA fK%ey% fP%laeb%| "Someone or other will eat the fish." ftomAr fkoeno nA fkoeno mAC BAla lAgaeb%| "You will like one or another of the fish." ^tAek% kaKaeno nA kaKaeno àKAen% Çsaet%É haeb%| "She'll have to come here sometime or other." à pARAy fkoõAä nA fkoõAä garam üiT% ik%natAm| "Somewhere or other in this neighborhood we used to buy warm bread." fkoõAä in%maÀaeN% YAäyA CARA ÇmAra sAjafgoej%ra fto darakAra iC%la nA| ik%…, ib%«du ÇmAek%

Åiê%ra kaer% frojaÉ ik%Cu-nA-ik%Cu sAja karAta| "Except if invited somewhere, I had no need to dress up. But, Bindu excitedly

used to outfit me in something or other daily." (Rabindranath Tagore)

With reduplicated indefinites and nA, the speaker does not know the identity of the person (in the case of fk%Ö) nor is he expressing any curiosity about who is going to do something, but he is conveying a sense of CERTAINTY that someone for sure will do it. In the next lesson, we'll see the interrogative + fY%na, which also may translate as "or other." There the speaker does not know the identity of the person or cannot recall who did something, and she is conveying a VAGUENESS about who did it, or an inability to produce the name.

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C. Çr before an INDEFINITE means "more, and" and often translates as "else":

in%ébAcan haey% YAbAr par in%ébAic%ta „ait%in%iú%ed%r fõ%ek%11 fb%ZI ÇÉnagata Åiú%kAr Çr kAür nAÉ|

"After the election has been held, no one else has greater legal authority than the elected representatives." (Advanced Bengali, p. 272)

Çr fk%Ö àel% tAek% mACaTA KAäyAeb%n| "If anyone else comes by, feed him the fish." Çr fkoeno mAC ik% àKAen% pAäyA YAy? "Is there any other fish available here?" tuim% Çr kaKaeno fs%KAen% àkA fY%ä nA| "Never again go there alone." fs% Çr fkoõAä ^Kuej%eC%? "Has he searched elsewhere?" tuÉ Çr ik%Cu KAib% nA? "Won't you eat anything else?"

D. fY% (and YA) before an indefinite INTENSIFIES the INDEFINITENESS:

fY% kAÖek% id%ey% YAä| Or: fY% fkoeno àkajanaek% id%ey% YAä| "Give it to anyone [no matter who it is]." fY% kAür hAet% id%ey% YAä| Or: fY% fkoeno àkajaen%r hAet %id%ey% YAä| "Just put it in anyone's hand." ^tAek% [fZoBAbAjAer%r rAjA nabak& a fd%baek%] fd%äyA hala 300 ÅçAerohI Çr pAlik% rAKAr

Åiú%kAr| pAlik% taKan fY% fk%Ö caRaet% pArata nA, fkoÈpAnIr hukum bA in%eéd%Z CARA|

"He [the raja of Shovabazaar, Nabakrishna Deb] was given the right to maintain 300 horsem*n and keep a palanquin. At that time, without the Company's formal directive, not just anyone could ride in a palanquin."

(Purnendu Patri)

11fõ%ek% here means "than," used in place of fc%ey%|

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iZ%KA| bA fr%, YAra galA Kus`Kus` kraeC% fs% Yaid% àka G∆TA para para fY%-fkoeno haTa i %Mak` KAya, tA hael% caiw%Za Ga∆TA bAed% tAra fto BAelo lAgaeb%É_

üiD| fY%-fkoeno haTa ièD%Maek%ra kõA ahae∞C% nA| fn%T`el%ra kaõA hae∞C%| "Shikha: 'That's just brilliant! If a person's throat is a bit scratchy and she

consumes any sort of hot drink at hour intervals, after twenty-four hours she'll feel fine.'

Rudy: 'We're not talking about just any sort of hot drink here. We're talking about nettle [tea].'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

The expressions *fY% kaKaeno and *fY% fkoõAä ARE REPLACED BY fY% fkoeno samaey% and fY% fkoeno jAyagAy respectively.

fY% fkoeno samaey% mAC fK%et% àsa| "Come over anytime you please for a fish meal." bAMalAed%eZ% fY% fkoeno jAyagAetaÉ BAla mAC ik%naet% pAäyA YAy| "You can buy good quality fish anywhere in Bangladesh!"

With the indefinite ik%Cu, YA is USED INSTEAD OF fY%|

tArA YA ik%Cu karaet% pAer%| tAr maeúÄ% Çim% fn%aÉ| "They can do whatever they want. I'll have no part of it." taKana ära àkalA ba'es% ba'es% Çpana-maen% kaõA kaÉet% Ée∞C% kaer%, YA-ik%Cu gafla Zuen%eC% . . . "At those times he just wants to sit alone and recite in his own mind whatever

stories he heard . . . " (Rabindranath Tagore) fs% Yaid% ^fb%ec% õAkata tA hael% fs%É ÇmAra jIbaen% YA-ik%Cu baeRo, YA-ik%Cu satÄa, sam˙a àen%

id%ta; taKana fm%ejobaÖ fõ%ek% maA haey% basatuma| "Had she [my daughter] lived, she would have bestowed upon me whatever is

important, whatever is true in my life; then, from being [just] the second wife in the household, I would have become a 'mother.'"

(Rabindranath Tagore)

A very common idiomatic expression: sab ("everything, all") + ik%Cu = sabaik%Cu ("everything, all")—Çim% sab karaba and Çim% sabaik%Cu karaba both translate as "I'll do everything [do it all]." sabaik%Cu is more emphatic than just sab|

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Exercises—Answer the questions with an indefinite, either affirmative or negative: Example: Question: ÇpanAr rabI«‹anAeõ%r fkon gaÓa BAla lAeg%?

Answer: rabI«‹anAeõ%r fkoeno fkoeno gaÓa ÇmAr BAla lAeg%| or: tAr fkoeno nA fkoeno gaÓa ÇmAr BAla lAeg%| or: ÇmAr tAr fY% fkoeno gaÓaÉ BAla lAeg%| or: Çim% rabI«‹anAeõ%r fkoeno gaÓa paiR% in%|

1) tuim% kI KAeb%?

2) bAMalA BASA fk% paeR%?

3) fs%TA fkoõAy pAäyA YAay?

4) it%in% kaKan Çip%eZ% YAn?

5) Çpain% fkon is%en%mA fd%Kaet% YAeb%n?

III. bael% Pronounced with the "low" stem vowel, bael% ("b]le") is a 3rd-person present tense of the verb balA:

fs% BAla bAMlA bael%| "She speaks Bangla well."12

Pronounced with the "high" stem vowel, bael% ("bole")13 functions as a: A. PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLE:14

fs% ÇmAek% ik%CuÉ nA bael% iB%taer% cael% fg%la| "Without saying anything to me, he went inside."

12Though unlikely to cause any confusion, be aware of the hom*onyms bal (1. "power, strength" and 2. "ball") +

locative ending: 1. ba˙uta, saMaKÄAgair%ıatAr bael% fgoTA fd%eZ%raÉ •amatAr Åiú%kArI ÇmarA| "In fact, by the power of the majority, we are rightful claimants to authority over the entire country."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 272) 2. bael% bueT% lAgAbAra ZaÂ| "The sound of boot on ball [in a football match]." (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

13Verb stems with Å show no orthographic difference between their low to high forms, though some writers add an apostrophe to the high stem vowel to indicate that it is indeed high; see Lesson 1, II, C, "Spelling." 14Intro Bengali uses the term "past active participle" (abbreviated PAP); Advanced Bengali uses the term "gerund" for this same verbal form.

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B. CONJUNCTION (sometimes translated "that") following and conjoining the subordinate clause and main clauses such as "I think, it would seem, they hoped, etc.":

Çj b&iÛT% paRaeb% nA bael% tArA ÇZA kaer%iC%la| "It wouldn't rain today, they had hoped."

If the English syntax parallels the Bangla, a comma may be used in English to join the two clauses, as in the above example. If the "I think" clause is placed first in the English translation, the conjunction "that" may be used (or not) to connect the clauses:

Çj b&iÛT% paRaeb% nA bael% Çim maen% kir%| "I think that it won't rain today." 1627 ˝IÛTAeÂ%r pUeéb%É it%in% purIet% jagaÕAõ mai«d%er%r maeúÄ% ÇèZay laÉyAiC%el%n bail%yA

ÖiÔ%iK%ta haÉyAeC%| "It is mentioned that prior to 1627 C.E.15 he had taken shelter in Puri within the

Jagannath temple." (Advanced Bengali, p. 178) purIet% fY %kAel% fbOÿaúaéma „aBAbAiù%ta iC%la, fs%kAel%r Ft%yArI fkonaä mUiét% ÇeC% bail%yA

„amAiN%ta hay nAÉ| "It has not been confirmed that there exist any images in Puri made during the

period when Buddhism held sway." (Advanced Bengali, p. 178) ÉhAr talAy fY% fb%dIr ÅÓa ÅMaZa bAih%r haÉyA ÇeC% tAhA pUéba haÉet%É àÉ mUiét%r saeÆ% iC%la

bail%yA maen% hay| "It does appear that the small portion of platform which protrudes from beneath

was a part of this statue originally." (Advanced Bengali, p. 178) In the Bangla sentence, the conjunction bael% may be omitted altogether, or a comma put in its place, just as the "that" in the English translation may be omitted:

Çj b&iÛT% paRaeb% nA Çim maen% kir%| "I think it won't rain today."

When the Bangla syntax is reversed and the "I think" expression comes first, the conjunction, if used at all, is most often fY% instead of bael%:

Çim maen% kir% (fY%) Çj b&iÛT% paRaeb% nA| "I think (that) it won't rain today."

15Since A.D., the abbreviation for the Latin "Anno Domini," which translates to "in the year of our Lord," carries with it markedly Christian sentiments and since that calendric system is, for historical reasons, used by many peoples, both those who are Christian by religious persuasion and those who are not, the more neutral designation of C.E., the abbreviation for the English "Common Era," has come to replace A.D. in many circles. A.D. and C.E. are coterminous.

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However, if bael% is used, it appears at the end of the clause:

fd%Za BAga habAra àta baCara para fs%id%na kAil%pada rAya „aõama is%ÿA»a in%el%na fkolakAtA cael% YAeb%na bael%|

"So long after partition, it was that day Kalipada Ray first decided THAT he would go to Kolkata." (Dilara Hashem)

bael%, when it is used as a conjunction of this sort, allows for a somewhat unorthodox grammatical arrangement. If the first clause does not have a verb expressed (i.e., if the verb "to be" is simply understood), then the verb of the second clause may act as the verb of the first clause, ignoring the conjunction bael% altogether.16 For example, consider the following: musalamAen%r ÅtÄAcAraek% kaNAraek%r ›aMaes%r „aúAn kAraN bail%yA maen% hay nA| "Muslim oppression does not seem to be the main cause of Konarak's ruin." (Advanced Bengali, p. 177) àÉ mUiét%iT%ek% naeg%«‹anAõ basu mahAZay BUim% ¯paéZamu‹Ay buÿaed%eb%r mUiét% bail%yA ió%k kair%yA

fP%il%yAeC%n| "Nagendranath Basu has determined this image to be Buddhadeva touching the

earth." (Advanced Bengali, p. 178) ======================================================== The objective case endings seem to identify those words in the above two sentences as the object of the verb in the main clause, not a subject of a subordinate clause. If the sentences were reconstructed and the conjunction fY% were used instead of bael%, the seeming objects would return to their nominative forms, for they are in fact the subjects of their respective clauses. Compare with the above: maen% hay nA fY% musalamAen%r ÅtÄAcAra [not ÅtÄAcAraek%] kaNAraek%r ›aMaes%r „aúAn kAraN| "It doesn't seem that Muslim oppression was the main cause of Konarak's ruin." naeg%«‹anAõ basu mahAZay ió%k kair%yA fP%il%yAeC%n fY% àÉ mUiét%iT [not mUiét%iT%ek%] BUim%

¯paéZamu‹Ay buÿaed%eb%r mUiét%| "Nagendranath Basu has determined that this image is Buddhadeva touching the

earth."

16Because of the inability of this conjunction to keep the two clauses more separate grammatically, the linguist Probal Dasgupta has labeled bael% a "subjoiner" rather than a conjoiner or conjunction.

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C. POSTPOSITION "as, called, by the name of" REQUIRING NO CASE ENDING:

Çj YAek% lAladIiG% bael% ic%in%, taKan fs%TA iC%la ZuúuÉ àkaTA dIiG%| "That which we know today AS (BY THE NAME OF) Lal Dighi was then just a

dighi [excavated pond]." (Lesson 2, I) tAÉ Åen%ka kAl úaer% àek% im%éjA fgolAm pIer%r masaij%d b'el%É ic%naeto sabAÉ| "That is why for a long time everyone knew it AS (BY THE NAME OF) Mirza

Golam Pir's mosque." (Lesson 3, I) Çim% ^tAhAek% fs%É samaey%É baŒu bail%yA ègahaNa kair%lAma| "I accepted him at that time AS a friend." (Advanced Bengali, p. 95) taKana it%in% àkajana k&taib%dÄa bail%yA gaNÄa| "He was known then AS a learned man." (Advanced Bengali, p. 95) bARI haÉet% paõaKarac bail%yA YaösAmAnÄa YAhA ik%Cu Çin%yAiC%la PurAÉyA fP%il%la, . . . "The little he had brought from home AS (CALLED) traveling money he had

spent, . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 141) àÉ kAóAemor maeúÄ% maiN%mAlA bael% fY% àkaiT% fm%ey% iC%la àtaid%n, tAek% fY%na Çr ÅnuBabaÉ

karA YAe∞C% nA| "That beneath these trappings there [is and] has been all these days a girl

CALLED Monimala seems no longer even discernible." (Advanced Bengali, p. 145)

àÉ floka-gIit%kAiT% janasAúAraeN%r maeúÄ% kuRA iZ%kArIr gAn bail%yA pair%ic%ta| "This folk song is known among the common people AS 'the Kura hunters' song.'"

(Advanced Bengali, p. 205) D. CONJUNCTION "because":

Çj garam paeR%eC% bael% ÇmarA bAÉer% YAÉ in%| "Because it was hot today, we didn't go outside." Çj ÇmarA fkoõAä YAÉ in%, bAÉer% fb%iZ% garam paeR%eC% bael%| "We didn't go anywhere today because it was too hot outside." ègAem%r bAih%er% bail%yA ègAem%r fm%ey%rA ÉhAr jal bÄabahAr kair%et% pAir%ta nA| "Because it was outside the village, the village girls could not use its [the pond's]

water." (Advanced Bengali, p. 131)

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fkoõAy ig%ey%iC%el%n? . . . mAen% àkaTu rAt haey% fg%eC %bael% ij%egÄ%s karaiC% . . . ÅeP%ns fn%eb%n nA ÇZA kair%|

"Where did you go . . . er, well, I mean, I ask because it's gotten to be a little late . . . hope you won't take offense." (Advanced Bengali, p. 148)

BagabAn buÿa úaémaóAkur nAem% pUjA laÉyAeC%na baail%yAÉ úaémanAmaúArI sab óAkuraek%É fboú hay

fbOÿa balA Öic%ta haÉeb% nA| "Just because Lord Buddha is worshiped under the name of Lord of Dharma, it

would not be right, perhaps, to call all deities Buddhist which have accrued the appellation 'dharma.'" (Advanced Bengali, p. 178)

BECAUSE bael%, meaning "because," comes at the end of the BANGLA subordinate clause.

bael% kAraN, which also means "because," comes at the beginning of the clause.

kAraN ======================================================== The ENGLISH subordinate clause will have "because" at the beginning.

BECAUSE

ÇmarA YAÉ in% garam paeR%eC% bael%| "We didn't go, because it was hot." ÇmarA YAÉ in% kAraN garam paeR%eC%| "We didn't go, because it was hot." tuim% àes%eCo bael% ÇmarA àKan bAMalA balaet% pAir%| "Because you have come, we can now speak Bangla." Çim% àes%iC% kAraN jAnatAm fY% ftomarA bAMalAy kaõA balaeb%| "I came because I knew that you folks would speak in Bangla."

Exercises—Supply either bael% or fY% in the following sentences and translate:

1) Çim% maen% kair% @@@ Çpain% Bul kaer%eC%n|

2) tuim% bAiR%et% iC%el% nA @@@ tAed%r saeÆ% fd%KA hay in%|

3) àta BAla kaer% it%in% ih%«dI BASA balaeb%n @@@ ÇZA karA YAy in%|

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4) fY BASA flokiT baleC fs BASAek bAMlA @@@ Çim men kir nA|

5) nA, fs% ftoek% fkoeno kaõA @@@ in%| IV. CALENDRIC SYSTEMS Some relevant vocabulary:

ÅÂa "year"—used mostly in compounds designating particular calendric systems (See CALENDARS below.) daZakaaa "decade," e.g., it%ir%eZ%ra daZaek%ra fgoRAya "at the begining of the 30's" baCara "year" (colloquial spelling of baösar)—a year's worth of time (unit of measure)

(compare with sAla below):

tuim% kata baCar bAMalAed%eZ% iC%el%? "How long [number of years] were you in Bangladesh?"

baéSaa "year"—the same as baCar but used less frequently in common speech, more in formal

settings Zatak, ZatAÂIa "century"—the former may be preceded by cardinal or ordinal numbers, the

latter (almost always) is preceded by ordinals: ib%MaZa ZatAÂI "20th century" sana "year"—a calendar year, like sAla but used somewhat less frequently sAla "year"—a calendar year (compare with baCar above):

kaetoaa ZAel% haeb% fs%TA_1950-àra id%ek%É fboúa hay "What year would that be—around 1950, perhaps." (Abdul Mannan Syed)

CALENDARS: 1. baÆAÂa, often referred to as bAMalA sAl or bAMalA san—"the Bangla era"—and, if translated into

English, abbreviated "B.S." What in Bengal one calls "the Bangla era" is by origin not Bangla at all. In the Muslim ( ih%jarI, see below) year 969 (1562-63 C.E.), Akbar declared that henceforth the calendar for his Moghul empire would be based on the solar, not lunar, cycle. It is that calendric system which in Bangla is called baÆAÂa today. The Bangla annual cycle begins with the month of Fb%ZAK in mid-April (now fixed at April 15th)17 of the Gregorian calendar. To convert dates from one system to the other:

17In Bangladesh, though the Bangla Akademi fixed April 15th as the beginning of the Bangla year, to go into effect starting in 1373 B.S. (1966 C.E.), not everyone in Bangladesh followed the Akademi's lead. There are those who take April 11th—April 10th during leap year—as the first day of the Bangla year. See Muhammad Abu Talib, bAMlA saen%ra jaœakaõA (1977; reprt. Dhaka: Bangla Akademi, 1993), p. 75.

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B.S. --> C.E.

Fb%ZAK to mid-fpOS

+593 (or, add 600, then subtract 7)

mid-fpOS through Fc%÷a

+594 (or, add 600, then subtract 6)

C.E. --> B.S.

January to April 14th

-594 (or, subtract 600, then add 6)

April 15th through December

-593 (or, subtract 600, then add 7)

2. K&ÛTAÂa/˝IÛTAÂa/K&¯TAÂa/˝I¯TAÂa (abbreviated K&Ha/˝IHa) = Gregorian (Christian) system. Dates

given in this system need specify the year only (e.g., 1984– "1984") or can give the year followed by K&ÛTAÂ (e.g., 1984 K&Ha– "1984 C.E.") or the year followed by the word sAl or san (e.g., 1984 sAl– "the year 1984").

3. ih%jarI/ih%ij%rA/ih%jarA = Hijre/Hegira, the Muslim lunar calendar system, starting from 622 C.E.

when Hazrat Mohammad fled Mecca for Medina. The Muslim annual cycle, which begins in the month of maharam, is about two weeks shorter than a solar year and therefore begins progressively earlier each year when compared with the solar calendars.

4. ZakAÂa or simply Zak = a solar calendar established by the Scythian (Zaka) king Shalibahana in

78 C.E. The annual cycle is the same as that of the baÆAÂa (begins mid-April with Fb%ZAK) and is commonly used throughout northern India.

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5. saÍaö = a solar calendar established by king Vikramaditya in 57 B.C. The annual cycle is the same as that of the baÆAÂa (begins mid-April with Fb%ZAK).

The commonly used calendars in Bangla-speaking areas are baÆAÂa and K&ÛTAÂa| Bangladeshi and Muslim publications from West Bengal—as well as newspapers in general—may add the ih%jarI date. West Bengali publications may also list the ZakAÂa date. The saÍaö system is seldom used. Bengali Vaisnava publications frequently give a date based on the advent of Chaitanya, the Bengali saint.

Dates given in a combination of words (month) and numerals (day and year) usually use the abbreviated special ordinals (see Lesson 4, IV & Appendix 3):

raib%bAr, 10É Çiç%n, 1388/28eZ% fj%alakad,18 1401 ih%:/ Sept. 27, 1981 "Sunday, 10th Asvin, 1388; 28th Zelkad, 1401 Hegira [also spelled Hijre]; Sept.

27, 1981" ("Fd%in%k Ée–%PAk')

sAl%, unmodified, usually means baÆA or Common Eraa: 1250 sAel%r 5É fpOS "the 5th of Paus, 1250 [B.S.]" 1914 sAel% saetÄ%«‹anAõa óAkur ä Éi«d%rA fd%bI àÉ ègaeÃ%ra àkaiT% ÉMer%ij% ÅnubAda kaer%na| "In 1914 [C.E.] Satyendranath Tagore and Indira Devi did an English translation

of this book." (Advanced Bengali, p. 94)

Zak is usually specified, as may be other calendric systemsa: 1768 Zaek%ra èZAbaNa mAes% fGora baéSAet%É gaÆAet% fb%RAÉet% bAih%ra haÉlAma| "We set off to travel on the Ganges during the height of the monsoon in the month

of Sravan of 1768, Saka era." (Advanced Bengali, p. 95) Fc%tanÄaed%eb%r it%eroúAn 1535 ˝IÛTAeÂ%| "Chaitanya passed away in 1535 C.E." (Advanced Bengali, p. 176)

The two words for century, Zatak and ZatAÂI, differ in that the former may be (but doesn't have to be) preceded by cardinal numbers (one, two, three) while the latter (almost always) is preceded by ordinals (first, second, third); both tend to refer to the Gregorian calendar:

ÇóAero Zataek%r fgoRAr id%ek% "towards the beginning of the 18th century" (from Lesson 3, I)

18Also spelled ij%alakad|

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ÇmarA kaNAraek%r baétamAn mai«d%r ÷aeyodaZ ZatAÂIr mAJAmAiJ% Ft%yArI haÉyAeC% jAin%yAÉ KuiZ% haÉba|

"We would be satisfied knowing that the present temple at Konarak was constructed sometime in the 13th century." (Advanced Bengali, p. 176)

YAhAÉ haÖk, tAhAr paer% 16Z ZatAÂIr fZ%Sa BAeg %(ÇÉn-É-Çk`barI) Çbul Pajal

kaNAraek%r fY% baéNanA id%yAeC%n, tAhAet% mai«d%er% pUjA haÉta ik% nA tAhA buJA YAy nA| "Be that as it may, subsequent to that, towards the end of the 16th century,

according to the description of Konarak Abul Fazal gave (Ain-i-Akbari), it is unclear whether puja was then being performed in the temple."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 176) 11|12|13Z Zatak ÉhAr „aBAeb%r ZIéSakAl| "Its influence was at its peak during the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries." (Advanced Bengali, p. 177) bAMalA gaedÄ%r Éit%hAs sAúAraNataHa baéNanA karA hay Öin%Z Zataek%r Zuü fõ%ek%| Åiú%kAMaZa

paiƒ%ta ÅbaZÄa àkamat fY%, fSoRaZ ZatAÂI fõ%ek% bAMalA gaedÄ%r ik%Cu% ik%C%u in%daéZan pAäyA YAe∞C%|

"The history of Bangla prose generally is recounted from the beginning of the 19th century. A majority of the scholars, however, are in agreement that a few specimens of Bangla prose are available from the 16th century." (Anisuzzaman)

Exercises—Answer in complete sentences:

1) baÆAeÂ% àKan kt sAl?

2) ftomAr jœ hl baÆAeÂ%ra kata sAel?

3) BAratbéS ä pAik˙An ïAúIn hal 1947 ˝IÛTAeÂ%| baÆAeÂ%ra kta sAel ïAúIntA imll?

4) rbI«‹nAeõr jœidn 25eZ FbZAK, 1268| ˝IÛTAeÂ%ra kata sAel jœAeln?

5) 1768 Zaek%ra èZAbaNa mAsa ˝IÛTAeÂ%ra kata sAel% paRaeb%?

6) Fc%tanÄaed%eb%r it%eroúAn 1535 ˝IÛTAeÂ%| kata Ztek mArA YAn?

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LESSON 44

I. saMabAd

"85 sAel%r maeúÄ% in%ra•aratA dUr kair%ba'

_ZAh Çij%j

bAsas1 jAnAy, „aúAnamaÀI ZAh Çij%jur rahamAn baya a sA•aratA ÅiB%YAn Çero fjoradAr karAr janÄa sA•aratAr dAiy%e‘% in%eyoij%ta Åit%ir%°a fj%lA „aZAsakaed%r „ait% Gana Gana paÔI àlAkAy saPar àbaMa saMaiÚ%ÛTa àlAkAy taöpar fï%∞CAes%bI saMagaóan samUeh%r saeÆ% fYogAeYog ra•Ar ÇhvAn jAnAÉyAeC%n| „aúAnamaÀI gatakAl (Zain%bAr) janaiZ%•A pair%da‡aer%r saeÎ%lan kae•% àiD%is%ed%r2 àk saBAy BASaN id%et%iC%el%n| ZAh Çij%j bael%n, ÇmarA 1985 sAel%r maeúÄ% fd%Zaek% in%ra•aratAr ÅiB%ZAp haÉet% mu°a kair%et% k&tasaMakaÓa| „aúAnamaÀI bael%n, ÇmarA Éit%maeúÄ% 30 la•a nara-nArIek% bÄabahAir%k sA•aratA „adAn kair%yAiC%| àtadue◊ %eZ% ÇmarA baÉpa÷a ä fr%iD%ä fs%T saha „ait%iT% ègAem% àkaiT% kair%yA pAóAgAr „ait%ıAr is%ÿA»a in%yAiC%|

"Fd%in%k Ée–%PAk,' raib%bAr, 10É Çiç%n, 1388/ 28eZ% fj%lakada, 1401 ihH/September 27, 1981

1Acronym for bAMalAed%Z saMabAd saMaêA, Bangladesh News Service. 2A. D. C. stands for Additional District Commissioner.

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II. CORRELATIVES Review Intro Bengali, pp. 246-47. Note that fY% is (1) the human relative pronoun and (2) the relative adjective (can be used with both human and nonhuman nouns, as can any adjective) as well as (3) a conjunction:

1. fY% ÇsaeC% fs% fk%? "Who is he who is coming?" (Intro Bengali, p. 246) 2. fY% baÉTA ftomAek% id%ey%iC% fs%TA fkoõAy? "Where is the book that I have given you?" (Intro Bengali, p. 246) 3. ÇmAr maen% hay (fY%) baÉTA hAir%ey% fg%eC%| "I believe that the book is lost."

A. Moreover, fY as a CONJUNCTION can be PAIRED WITH tA in constructions similar to the following English example: "That Bangla is an Indo-European language is known to all linguists." The Bangla for this sentence would read, literally: "That Bangla is an Indo-European language [it/that] is known to all linguists." bAMalA fY% àkaTA Ée«do-ÉÖeropIya BASA, tA sab BASAib%ed%r jAnA ÇeC%|

This fY% CANNOT BE THE FIRST ELEMENT IN THE CLAUSE. Other examples:

ÇmarA fY% Guemoi∞C% tA tArA jAnata nA| "That we were [are] sleeping they didn't know." Or: "They didn't know that we

were sleeping." (Anon.) pAik%˙AnI ZAsanataÀr muKabaeŒ% fY% ÇÔAr Çiú%patÄ aeGoSaNA karA haey%eC% tA fmoeT%É tAmAZA

nay| "That in the preamble to the Pakistani constitution Allah's sovereignty is

proclaimed is most certainly no joke." Or: "It is most certainly no joke that Allah's sovereignty is proclaimed in the preamble to the Pakistani constitution." (Parasuram, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 81)

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The tA, a pronoun standing for the entire dependent clause, can be inflected for case:

tuim% fY% in%ej%r kaõAÉ balaeb% nA tAr „amAN ik%? "That you won't speak your own words [instead of Allah's words]—what is the

proof of that?" Or, more normally in English: "What is the proof that you won't speak your own words [instead of Allah's]?"

(Parasuram, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 80) The nonhuman pronoun tA can be replaced by the nonhuman pronoun fs%TA (äTA, àTA) as well as by a noun:

Çim%É fY% ftomAr ~rAic%r buik%Ma kaer% id%lAm fs%TA maen% fn%É? "That I myself booked you [on the train] for Ranchi—that you don't remember?"

Or: "You don't remember that I myself booked you [on the train] for Ranchi?" (Satyajit Ray)

tAr m&tÄur janÄa Çim% fY% ik%Cu ÅMaeZ% dAyI, fs% ib%çAs ÇmAr Çjaä YAyain%| "That I was in part responsible for his death—that belief of mine has not left me

to this day." Or: "The belief that I was in part responsible for his death has not left me to this day." (Satyajit Ray)

B. When the DEPENDENT CLAUSE contains an INTERROGATIVE, the fY% is present but

often NOT TRANSLATABLE in English:

darakAr fY% kI tA ib%ip%nabAbu jAen%n| "What is necessary—that Bipin Babu knows." Or: "Bipin Babu knows what is

necessary." (Satyajit Ray) kata rakam kaer% fY% kaõAguelo BAib% tAr Çid%-Å»a fn%É| "How many ways I think about things—there are no limits to that." Or: "There are

no limits to the many ways I think about these things." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

C. Although in most correlative sentences in Bangla the DEPENDENT CLAUSE COMES

FIRST, such need NOT ALWAYS be the case:

tAr bAiR%et% fto àman fk%Ö iC%la nA fY% tAek% is%en%mA fd%KAeb%| "There was no one in her household who would take her to the movies." (Sunil Gangopadhyay) àman Åen%k ik%CuÉ õAek% YA Buel% YAäyAÉ BAelo| "There are many such things which it is best to forget." (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

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D. YA, which is the nonhuman relative pronoun, is also an EMPHATIC ADJECTIVE:

Çr äÉ bayaes% ÖösAha ä ànAiéj%r YA namunA fd%eK%iC%lAm, tA sacarAcar ÇmAed%r taüNaed%r maeúÄ%ä fd%KA YAy nA|

"And at that age that example of energy and enthusiasm I saw—often that is not seen even among our young people." Or: "One does not often see such an example of energy and enthusiasm, even among our young people, not to mention at that age." (Satyajit Ray)

YA Bay Çr YA f„%juiD%s àed%r, jAnael% paer% hayaeto bAúA TAúA id%ey% ÇmAr ‚ÄAnaTAÉ fB%e˙%

fd%eb%| "What fear and what prejudice they had—once they found out, perhaps they

would scuttle my plan." Or: "Given their fear and prejudice, they would scuttle my plan, perhaps, after they found out." (Satyajit Ray)

E. fY%/YA + É function as INDEFINITES, "whoever/whatever"

Çim% cuir%É kair%, Çr YAÉ kair%, Çim% ftomAr úaémasa¥aey%r mUlIBUta kAraN| "So I steal, so I do whatever—it is I who am the fundamental cause of your

accumulation of virtue." (Advanced Bengali, p. 104) F. PAIRS of correlatives function as a type of indefinite, often with a somewhat NEGATIVE

CONNOTATION:

fY%-fs% adj. "any ordinary, just any" fY%-fs% pron. "just anyone off the street, just anyone" YA-tA "any old thing, just anything" fY%KAen%-fs%KAen% "here and there, anywhere" YaKan-taKan "now and then, unpredictably, anytime" fY%man-ft%man "trifling, just an ordinary sort" fY%-fs% flokaek% it%in% CAgal id%eb%n nA| àman flok cAÉ fY %Ya”a kair%yA „ait%pAlan kair%eb%, . . . "He would not give the goat to just anybody. He needed a person who would

look after it with care, . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 139) DA°Ar bael% id%ey%eC%, "fd%Ka, ^gAey% ig%ey% fY%na YA-tA fK%ä nA|' "The doctor told me, 'Look, don't go into a village and eat this and that [all kinds

of rubbish].'" (Intro Bengali, p. 356)

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Exercises—Translate:

1) YA GaTaelo fs%rakam GaTanA fY% GaTaeb% tA fs% BAbaet%ä pAer%in%| (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

2) jagaöib%KÄAta ParAsI BA ar fro^DÄA iY%in% ÅtÄa»a jaR„a˙aer%r fd%ha fõ%ek% ÅsaMaKÄa jIib%ta„Ay fd%b-

dAnab fk%eT% bAr kaer%eC%n, it%in%ä Zunaet% pAÉ, YaKan-taKan hAet% kAdA in%ey%, ÇXuel%r iT%ep%

mAiT%r putul taey%r kaer% õAek%n| (Advanced Bengali, p. 121)

3) fs%É d&iÛT%et% Baey%r YA namunA fd%Kalum, tAet% BUt CARA Çr kI BAbaba balun?

(Satyajit Ray)

4) kaKan fY% fZ%yAl i~J%iJ%r DAk fõ%em% fg%eC%, Çr kaKan fY% Çim% Guim%ey% paeR%iC% fs% fK%yAl fn%É|

(Satyajit Ray)

5) sutIéõa, tuim% fY% it%n mAes%r BARA dAä in% fs%TA fY% luekocuir% kaer% dAä in% tA' Çim% balaet%

cAÉ nA| (Jibanananda Das)

III. fY%na, YAet% (YAet% kaer%), & pAeC% fY%na is a complex word from the standpoint of both meaning and grammar. In Intro Bengali, fY%na is present in four sentences:

1. fd%Ka fY%na hArAy nA| "See that it doesn't get lost [i.e., keep it carefully lest it get lost]." (Intro Bengali, p. 343) 2. im%ÛTAr DAn bArabAr bael% id%ey%eC%n, "rAet% fY%na ÇbAr ^gAey% fõ%eko nA|' "Mr. Dunn has said again and again, 'Do not ever stay in a village at night.'" (Intro Bengali, p. 354) 3. DA°Ar bael% id%ey%eC%, "fd%Ka, ^gAey% ig%ey% fY%na YA-tA fK%ä nA|' "The doctor told me, 'Look, don't go into a village and eat this and that.'" (Intro Bengali, p. 356) 4. tAek% KabaraTA fY%na fd%äyA nA hay| "[Take care] lest he be given the news." Or: "[See that] he is not given the news."

(Intro Bengali, p. 360) A. fY%na, YAet% (YAet% kaer%) may express PURPOSE: "so that," "in order that," "that" In such cases, the clause containing fY%na (interchangeable in this construction with YAet% or YAet% kaer%) is DEPENDENT; its verb is always in the PRESENT TENSE; the NEGATIVE nA, if used, PRECEDES 1ST- AND 2ND-PERSON VERBS and may either PRECEDE OR FOLLOW 3RD-

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PERSON VERBS. Examples (1) and (4) from Intro Bengali are of this type. Sentence (4) is technically only a sentence fragment, the independent clause being understood in the Bangla and supplied in the English translation—"Take care" and "See that." The INDEPENDENT CLAUSE is often a 2nd-person command, as it is in sentence (1). If so, its verb is always in the FUTURE IMPERATIVE:

. . . àk mueóo CAÉ kAiét%k pUiéN%mAy kAZIr GAeT% gaÆAjael% fò%el% id%ä_fY%na ÇmAek% jaœA»aer% Çr ib%úabA nA haet% hay|

". . . fling a handful of [my] ashes from a Benares ghat onto the Ganges during a full moon in October—so that I won't have to become a widow again in my next life." (Advanced Bengali, p. 127)

^àek% Çpain% sasaÎAen% rAKaeb%n, fY%na fZokAétA haey% „ANatÄAg nA kaer%n| "Treat her [Rama's mother] with the utmost respect, in order that she not become

despondent and take her life." (Advanced Bengali, p. 307)

The independent clause need not be a command at all: Çim% ÇmAr nAm il%eK% id%ey%iC% YAet tuim% Buel% nA YAä| "I wrote down my name so that you wouldn't forget it." rAÙ ib%ZAl ÇkAer% fs%c pair%kaÓanA ègahaN karaeb%, YAet% kaer% fd%eZ%r fkoeno Å¥ael% k&Saek%rA

cAS-ÇbAed%r ÖpaYu°a sueYog suib%úA fõ%ek% bai¥%ta nA hay| "The Government will undertake an extensive irrigation scheme so that in no

section of the country will farmers be deprived of an adequate opportunity to grow crops." (Advanced Bengali, p. 260)

Nor must the dependent clause follow the independent one:

pARAr baKAeT% fC%el%ed%r saeÆ% im%eZ% Kuku YAet %Ö∞CaeÕ% nA YAy, fs%id%ek% tAr iC%la sajAg

d&iÛT%| "So that Khuku not mix with the unsavory elements in the neighborhood and get

corrupted—to that end he [Khuku's brother] was ever vigilant." (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

In this sort of construction (expressing purpose), fY%na/YAet% . . . nA is equal to pAeC%_ "lest," "so that . . . not," "in order that . . . not":

CAÉ . . . fò%el% id%ä_pAeC% ÇmAek %jaœA»aer% Çr ib%úabA haet% hay| ". . . fling ashes—lest I have to become a widow again in my next life." (example from above, recast) pAeC% Kuku Ö∞CaeÕ% YAy fs%id%ek% tAr sajAg d&iÛT% iC%la| "He was ever vigilant lest Khuku become corrupted."

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(example from above, recast) ÇpanAek% ic%ió% il%iK%et% sAhas kair%lAm nA pAeC% ic%ió% censored hay| "I didn't have the nerve to write you for fear that [lest] the letter be censored."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 267) B. fY%na may express EMPHASIS IN COMMANDS: "be sure to," "for certain" In such constructions, the NEGATIVE nA FOLLOWS the 2ND-PERSON verb, which is always in the FUTURE IMPERATIVE. Examples (2) and (3) above from Intro Bengali are of this type. Such negative commands need not be, but often are, preceded by another, attention-getting imperative, as in (3) above (fd%Ka, "look," "see here"):

Çr fd%K, bARIr iB%tar in%ey% YAs nA fY%na| "And see here, be sure not to bring [the goat] into the house." (Advanced Bengali, p. 138) fd%eKo fY%na PuRuö kaer% pAil%ey% fY%eyo nA| "Look here, don't go suddenly darting off now." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

C. fY%na + the PRESENT TENSE of a verb expresses DESIRE—"may it be that," "if only it were

that," "let's hope that":

Fp%t&k bÄabasATA fY%na bajAy õAek%| "May the ancestral business survive." (Anon.) fk%Ö fY%na fkoeno ik%Cur janÄa ÅnAdar nA kaer%, ÅpamAn fY%na nA kaer% ÇmAy| "If only no one were hostile to me for any reason, and no one insulted me."

(Jibanananda Das)

D. fY%na may express SIMILARITY: "as if/though," "it is/was as if/though," "seem(s)" gaRAen% lalAT, fkona saMakaÓa fY%na dIéGakAl fs%KAen% õAik%et% pAer% nA, duÉcAr muhUéta Talamal

kair%yA gaRAÉyA paiR%yA, . . . "A rolling forehead, it was as though no firm resolve could stay there [upon that

forehead] for long—restlessly stirring for several moments, then rolling off, . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 168)

ÅnÄapae•% bÄAir%¯TAr fY%na daéZak saÎueK% rAiK%yA ÅiB%nay kair%yA cail%yAeC%n| "On the other side, the barrister seemed to be playing to an audience." (Advanced Bengali, p. 168)

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In effect, fY%n in these sorts of sentences makes for a less definitive statement. In the first sentence, it is not "no firm resolve could stay there for long" but instead "IT WAS AS THOUGH no firm resolve . . . " In the second, it is not "the barrister played to an audience" but instead "the barrister SEEMED TO BE playing . . . " With this fY%n, the definitive nature of any statement is always undercut slightly.

it%in% fY%na hAjAra hAjAra hAta haÉet% ÅèZuta karatAil%ra ZÂa Zuin%et% lAig%el%na| "It was as if he had begun to hear the inaudible applause from thousands upon

thousands of hands." (Advanced Bengali, p. 167)

E. fY%na, FOLLOWING AN INTERROGATIVE, expresses VAGUENESS: someone or something or sometime or somewhere or somehow "or other"

Çim% ij%e≥ %s karAet% Ba‹aelok fk%man fY%na ÅnÄamana˘ ahaey% paRael%n| "At my questioning, the gentleman somehow or other became distracted [or: he

became kind of distracted]." (Satyajit Ray) ik% fY%na balaet% YAi∞C%el% mAsI? "You were going to say something [or other], Auntie—what was it?" (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

Compare with reduplicated indefinites and nA (Lesson 3, II, B), which also may translate as "or other." In the constructions with interrogatives + fY%na, the speaker does not know who or can't remember who (in the case of fk%) did something, and he is conveying a VAGUENESS about who did it or an inability to reproduce the name. With reduplicated indefinites and nA, the speaker does not know who, nor is he expressing any curiosity about who, is going to do something, but he is simply conveying a sense of CERTAINTY that someone for sure will do it.

Exercises—Translate:

1) fd%iK%s fY%na tAr fkoeno kaÛTa nA hay| (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

2) pAeC% bAbAr bakuin% fK%et% hay, àÉ Baey% Åpu àkaõA kAero kAeC% „akAZ kaer% balala nA|

(Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay)

3) Çr kAÖek% ÇmAr àÉ ‚ÄAen%r kaõA balaeb%n nA fY%na| (Satyajit Ray)

4) óAkur ÇmAr fJoel% fY%na la≠A nA fd%y| (Rabindranath Tagore)

5) maen%r kaõA ik%Cuet%É fY%na tAhArA cAip%yA rAiK%et% pAer% nA| (Advanced Bengali, p.168)

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6) fk% fY%na balaiC%la, it%in% ÇsaeC% mAes% ic%kAegoet% ba°&tA id%et% ÇsaeC%n| (ic%kAego is the older

spelling of Chicago [iZ%kAego].)

IV. DATES OF THE MONTH Words for "first, second, etc." of a month differ from standard ordinal numbers (see Appendix 3). First through fourth of the month:

payalA "first, first day of the month" (abbr. 1lA) (paeh%lA, in SADHU) fdosarA "second, second day of the month" (abbr. 2rA) ft%sarA "third, third day of the month" (abbr. 3rA) fcOóA "fourth, fourth day of the month" (abbr. 4óA)

From the fifth through the eighteenth, the suffix É is added to the cardinal numbers:

^pAcaÉ "fifth [day of the month]" (abbr. 5É) . . . ÇóAraÉ "eighteenth [day of the month]" (abbr. 18É)

for example: êApanA_2rA Åk`eTobar 1974 saMaêA Öd`GATan_9É mAéc 1975 Öd`GATanakaétA_èZI f„%em%«‹a im%÷a Baban-Öd`GATan_4óA ài„%l 1979 "Founded—2nd of October, 1974 Official commencement of the association—9th of March, 1975 Presiding over the commencement—Sri Premendra Mitra Official opening of the building—4th of April, 1979" (from Lesson 17, I)

The final inherent vowel in normal cardinal numbers 5 through 10 does not get pronounced; in these special ordinals, however, it is pronounced—as o—before this É suffix: pronounced ^pAcaÉ pa~coi CayaÉ ch]eoi sAtaÉ satoi ÇTaÉ aToi nayaÉ n]eoi adaZÉ d]soi

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From the nineteenth, the suffix à (as an "à-kAr") is added to the cardinal numbers:

Öin%eZ% "nineteenth day of the month" (abbr. 19eZ%) ib%eZ% "twentieth of the month" (abbr. 20eZ%) . . .

NOUNS, ADJECTIVES and tAir%K (a noun meaning "date"): payalA, fdosarA, ft%sarA, and ecOóA are both nouns and adjectives:

payalAy YAba| "I'll go on the first." (noun + locative) payalA Fb%ZAeK% YAba| "I'll go on the first of Baishakh." (adj.)

With the noun tAir%K:

payalA tAir%eK% YAba| "I'll go on the first." (adj.) Fb%ZAeK%r payalA tAir%eK% YAba| "I'll go on the first of Baishakh." Fb%ZAK mAes%r payalA tAir%eK% YAba| "I'll go on the first of Baishakh."

With names of the months, the special ordinals, pAcaÉ, CayaÉ, Öin%eZ%, ib%eZ%, etc., are used:

^pAcaÉ Fb%ZAeK% YAba| "I'll go on the fifth of Baishakh." Öin%eZ% ài„%el% YAba| "I'll go on the nineteenth of April."

With the word "date," tAir%K, the cardinal numbers are used without a suffix:

Ca' tAir%eK% YAba| "I'll go on the sixth." Fc%÷a mAes%r kuiR% tAir%eK% YAba| "I'll go on the twentieth of Caitra."

➊ ➋ ➌ ➍ Whereas payalA, as an adjective, is used with tAir%K for the first of the month, for the second, third, and fourth—when using the word tAir%K)—the cardinals + tAir%K are more common: payalA tAir%eK% YAba| "I'll go on the first." but du' tAir%eK% YAba| "I'll go on the second."

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PHASES OF THE MOON: The feminine forms of the ordinal numbers from second through fifteenth designate the phases of the waxing (Zu§a, Zu§apa•a, "the light fortnight") and the waning (k& a, k&ˆapa•,a "the dark fortnight") moon:

iŸ%tIyA, t&tIyA, catuõéI, pa¥amI, SaıI, sa‡amI, ÅÛTamI, nabamI, daZamI, àkAdaZI, ŸAdaZI, ÷aeyodaZI, catuédaZI, pa¥adaZI

Though pa¥adaZI ("the fifteenth") can mean full or new moon, the more common words are pUiéN%mA ("full moon") and ÅmAbasÄA/ÅmAbAsÄA ("new moon [no moon]").

mAGI-sa‡amIet% àKanaä kaNAraek% fm%lA baes% àbaMa fs%É id%naÉ bAXalA fd%eZ%ä gaÆAëAen%r ib%iú%

ÇeC%| "On the seventh day of the moon in the month of Magh still now a fair is held at

Konarak, and on that very day in Bengal, bathing in the Ganges is prescribed." (Advanced Bengali, p. 175)

àÉ baösar BA‹a mAes%r Zu§A3 ŸAdaZI haÉet% ÇraÈBa hay| "This year [of a particular reign] began from the twelfth day of the light fortnight

of the month of Bhadra." (Advanced Bengali, p. 179) Exercises—Answer in complete sentences:

1) Çj kata tAir%K?4

2) rabI«‹anAeõ%r jaœabAiéS%kI kaeb%?

3) pAk-BAraet%r ïAúInatA-id%bas k' tAir%eK% paeR%?

4) ÇgAmI fsomabAr k' tAir%eK% paRaeb%?

5) K&ÛTAnaed%r baRaid%n kaeb% Ånuiı%ta hay?

3Zu§A is feminine (gender is seldom marked in Bangla, particularly in adjectives), as is ŸAdaZI| 4Note, in Bangla, the quantitative interrogative is used with tAir%K (kata, not fkon).

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LESSON 55

I. fK%lAúulA

bAMalAed%Z kaman`äey%l`õ fg%m`es %ÅMaZa in%e∞C%_ bAMalAed%Z ÇsaÕa 12Z kaman`äey%l`õ fg%m`es% ÅMaZa fn%yAr is%ÿA»a in%ey%eC%| ÇgAmI 19eZ% fs%p`eT%Íar fõ%ek% ÅeÙil%yAr iÁ%seb%n Zahaer% fg%m`s Zuü haäyAr kaõA| ÖeÔ%KÄa fY% gata baCaer% baéNabAdI dai•%N ÇièP%kAr àk rAgabI iT%m in%Öij%lÄAƒ saPar karael% kaman`äey%l`õ Bu°a Åiú%kAMaZa fd%ZasamUeh% „ait%i£%yA fd%KA fd%y àbaMa ÇsaÕa kaman`äey%l`õ fg%m`es% in%Öij%lÄAeƒ%r ÅMaZaègahaNaek% fk%«‹a kaer% tIÁa mata ib%eroeú% fg%m`s Åen%kaTA Åin%ic%t haey% paeR%iC%la|_ bÄAec%lar`s cÄAiÈp%yan_ òAkA 2y ib%BAg haik% lIeg% àbAer% cÄAiÈp%yan hay bÄAec%lar`s §Ab| lIeg% bÄAec%lar`s ä mAhutaTuil%r paey%∆T (9) iC%la samAn samAn| taeb% fgoel%r pAéõaekÄ% bÄAec%lar`es%r cÄAiÈp%yan haäyAr fgOrab fjAeT%| lIeg% rAey%r bAjAer%r saeÆ% bÄAec%lar`es%r fK%lAiT% in%éúAir%ta samaey%r Çeg% rAey%r bAjAer%r fK%eloyAeR%rA fK%laet% nArAj õAkAy fK%lAiT% pair%tÄa°a haey%iC%la| pair%tÄa°a haäyAr Çeg% bÄAec%lar`s 1-0 fgoel% àig%ey %iC%la| parabatéIet% lIg kaim%iT% bÄAec%lar`es%r ÅnukUel% is%ÿA»a in%el% tAed%r cÄAiÈp%yan haäyA ÅbaúAir%ta haey% paeR%|_ Ç»aéjAit%k fr%iT%Ma dAbA_ jAtIya £IRA „aiZ%•aN fke%«‹a 21 fm% fõ%ek% Zuü haey%eC% 1m fP%DAer%Zan Ç»aéjAit%k fr%iT%Ma dAbA „ait%eYoig%tA| àÉ „ait%eYoig%tAy fmoT 10 jan ÅMaZa in%ey%eC%| èZIlaMakAr gun it%lak CARA bAkI 9 jan hael%n bAMalAed%eZ%r dAbARu| àrA hael%n_in%yAj, ÉÖsuP, mAüP, jAim%l, rAgIb, ÇèZAP, fr%jA Çim%r ä Pair%d|

"saic%÷a saŒAnI,' 5m baéSa 7m saMaKÄA, 15 FjÄ%ıa 1389/30 fm% '82, p&Ha 61|

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II. VERBAL NOUN + (A) LOCATIVE CASE & (B) mA÷a Verbal nouns behave both as nouns (and therefore can be inflected for the various cases) and as verbs (and therefore can have a subject and object). A. LOCATIVE CASE The verbal noun in the locative case terminates a dependent clause and implies cause. The accompanying INDEPENDENT CLAUSE is the RESULT of the DEPENDENT CLAUSE's implied CAUSE:

b&iÛT% paRAet fK%lATA hala nA| "Because of the rains, the game was not played."

The SUBJECT—if expressed—of the VERBAL NOUN may be different from the subject of the main verb and may be in either the NOMINATIVE or the GENITIVE case:

Kuku ärakam BAeb% cael% YAäyAy fs%É ÇGAt fp%ey%iC%l aeb%ZI| "It was he who was hurt more because Khuku went away like that." (Sunil Gangopadhyay) ZahId id%bas ä jAtIya fZok id%bas (fP%ÁuyArI 21) raib%bAr paRAet% ÖeÔ%K karA hay nAÉ| "Due to the fact that Martyrs' Day and the Day of National Mourning (February

21) fall on a Sunday, they are not listed." (from Lesson 2, IV) rAjaŸAer%r saeÆ% sAúAraN fèZotAr ik%CumA÷a pair%cay nA õAkAy rAEj%çaeéY%r „ait% bAeloic%t Åba≥A

àbaMa rAjasaBAy Étara-jaenoic%t bAg`bÄabahAr rAyabAr in%baeŒ%r maúÄa id%yA „akAiZ%ta| "Because the common audience had not the least acquaintance with royal courts, a

childlike disregard for kingly majesty and, within the regal assembly halls, words and behavior more suitable to simpler folk found their way into these ray-bar tales [tales depicting the grandeur of royal courts]."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 240) duégam gaBIr pair%KA õAkAy fs%KAen% ÅenÄ%r „aeb%Z duHasAúÄa| "Due to the presence of a deep, difficult-to-cross moat, it was arduous for an

outsider to enter there." (Advanced Bengali, p. 304) The verbal noun need not have an expressed subject at all:

ik%… ÅtaTuku fd%KAy ik% man Baer%? "Is the heart satisfied at seeing so little?" (Anon.)

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B. mA÷a5 The uninflected verbal noun (either stem may be used, though the -bA stem is common) + mA÷a/mAe÷% also terminates a dependent clause. Such a construction IMPLIES CAUSALITY of a sort but EMPHASIZES the immediate CONTIGUITY of two actions, those expressed in the dependent and the independent clauses ("as soon as this happened . . . that followed or resulted"):

"dueég%Zanai«d%nI' baÆa samAej% padAépaN kair%bAmA÷ asakael%r d&iÛT%ek% ÇkaéSaN kair%la| "As soon as [the novel] Durgesh Nandini stepped into Bangla society, it attracted

everyone's attention." (Advanced Bengali, p. 107) Çim% bAÉer% ÇsA mA÷a ÇmAr id%ek% iP%er% fl%j nARaet% lAgala| "As soon as I stepped outside, he [the dog] turned toward me and began to wag its

tail." (Satyajit Ray) maruBUim% fY%mana jala pAbAmAe÷%É tAek% àkabAer% ZueS% fn%ya, tuim%ä rAjAra fkona ‹abÄAid%

fp%el% t tAÉ kara? "Just as the desert, upon receiving water, sucks it up immediately, so too you [the

greedy minister], if you receive anything of the king's, you do likewise, don't you?" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

Usually the mA÷a is suffixed to the verbal noun (kair%bAmA÷, pAbAmaA÷), though it need not be (ÇsA mA÷). This is the only environment in which the verbal noun with the bA suffix is found without the genitive case marker.

Exercises—Supply either the locative case or mA÷a and translate:

1) fpoSA kuRAr DAek% banÄa kuRA Çis%yA fs%KAen% fs%É ^KAcAiT%r Öpar bais%bA @@@ ÉhAr pA flohAr

ÇMaiT%r maeúÄ% ÇTakAÉyA YAy, banÄa pAKI Çr ÖiR%et% pAer% nA|

(Advanced Bengali, p. 205)

2) ^tAed%r Çim% haraúanu fd%iK%ey%iC%lAm, ik%… ^tArA fk%Ö úaraet% bA tulaet% nA pArA @@@ sakalaek%É

Çim% „atÄAKÄAn kaer%iC%| (Advanced Bengali, p. 306)

3) bÄAir%¯TArI pAZ karaet% ib%laÍa haäyA @@@ it%in% gaBIr hatAZA „akAZ kaer%eC%n ib%dÄAsAgaraek% fl%KA

ic%ió%et%| (Anon.)

5 mA÷ meaning "only, merely" was introduced in Intro Bengali; other words meaning "only, merely" are fk%bala, Zuúu, KAil%| mA÷ as a suffix meaning "all, every" will be considered in Lesson 12, IV.

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Translate using either the locative or mA÷a:

4) As soon as she "passed" her Ph.D., she returned home and began to teach.

5) He was quite angry because you didn't come yesterday.

6) Since there wasn't enough rice, they ate bread.

III. paéYa»a & Åbaiú% (ALSO SPELLED ÅiÂ%%):

"up to, until, till; from, since; even, also"

paéYa»a and Åbaiú% are interchangeable and, as nouns, mean "limit, end"

fD%ek%ra Öpaer% bÄaègatA, kalaraba ä CuTACuiT%ra Åbaiú% nAÉ, . . . "On deck, there was no end to the excitement, the shouting, and the running here

and there, . . . " (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) A. paéYa»a as POSTPOSITION requires NO CASE ENDING on the preceding noun or pronoun: "up to, until, till"

fs% ÇgAmI kAl paéYa»a õAkaeb%| "She will stay until tomorrow." fs% sAmaen%r rA˙A paéYa»a f^h%eT% fg%eC%| "He walked up to the next street."

"even, also"

tuim% paéYa»a parI•A fZ%S karaet% pAra in%? "Even you could not finish the exam?" iZKA| â it%na id%na fto tAra ïAmIra mueK%ra id%ek% tAkAeno paéYa»a bAraNa, . . . üiD%| fdORaeb% nA, fJoeRo hAäyAy basaeb% nA, id%bAin%‹A fd%eb% nA_ ÅiB%manÄu| [mAõA tuel%] dupuer% Guemoeb% nA paéYa»a? iZKA| nA, mahAZay| "Shikha: 'For those three days, of course, she [a menstruating woman] is

forbidden from even looking upon her husband's face, . . .' Rudy: 'She shall not run, she shall not sit amidst gusting breezes, she shall not

sleep during the day—' Abhimanyu: (raising his head) 'She can't even take a nap in the afternoon?' Shikha: 'No, sir.'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

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B. paéYa» in DEPENDENT CLAUSES: "until, till; while, as long as; from, since"

The expressions fY% paéYa»a, Yata•aN paéYa»a, YaKaeno paéYa»a (less commonly used), and Yata•aN begin DEPENDENT CLAUSES, or at least PRECEDE the VERB, which is INFLECTED for person and tense. The NEGATIVE nA, if used, PRECEDES the VERB, though the negative need not be used at all. An English sentence of the type—"Until it stops raining, I'll stay indoors."—would quite commonly in Bangla be—"As long as it does NOT stop raining, I'll stay indoors." Both sentences imply that once it does in fact stop raining, the "I" will no longer remain inside. For example:

Çim% àKan sarakArI cAkar_sutarAMa ÇZA kair% fY%, Çim% fY%-paéYa»a cAkuir% nA CAiR%et%iC%

fs%-paéYa»a Çpain% kAhAek%ä à-ib%Saey% ik%Cu bail%eb%n nA| "I am presently a government employee—therefore, I hope that, until I quit [as

long as I do not quit] this job, you will say nothing about this matter to anyone." (Advanced Bengali, p. 267)

paéYa»a is used by itself at the END of DEPENDENT CLAUSES. Again, the NEGATIVE

nA, if present, PRECEDES the VERB, which is generally in the VERBAL NOUN form with NO CASE ENDING. The SUBJECT of the dependent clause is usually in the NOMINATIVE CASE, but may also be in the genitive:

ba˙utaHapae•% 1943 sAel%r naeB%Íaer%r par fõ%ek% 1947 sAel% ft%BAgA ib%l „atÄAKÄAta haäyA

paéYa»a àÉ paéYAaiT%É gaNa„ait%ıAn ih%sAeb% baÆIya „Aed%iZ%k musail%m lIeg%r sab fc%ey% fgOrabamay ÅúÄAy|

"In fact, the period from after November, 1943, until the defeat of the Tebhaga bill in 1947 was the most glorious phase of the Bengal Provincial Muslim League as an organization of the people." (Advanced Bengali, p. 262)

ik%… fBoer% fd%bIgae∂% mAeC%r dar nA jAnA Åbaiú% àTA fsOBAgÄa ik%nA balA YAy nA| "But until they knew the going price of fish in Debiganj that morning, it could not

be said whether this [large catch] was a real stroke of good fortune or not." (Manik Bandyopadhyay)

àkaTA ik%Cu jabAb nA pAäyA paéYa»a bAr bAr in%ej%r kaõAr punarAb&i–% kaer%| "Until he got some sort of reply, he continued repeating his own words over and

over again." (Manik Bandyopadhyay) puiR%yA fZ%S haäyA Åbaiú% tAhArA pAlA kair%yA tAmAk TAin%la| "They took turns puffing on the hookah until the tobacco was all burned up." (Manik Bandyopadhyay) pubaid%k lAl haÉyA ÖóA paéYa»a tAhArA jAl fP%il%yA fb%RAÉla| "They continued to cast their nets until the eastern skyline had reddened." (Manik Bandyopadhyay)

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úanadAsa| Ödayapura fõ%ek% iP%er% ÇsA Åbaiú%, mahArAja àkabAraä ÇmAek% rAja-saÎueK% DAek%na

nAÉ| "Dhanadasa: 'Since returning from Udaipur, the maharaja has not once

summoned me before him.'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

The PAP (instead of the verbal noun) may be used in paéYa»a constructions:

àfs% Åbaiú% fs% . . . "Since coming, she . . . " (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay) jaiœ%yA paéYa»a ÉhArA kaKaeno fkoeno BAla ij%in%s KAÉet %pAy nAÉ| "Since coming into this world, they had never had any delicacies to eat." (Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay)

Exercises—Translate:

1) Until the movie begins, I'll wait outside.

2) Until then, they'll stand in front of the cinema hall.

3) She is going to stay at the library until it closes.

4) We'll stay until midnight.

5) Till you told me, I didn't know you were ill.

IV. PERCENTAGE, FRACTIONS, BASE-16 NUMERALS, & ARITHMETIC

PERCENTAGE:

ZatakarA ("percent"—PRECEDES THE NUMBER and a specified unit, often simply the word "BAga," meaning "part, portion")

ZatakarA àk fZo BAga k&Sak "one hundred percent of the farmers" àek%bAer% ZatakarA daZa TAkA rAjaïa bARAÉyA id%la| "He increased the tax by a full ten percent." (Bankimcandra Cattopadhyay)

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nAmaTA [rAij%yA] bAMlAed%eZ%ra ZatakarA „Aya ~pic%Z BAga fm%ey%ed%raÉ õAek%| Kub sAúAraNa nAma| "Nearly twenty-five percent of the women of Bangladesh have the name [Razia].

It's a very common name." (Dilara Hashem) àed%eZ% ZatakarA in%rAnawaÉjana daÈpait%É „aõama sa»AnaiT% pu÷a fhoka_àTAÉ kAmanA kaer%na| "In this country ninety-nine percent of the couples desire that their first child be a

son." (Dilara Hashem)

ZatAMaZ (literally, "one hundred parts," but commonly used to mean "hundredths, percent"—FOLLOWS THE NUMBER)

ÇeK%r fmoT äjaen%r 0.12 ZatAMaZa fmomaGaiT%ta sAmaègI| "Of the total weight of sugar cane, 0.12 percent is a wax-related substance." (from Lesson 19, I) à CARA ÇeK%r ras ^CAkAr par kAeó%r mata fY% ba˙uiT% ÅúaHai•%‡a hay tAet%ä kuiR% ZatAMaZa

fmom õAek%| "Moreover, the woody substance which is discarded after straining the juice of the

sugar cane is twenty percent wax." (from Lesson 19, I) FRACTIONS:

BAg "part, share, portion," is used twice to express a fraction, the whole expression of which can then be used as an adjective preceding a noun:

cAr BAegr àk BAg "one fourth" fs%id%n cAr BAeg%ra it%n BAg fnotun in%ébAic%ta sadasÄa hAij%r hay in%| "Three-fourths of the newly elected representatives were absent that day." ^tAra baŒurA, àmana ik%, ^tAra mA bael%eC%na, it%in% nAik%% maen% karaet%na, bAXAil% fm%ey%rA fsO«daéYa

ÅõabA gueN%ra id%ka id%ey% ÉMer%ja fm%ey%ed%ra àka fZo BAeg%ra àka BAgaä naya| "His friends, even his mother, said that he [Michael Madhusudan Datta] felt

Bengali girls, with respect to physical beauty or other positive attributes, were not even one iota [literally, one percent] of what English girls were." (Ghulam Murshid)

Some relevant vocabulary:

Åeéú%ka/Çeÿ%ak/Çeú%k/Çú "a half" fpoyA "a fourth" Çúuil% "a half-rupee coin" is%ik% n. "a quarter coin," adj. "one quarter"

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Dajan "a dozen" hAil% "four of something" (in Bangladesh; not used in West Bengal)

fYogI«‹anAeõ%ra is%ik%-ZataÂI paer% naeg%«‹anAõa fsoma YaKana taõÄa fjogARa karaet% fc%ÛTa kaer%na, taeto id%en% taeõÄ%ra saeÆ% ik%Mbada»I Çraä fb%iZ% pair%mAeN% im%eZ% fg%eC%|

"A quarter century after Yogindranath's [biography] when Nagendranath Som tried to collect the truth of the matter, at that time hearsay had become to an even greater degree blended with the facts." (Ghulam Murshid)

BASE-16 NUMERALS:

ÇnA (a coin—no longer in use—equal to 1/16th of a rupee/taka; also 1/16th of anything), with a preceding cardinal number, is used as an adjective:

ÇT ÇnA "fifty percent, one-half [8/16ths]" à baCar mA÷a cAra ÇnA Pasal haeb%| "The harvest will only be twenty-five percent of par this year." cael% fY%et% fSoelo ÇnA É∞CA tAra| "He wanted to go, a hundred percent." (Jibanananda Das) ÇmAra kaÓanAra fh%DamA¯TAaer%ra saeÆ% ^tAra fc%hArAra im%la iC%la fSola ÇnA| "The similarity between his appearance and my imaginary headmaster's was one

hundred percent." (Satyajit Ray) tAÉ, ÇmAed%ra fpoen%ra ÇnA floek%É maen% kaer%, YAet% Ba‹aeloek%%ra fC%%el%ra BAla haya, tAet%

cASA-BUeSora fC%el%rA ÅúaHapaeõ% YAya| "That's why ninety-nine [literally, 15/16th] percent of the people think that

whatever is good for the sons of the upper classes leads the peasants' children down the path to ruination." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

à%É pai÷%%kAiT% nAem% àjamAil% hael%ä, àra maeúÄ% bAero ÇnA õAkaeto ^tAraÉ racanA| "Even though this journal was in name a joint venture, three-fourths of what

appeared there was his own writing." (Ghulam Murshid)

The old 16-anna system in base-16 numerals, although no longer in vogue, was used for accounting and can be found in the prefatory pages of older Bangla books, comparable to paginating with lower case Roman numerals (i., ii., iii. . . .):

Q 1/16th 1 anna q 2/16ths 2 annas

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x 3/16ths 3 annas | 4/16ths 4 annas |Q 5/16ths 5 annas |q 6/16ths 6 annas |x 7/16ths 7 annas ˇ 8/16ths 8 annas ˇQ 9/16ths 9 annas ˇq 10/16ths 10 annas ˇx 11/16ths 11 annas z 12/16ths 12 annas zQ 13/16ths 13 annas zq 14/16ths 14 annas zx 15/16ths 15 annas 1 16/16ths 1 rupee/taka 1Q 1 & 1/16th etc.

Also used to number prefatory pages are (a) the cardinal numbers, (b) the cardinal numbers spelled out (àka, duÉ, it%n), and (c) letters of the alphabet, beginning with the consonants (ka, Ka, ga, Ga).

ARITHMETIC: Å≠a (Å≠ a kaSA "to work out mathematical sums") fYog "addition" ib%eyog "subtraction" guN "multiplication"; nAmatA "multiplication tables" BAg "division"

it%n Çr it%n fYog karael% Cay hay| "Three plus three equals six." it%n fõ%ek% it%n bAd id%el% ZUnÄa hay| "Three from three equals zero." it%n it%n gueN% nay hay| "Three times three equals nine." it%n it%n BAg karael% àk hay| "Three divided by three equals one."

Exercises—Translate, or answer and translate:

1) Two percent of India's citizens are Sikhs.

2) fSola fõ%ek% bAra bAd id%el% kata hay?

3) You will have to use more than a third of the coal.

4) pa¥AZ fd%R gueN% pacA–ar hay|

5) What percentage of Bangladeshis are Hindus?

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LESSON 66

I. ÅiB%úAn

ÇSAô 1 [pUéba bA Ö–arASAôA na•a÷aYu°a fpOéNamAis %GaiT%ta kAl] ib%, ŸAdaZ mAes%r t&tIya mAs; àÉ mAes% sUéYa im%õun rAiZ%et% gata hay| ÇSAô 2 ib%, palAZ kAeı%r daƒa; daƒa; lAió%| 2- malay paébat| -daƒa [ÇSAô (2) ‹aHa] ib%, saÕÄAsIr bÄabahAéYa daƒa bA lAió%| "kara≠a ÇSAô daƒa jaTA ib%laiÍ%ta|' -lIlAbatI| ÇSA/ôA- [Ç-saha=sahÄa karA + Å (é–&) Ç (˚IMa)ha=ôa] ib%, pUéba bA Ö–arASAôA na•a÷a| ˚IMa -ôI -ÇSAô mAes%r pUiéN%mA| -iô%yA, -eô% ib%N, ÇSAô saÍaŒIya; ÇSAô mAes%r| 2- ÇSAô mAes% YA jaeœ%| "àek% àek% BAeÆ%, ÇSAiô%yA fY%na ËUkuƒA' -kaib%k.| -eô% gaÓa [ÇSAôamAes%r id%naguil% dIéGa àbaMa b&iÛT% bAdael% bAih%er% YAÉbAraä ÖpAy baRa õAek% nA| pUeéwa bAÆAlAr fC%el% fm%ey%rA b&ÿAid%eg%r in%kaT bais%yA bahuib%ú Å⁄ut ä Çna«dajanak gaÓa Zuin%yA ÇSAeô%r dIéGa id%basaguil% kATAÉta, à•aeN% àûp gaÓa balA ä ZunAr „aõA „Ay Öió%yA ig%yAeC%] ib%, Å⁄ut gaÓa| "ÇSAeô% gaÓa fs% kaÉ ÇmAed%r in%tA»aÉ Gaer%r ij%in%S|' -rabI.| 2- kAÓain%k kAih%nI| (3)- im%õÄAkaõA| --------------- ËUkuƒA- [ègA. BUrail%ƒA] ib%, ÇSAô mAes% jAta àk „akAr t&N, ÉhAr ÅègaBAeg% fCoTa bIj hay; ÖhA ba˚Aid%et% lAig%bAmA÷a t&N haÉet% ib%cÄuta haÉyA bae˚%É lAig%yA õAek%| êAn fB%ed% ÉhAek% Jurakueƒo bael%| bair%ZAel% ÖhAek% fl%XarA bael%| "eó%ik% sAúu ÅeÆ% àek% àek% BAeÆ% ÇSAiô%yA fY%na ËUkuƒA|' -kaib%ka.|

"bAÆAlA BASAr ÅiB%úAn,' ≥Aen%«‹aemohan dAs sa≠ ail%ta ä saÈpAid%ta (pair%baié–%ta ä pair%baiéÿ%ta iŸ%tIya saMa araN; kalakAtA: id% Éiƒ%yAn pAbail%iZ%Ma hAÖs, [1344])

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II. VERBAL NOUN (GENITIVE CASE)

Remember: Verbal nouns are treated both as nouns (can be inflected for the various cases) and as verbs (can have a subject and an object).

The SUBJECT—if expressed—of the VERBAL NOUN may be different from the subject of the main verb and may be in either the NOMINATIVE or the GENITIVE case:

ÅnuıAen%ra sUcIra maeúÄ% Çim% õAkAra fZ%Sa it%na baCara duiT% ij%in%s kaKaeno bAda paeR%in%| àka hala mA¯TAra Pulura tabalA, Çer%ka hala jaya»ara mÄAijka|

"During my last three years [lit., the last three years of 'I staying'], two items were never excluded from the [school's] program. One was Master Phulu's tabla playing, another was Jayanta's magic." (Satyajit Ray)

A. WITH POSTPOSITIONS—in particular, Çeg%, paer%/par, and jaenÄ%/janÄa: Çeg%, paer%/par "before" and "after"

ÇsabAr Çeg% ÇmAek% fPon karaeb%na| "Please phone me before you come." (Intro Bengali, p. 173) àTA fk%nabAr paer% Çim% Çsaba| "I shall come after buying it." (Intro Bengali, p. 176) äed%r ÇsabAr Çeg% ÇmAek% fPon karaeb%n| "Please phone me before they come." tuim% àTA fk%nabAr paer% Çim% Çsaba| "I shall come after you buy this."

jaenÄ%/janÄa "for, for the purpose of"—sometimes used in place of the infinitive:

Öin% kalakAtA fõ%ek% Åen%k rakam KAbAr ä im%iÛT% flokajan KAäyAenor jaenÄ% Çin%ey%eC%n| "He has had many kinds of food and sweets brought from Kolkata to feed the

people." (Intro Bengali, p. 368) or

KAbAr ä im%iÛT% flokajan KAäyAet% Çin%ey%eC%n| "He has had food and sweets brought to feed the people."

àÉ bael% fs% Gaer% òukaelo mAek% àÉ KabaraTA fd%bAr jaenÄ%| "Saying this, she entered the room to give her mother the news." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay) kaey%kajan naranArI nabAgata Çga…kaed%r fd%KabAr janÄ aàes% jaeRo haey%eC%| "Several men and women gathered to look at the newly arrived visitors." (Anon.)

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B. WITH A FOLLOWING NOUN

mu˙APA, ftomAr àKan bARIet% YAbAr darakAr ÇeC% ik%? "Mustafa, is it necessary for you to go home now?" (Intro Bengali, p. 198)

In such constructions, the following noun may be, but need not be, part of a "noun + verb" compound verb, e.g., bÄabaêA karA, v. "to make arrangements; to arrange for"

Çim% Zunalum fY% ftomarA im%nur ib%ey%et% Åen%k flokajan KAäyAbAr bÄabaêA kaer%eCo| "I heard that you have made arrangements to feed many people at Minu's

wedding." (Intro Bengali, p. 367)

Frequently, but not always, the "verbal noun + genitive" is rendered into English by an infinitive, as in the examples above. Further examples of the VERBAL NOUN in the GENITIVE with a following noun: Åiú%kAr6 n. "authority, rights"

„aõamataHa àÉ ÇÉen%r ŸArA „aetÄ%k k&Sakaek%É fBoT fd%äyAr Åiú%kAr fd%äyA hayain%| "First, the right to vote has not been given to each and every peasant by means of

this law." (Anon.) Åbasar n. "opportunity, leisure time"

Bay-ba˙uTA maen%r maeúÄ% fòokabAr Åbasar pAy in%| "Fear didn't get the opportunity to enter [my] mind." (Saradindu Bandyopadhyay)

ÅeBÄ%s/ÅBÄAs n. "habit, practice"

ÇlAp kair%bAr ÅBÄAs iC%la nA| "[I] wasn't in the habit of striking up an acquaintance." (Anon.)

The verbal noun without the genitive is encountered also, e.g., kAj karA ÇmAr ÅBÄAs nAÉ| "It is not my habit to work." (Saradindu Bandyopadhyay)

6If the noun Åiú%kAr is made into the adjective Åiú%kArI ("authorized, empowered"), then the infinitive, not the verbal noun + genitive, is used, e.g., tArA fBoT id%et% Åiú%kArI nan| "They are not authorized to vote." (See also Lesson 13, II, C, "Infinitives + Some Predicate-Adjectives.")

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ÉiÆ%t n. "indication, trace, hint"

nAnA tAek% Çero kAeC% saer% basAr ÉiÆ%t kaer%n "Grandfather indicated to her to sit closer." (Dilara Hashem)

Ée∞C%/É∞CA n. "wish, desire"

baTaóAkur Çr óAkuraepo dujaen%raÉ Ée∞C% nahabat ÇnAenor ik%… äek% ik%Cuet%É rAjI karAeno YAe∞C% nA|

"My husband's elder and younger brother both want to have the instruments brought, but he cannot be persuaded at all." (Intro Bengali, p. 370)

ÖedÄoga n. "preparation, effort; the state of being about to do"

tAhArAa gaüra daiR% Kuil%bAra ÖfdÄoga kair%et%É ik%… fs% ÅkaìAö fsojA Öió%yA ^dARAÉyA Öÿatakae«ó% bail%yA Öió%la, daiR%et% hAta id%eyo nA balaic%_

"As they were preparing to untie the cow's rope, he [Gafur] suddenly stood up straight and in an authoritative voice shouted, 'Don't lay a hand on the rope, I tell you—'" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

Öpa£am n. "the state of being about to commence"

PuTA fnOkAr mata fd%bIr saMasAr úIer% úIer% maij%bAr Öpa£am kair%et%eC%| "Like a leaky boat, Devi's world was on the verge of sinking slowly." (Anon.)

ÖpAy n. "way, means, method"

hair%dAsaek% fl%KAr ÖpAy fn%É| "There is no opportunity to write to Haridas." (Satyajit Ray)

fc%ÛTA n. "effort, attempt, trying"

fs%É KAtA Bair%ey% ftolabAr fc%ÛTAy dAüN ÖösAeh% Çim% Ç’a-in%eyog karalAm| "With great enthusiam I threw myself into trying to fill up that notebook."

(Anon.) jAyagA n. "place"

fs% ǺAd rAKabAr ik% Çr jAyagA õAek%? "Is there enough space to contain that utter joy?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 112)

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darakAr n. "need, necessity"—(an example given above)

Note: darakAr allows for several grammatical constructions. As a noun, without an expressed verb (ÇeC%), it can take the verbal noun +

genitive construction:

mAnuS YaKan saZarIer% baétamAn taKan bAnAeno kaõAr maeúÄ% tAek% ^Kuej% fb%RAbAr darakAr? "When human beings are present in the flesh, is there need to search them

out within fiction?" (Rabindranath Tagore) Though there is the ADJECTIVE darakArI, the NOUN darakAr also behaves—in the

PRESENT TENSE AFFIRMATIVE ONLY—as an ADJECTIVE, allowing for the verbal noun without genitive construction, e.g.,

à kaõA fj%eno fY% ftomAr pUéba bAMalAr ^gAey% ik%CukAl kATAeno darakAr| "Believe me, it's important that you spend [literally, "you need to spend"]

a little time in an East Bengal village." (Intro Bengali, p. 358) In the negative and in all tenses other than the present, the verbal noun must be in

the genitive case:

ÇmAr pUéba bAMalAr ^gAey% ik%CukAl kATAenor darakAr fnÉ| "I don't have to spend time in an East Bengal village."

„ayAs n. "an effort, endeavor, toil"

kAih%nIr Å»aién%ih%ta iZ%•aNIya Öpaed%ZaiT%ek%É iZ%ÓI baR akaer% floek%r sAmaen% tuel% úarabAr „ayAs fp%ta|

"The artist used to endeavor to present before the people in bold strokes the advice to be learned from within the story." (Advanced Bengali, p. 186)

„a˙Ab n. "proposal"

àrapar „a˙Ab àes%eC%, 25 mAéc Åiú%eb%Zan basabAr| "Then a proposal arrived, to convene the session on March 25th." (Advanced Bengali, p. 273)

bÄabaêA n. "arrangements, preparations"—(an example given above, repeated here)

Çim% Zunalum fY% ftomarA im%nur ib%ey%et% Åen%k flokajan KAäyAbAr bÄabaêA kaer%eCo| "I heard that you have made arrangements to feed many people at Minu's

wedding." (Intro Bengali, p. 367)

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suib%eú%/suib%úA n. "convenience, opportunity; ease" Åsuib%eú%/Åsuib%úA n. "inconvenience, difficulty"7

àKan ÇmAed%r fd%eZ% fkon` fkon` ib%Saey% kAj kair%bAr suib%úA ÇeC% tAhA àKAn fõ%ek% buiJ%et% pAir%et%iC% nA|

"From here [England] I am unable to know in which fields at present in our country there are opportunities to work." (Advanced Bengali, p. 267)

^gAey% õAkA KAäyAr ba√a Åsuib%eú%| "In the village there is very great difficulty of food and accommodation." Or: "Staying in a village and eating there can present problems." Literally: "There is a very great inconvenience to live and eat in the village." (Intro Bengali, p. 354)

sueYog, fYo n. "chance, opportunity"

kalakAtAy õAkAet ^gAey% YAäyAra fYo iCla nA| "While in Kolkata there was no opportunity to go to the village."

C. WITH THE VERBS ÇeC%/fn%É AND nay: Constructions of this type are restricted to sentences with TRANSITIVE VERBS that have an EXPRESSED DIRECT OBJECT.

ÇmAr ftomAek% katakaguelo kaõA balAr ÇeC%| "I have to talk to you." (Intro Bengali, p. 203) ÇmAr Çr ik%Cu bail%bAr nAÉ| "I have nothing more to say." (Advanced Bengali, p. 267) . . . à kalakAtAr gaÆAy ik% àk TAn ÇeC% tA fBolabAr nay| ". . . there is some sort of attraction to Kolkata's Ganges which is not to be

forgotten." (Advanced Bengali, p. 109)

In premodern Bangla, the verbal noun with the bA ending + fr% functioned as a modern Bangla infinitive:

mAir%bAer% cAha "you want to strike" (Kasidasi Mahabharata)

7These nouns can also be construed as adjectives and used with the infinitive; see Lesson 14, II, "Infinitives."

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gaiN%bAer% pAer% "he is able to count" (Kasidasi Mahabharata) fd%iK%bAer% pAy "he gets to see" (Satyanarayan Pancali)

Exercises—Translate:

1) àkaiT% fC%el% tAek% is%en%mA fd%KAbAr „a˙Ab fd%y| (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

2) fdoS guN ib%cAr karabAr ^tAr Å⁄ut •amatA iC%la| (Rabindranath Tagore)

3) Çim% CARA ftoek% fd%KabAr fY% Çr fk%Ö fn%É basuŒarA, tAÉ Çim% àta BAib%|

(Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

4) fs% sab Çib%ÛkAr karabAr saK ÇmAr fn%É| (Anon.)

5) à'kaõA ta àkamA÷a ïAmI CARA Çr kAhAraä in%kaT Kuil%yA bail%bAr naeh%|

(Asutosh Bhattacarya)

6) basuŒarAraä ïae·%r fd%KAr bayas| (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

III. kaõA This word, which glosses as "word, utterance, statement," has many different meanings in different contexts. Review Intro Bengali, pp. 360-61, and take some time to read over the various renderings listed in a dictionary, including expressions built off of this word, particularly:

kaõA fd%äyA "to give one's word, promise" kaõA„asaeÆ% "incidentally, by the way, in the course of conversation" kaõAmata "in keeping with one's word or promise" kaõAsAih%tÄa "prose literature, fiction" fmoT kaõA "the gist, the subject in a nut shell"

As a POSTPOSITION requiring the GENITIVE on the preceding word, it can mean:

A. "about, concerning":

Çim% Åsuib%eú%r kaõA BAbaiC% nA| "I'm not thinking about inconvenience." (Intro Bengali, p. 355)

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ÇmarA fs% id%en%r kaõA Buil%ba nA| "We shall not forget [about] those days back then." (Advanced Bengali, p. 107)

B. related to A. but slightly different, "the matter of, the subject": il%KabAr kaõAÉ fto äeó% nA| "The matter of writing does not even arise." (Anon.) ftomAr maen% ÇeC% ÇmAr YAbAr kaõA? "Do you recall [the matter of] my going?" (Satyajit Ray)

C. the action (expressed by the VERBAL NOUN) is SUPPOSED or SCHEDULED or DUE TO TAKE PLACE or has the POSSIBILITY OF TAKING PLACE:

ÇgAmI 19eZ% fs%p`eT%Íar fõ%ek% ÅeÙ%il%yAr iÁ%seb%n Zahaer %fg%m`s Zuü haäyAr kaõA| "The games are due to begin in Brisbane, Australia, from the coming 19th of

September." (from Lesson 5, I) àÉ kaõA fgOradAsa basAek%ra nA-jAnAra kaõA naya| "It is inconceivable that Gour Das Bysack did not know about this matter." (Ksetra Gupta) ij%in%sapa–ar fto Çr ÅÄAi◊%n8 úaer% ib%eZ%S paeR% õAkAr kaõA nay| "The things are not just supposed to lie there so long." (Satyajit Ray) kueRo pAKIr iZ%kArIrA fY% gAn gAeh%, tAhAÉ kueRo iZ%kArIr gAn haÉbAr kaõA| ik%…

„ak&tapae•% kueRo iZ%kArIr gAen%r kaõAguil% ib%eZ%S Åeéõ% bÄabah&ta hay| "The song which hunters of the kuro bird sing should by all rights be called 'The

song of the kuro hunters.' But in fact, that rubric is used in a specialized sense." (Advanced Bengali, p. 205)

Åiú%eb%Zan ÖeŸoúan karAr janÄa f„%is%eD%e∆T%r 1 mAéc ^fpOeC% YAbAr kaõA| "The President was scheduled to arrive March 1st to open the session [of the

National Assembly]." (Advanced Bengali, p. 271)

The HUMAN SUBJECT of this verbal noun—if expressed—is in the GENITIVE:

BagI| Çpain% ik% bal`eC%n? Ba°a| nA| àmana ik%Cu naya| bail% fm%ey%iT% àKAen% kai◊%n9 a õAk`eb%| BagI| ära àKAen% àka mAsa õAkabAra kaõA ÇAeC%|

8Contraction, used in colloquial speech, of àta id%n| 9Contraction, used in colloquial speech, of kata id%n|

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"Bhogi: 'What were you saying just now?' Bhaktaprasad: 'No, it's nothing. I was just saying, how long will the girl be

staying here?' Bhogi: 'The plans are for her to be here for a month.'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

Exercises—Rewrite the following sentences using kaõA and translate:

1) kAr saÍeŒ% balaCa?

2) fs% fY% kAelo pAin% pAr haey% ib%el%et% YAeb% nA ÇmAy „ait%≥A kaer%eC%|

3) rAÕA karAr ib%Say in%ey% ÇmarA paer% ÇelocanA karaba| Translate, using kaõA:

4) I was supposed to meet with the new teachers.

5) Twelve lessons are to be completed during this quarter.

6) In his letter he didn't write much about himself.

IV. COMMON TERMS OF ADDRESS AND REFERENCE (other than genuine kinship terms) —among Muslims: ÇpA—the Bengali Muslim term for elder sister. Though both ÇpA and bubu mean elder sister

and are used as genuine kinship terms, ÇpA (not bubu) tends to be the term of ADDRESS used when speaking to an adult female who is unrelated to you—in a government office environment, for instance. (See id%id|%)

ÇpA, TAkA jamA karaet% cAÉel% ÇmAek% ik% karaet% haeb%? "Miss/Sister, what must I do if I wish to deposit money?"

KAlAmA—the Bengali Muslim term for aunt/mother's sister. In Bangladesh, women of

approximately your own mother's age may be addressed affectionately and respectfully as your "auntie." (See mAsImA|)

KAlAmA, Çis%, fk%man? "Auntie, I'm going now, OK?"

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janAb—an honorific title for Bengali Muslim men, something akin to "Mr.," preceding the entire name. It is used in writing or in speech at very formal occasions. (See èZI, èZIYu°|a)

janAb Çbadul mAÕAn Fsay%d àÉ baCaer%r pura˘Ar fp%ey%eC%n| "Mr. Abdul Mannan Syed received this year's prize."

fb%gam—the honorific title of reference for Bengali Muslim women, counterpart of both janAb and

sAeh%b| fb%gam precedes the full name and is comparable to "Ms., Miss, and Mrs." (See èZImatI|)

fb%gam suiP%yA kAmAl änAr kaib%tA paeR% ZunAeb%n| "Mrs. Sufia Kamal will read her poetry."

BAÉ—"brother," the most common term of ADDRESS for any male in Bangladesh. (See dAdA|)

It is also appended as an honorific suffix to the "first name" of Bengali Muslim men. With this honorific suffix, the speaker is implying the respect and some of the closeness one would feel for an elder brother. (See dA|)

fblAl BAÉ, sŒÄAr idek cel Çesn| "Belal, come over in the early evening."

BAbI—the Bengali Muslim term for elder brother's wife. The term of ADDRESS and

REFERENCE for the wife of a friend who is older than you. Usually the name of the woman is prefixed, but to specify which friend's wife is being referred to, the name of the husband is sometimes used. (See baÖid%|)

Çin%s BAbI ik% camaökAr ip%eó% f^r%eú% ÇmAek% KAäyAel%n! "What great sweet cakes Anis's [Prof. Anisuzzaman's] wife prepared for me!"

im%\A, im%yA—an honorific term of ADDRESS and REFERENCE for a Bengali Muslim, usually,

though not always, an older and religious person; also im%\A sAeh%b| The last element in a Muslim man's full name may be im\A%|

nAÑm im%\A, nAmAj paeR%eC%n ik%? "Naim Mia, have you said your prayers?"

sAeh%b, sAb—an honorific suffix, appended to the "last name" of a Bengali Muslim man (or

foreign man, usually Westerner), something akin to "Mr." (See bAbu|) sAb (pronounced with the dental "s" as in "sigh") is the more informal form of sAeh%b (pronounced with the palatal "s" as in "shy") and is heard often in conversation among friends.

fcOúurI sAb, kaKan iP%raeb%n? "When are you coming back, Mr. Caudhuri?"

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fcOúurI sAeh%b àkaTu bAed% iP%er% Çsaeb%n bael% fg%eC%n| "Mr. Caudhuri10 said he would be back in a short while."

By itself, sAeh%b is an honorific term of ADDRESS and REFERENCE for a Muslim man (or foreign man, usually Westerner). (See also maZAy|)

sAeh%b, ik% fY% kaer%n nA! "Mister, you do the damn'dest things!"

—among Hindus (and Christians and Buddhists) dA—the shortened form of dAdA or elder/eldest brother, appended to the "first name" of a Bengali

Hindu man. With this honorific suffix, the speaker is implying the respect and some of the closeness that one would feel for an elder brother. (See BAÉ|)

rAmadA, ÇpanAr mA-bAbA fkoõAy õAek%n? "Ram-da, where do your mother and father live?"

dAdA—the Bengali Hindu term for elder/eldest brother. It is the most common term of address in

West Bengal used for hailing any adult male, especially someone whom you do not know personally. (See BAÉ|)

dAdA, à bAsaTA fkoõAy YAy? "Brother, where does this bus go?"

id%—the shortened form of id%id% or elder/eldest sister, appended to the "first name" of a Bengali

Hindu woman. With this suffix, the speaker is implying the respect and some of the closeness that one would feel for an elder sister. (See ÇpA|)

ïAtIid%, mAP kaün| Çr fK%et% pAraiC% nA| "Svati-di, please excuse me. I simply can't eat any more."

id%id%—the Bengali Hindu term for elder/eldest sister. It is the most common term of ADDRESS

in West Bengal used for speaking to any adult female, especially someone whom you do not know personally. (See ÇpA|)

id%id%, àKAen% basun nA| Çim% nAmaiC%| "Miss/Sister, why don't you sit here. I'm getting off [the bus]."

10"Chaudhuri" (also spelled a number of ways) is both a Muslim and a Hindu padabI ("title, last name").

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baÖid%—the Bengali Hindu term for elder brother's wife. A term of REFERENCE and ADDRESS for the wife of a friend whom you would address with the dA suffix. (See BAbI|)

baÖid%, nIer%nadA ik% fb%ir%ey% fg%eC%n? "Sister-in-law, has Niren left already?"

bAbu—an honorific suffix, appended to the "first name" of Bengali Hindu men, something akin to

"Mr." (See sAeh%b|)

rAmabAbu, ÇpanAr mA-bAbA fkoõAy õAek%n? "Ram, where do your mother and father live?" (Intro Bengali, p. 130)

With bAbu, the verb must be honorific. The obverse is generally true: if the 2nd-person honorific verb is used and if the person is addressed by name, the bAbu suffix must be appended.

HOWEVER, there are those modern, educated individuals in both Bangladesh and West Bengal who use an honorific verb and the name but no honorific suffix (bAbu, dA, sAeh%b, BAÉ). You may hear:

rAm, ÇpanAr mA-bAbA fkoõAy õAek%n? "Ram, where do your mother and father live?"

maZAy, also maZAÉ (from mahAZay)—an honorific term of ADDRESS for a Bengali Hindu man.

àÉ fY%, maZAy, ÇmarA cA KAi∞C%| àk kAp cA KAeb%n fto? "Hey there, my good man, we're having tea. Won't you have a cup?"

Like bAbu, maZAy may also be appended as an honorific suffix, usually to the "last name," and means something akin to "Mr."

fcOúurI maZAy àkaTu Çeg% cael% fg%eC%n (or fg%%eC%)| "Mr. Caudhuri left a little while ago."

When REFERRING IN CASUAL CONVERSATION to someone whom you would address as Çpain%, the 3rd-person verb may be either honorific or ordinary. (On formal occasions the person would definitely be referred to in the honorific.) In other words, when SPEAKING ABOUT someone, you need not be as "respectful"—from a grammatical standpoint—as you must be when SPEAKING DIRECTLY TO that same person.

fcOúurI maZAy àkaTu Çeg% cael% fg%eC%n| "Mr. Caudhuri left a little while ago." or fcOúurI maZAy àkaTu Çeg% cael% fg%eC%| "Mr. Caudhuri left a little while ago."

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mAsImA—the Bengali Hindu term for aunt/mother's sister. In West Bengal, women of approximately your own mother's age may be addressed affectionately and respectfully as your "auntie." (See KAlAmA|)

mAis%mA, Çis%, fk%man? "Auntie, I'm going now, OK?"

èZI, èZIYu°a, èZImAn—èZI (or èZIYu°a), an honorific title for Bengali Hindu men, comparable to "Mr."

and preceding the entire name. It is used in writing or in speech at very formal occasions. (See janAb|) èZImAn, the same title applied to minors.

èZIYu°a fjÄoit% basu baétamAen% paic%m baeÆ%r muKÄamaÀI| "Mr. Jyoti Basu is at present West Bengal's Chief Minister."

èZImatI, èZIYu°A—èZImatI is the honorific title for Bengali Hindu women, the counterpart of

èZI/èZIYu°a, maZAy, and bAbu| èZImatI precedes the full name and is comparable to "Ms., Miss, and Mrs." (See fb%gam|) èZIYu°A, the feminine form of èZIYu°, is equivalent to èZImatI but less commonly used.

èZImatI Éi«d%rA gAŒI in%ébAcaen% ^dARAel%n| "Mrs. Indira Gandhi has become a candidate."

—among all Bengalis DA°Ar, Dak`Tar—"doctor." Many people use the first spelling and pronunciation to designate both

medical doctors and those who hold a Ph.D. degree. Some people make a distinction in both spelling and pronunciation between physicians (DA°Ar) and doctors of philosophy (Dak`Tar). The former is abbreviated DAHa, the latter DaHa; both abbreviations precede the name of the person, either the "last name" or the full name.

DAHa ib%úAnaca«‹a rAy paic%m baeÆ%r muKÄamaÀI iC%el%n| "Dr. Bidhancandra Ray was West Bengal's Chief Minister."

id%id%maiN%, ÇpA—both are terms of ADDRESS and REFERENCE for female teachers and

professors, the first, for Hindus, the latter, for Muslims. The terms im%es%s ("Mrs.") and im%s ("Miss") are used to address and refer to female professors without a doctorate.

BAÉ—"brother," is used in both West Bengal and Bangladesh as a term of ADDRESS between

men and between women.

Çaer BAÉ, ik kreCn ik| "Hey there, brother/sister, what in the world are you doing?"

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fm%masAeh%b, fm%masAb, fm%m—the first two are terms of ADDRESS; all three are terms of REFERENCE for sophisticated, upper-class, often Westernized Bengali (or foreign, usually Western) women. (See sAeh%b, sAb|)

tACARA katakaguil% fm%em%r Caib% ÇeC%, tAed%r ÅeÆ% is%l`ek%r ÁAª aZAiR% àbaMa mAõAy kAelo

sUtAr ÇlulAiy%ta paraculA mayadAr kAÉ id%yA ÇiT%yA fd%äyA haÉyAeC%| ik%… ÉhAet%ä tAed%r mueK% dura»a fm%m-em%m-BAb òAkA paeR% nAÉ, fs%janÄa fjor kair%yA nAk i~búAÉyA fd%äyA haÉyAeC%|

"Besides that, there were pictures of several European women, figures draped in Brahma-Samaj-style silk saris, and on their heads were stuck with wheat paste disheveled wigs of black cotton threads. But even then, the strong Western attitude in their expression was not concealed, and for that reason their noses had been forcibly pierced [and a nose ornament inserted]." (Advanced Bengali, p. 137)

sÄAr, sAr; mAÛTAr/mA¯TAr maZAy—all are terms of ADDRESS and REFERENCE for male teachers

and professors. These terms are common in spoken Bangla; for the more formal terms, see Lesson 7, IV, "Common University & Government Terminology."

sAr, Çpain% ik% kAlaek%, sAr, bAMalA àkAeDmIet% ba°&tA id%e∞C%n, sAr? "Sir, are you tomorrow, sir, lecturing at the Bangla Academy, sir?"

Multiple usage of "sir" is a sign of greater respect.

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LESSON 77

I. „a˙AbAbalI

pu˙ak „akAZanA ä ib%£ay bÄabaêAek% jAtIya ÖÕait%r paeõ% bail%ıa BUim%kA ä dAiy%‘a pAlaen%r Öe◊ %eZÄ% ÇmarA kaét&pae•%r suib%eb%canAr janÄa in%Èn il%iK%ta „a˙Ab fp%Z karaiC%_

(ka) DAkaGar fõ%ek% pu˙ak ib%e£%tAed%r hAet% baÉ ib%taraN bÄabaêA fP%rat fd%äyAr bÄApAer% mahAmAnÄa rAÙpait% ä mAnanIya „aúAnamaÀIr fmOiK%k ÇçAs lAeB% ÇmarA ib%eZ%S Çnai«d%ta ä k&ta≥a| bAMalAed%eZ%r hAjAr hAjAr pu˙ak ib%e£%tAed%r durabaêA in%rasanakaeÓ% Åib%laeÍ% àÉ bÄApAer% „aeyojanIya bÄabaêA ègahaN karA fhok| (Ka) ÅnÄAnÄa ÖÕayanaZIl fd%eZ%r mata pu˙ak „akAZanA ä iZ%•AõéIed%r bÄabah&ta kAgaej% Baétuik% „adAen%r bÄabaêA karA fhok| (ga) bAMalAed%Z ˘ul fT%k`¯Ta`buk fboéDaek% iZ%•A ÖÕayaen%r f•%e÷% YaõAYaõa BUim%kA pAlaen%r sueYog id%ey% YAbatIya ˘ula pAóÄa baÉ „akAeZ%r dAiy%‘a bAMalAed%Z pu˙ak „akAZak ä ib%e£%tA saim%it%r sadasÄaed%r hAet% ÅépaN karA fhok| . . . . (óa) jAtIya ÖÕayaen%r ïAeéõ% pu˙aek%r ÇmadAnI ä ra‡AnI nIit% sahajatara karA fhok| pair%eZ%eS% ÇmAed%r in%eb%dan, jAtIya iZ%•A ä saMa˘&it%r ÖÕayaen% ÇmarA pu˙ak „akAZak ä ib%e£%tAgaN saÆata BUim%kA, dAiy%‘a ä kaétabÄa pAlan karaet% cAÉ| fs%janÄa saMaiÚ%ÛTa sakal mahael%r ZueB%∞CA ä sahaeYoig%tA kAmanA kair%| úanÄabAd| sakalaek% úanÄabAd|

fs%rAjul hak lAlakuió%, òAkA sAúAraN saÈpAdak 11/2/82 bAMalAed%Z pu˙ak „akAZak ä ib%e£%tA saim%it%

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II. EMPHASIS There are a number of ways to emphasize a word within a sentence or the sentence itself. In spoken Bangla, of course, intonation and gesturing can add emphasis. In the written language, punctuation, such as an exclamation mark at the end of a sentence or quotation marks around individual words or a phrase, helps convey emphasis (see also Lesson 1, III, "Punctuation"). Other ways of adding emphasis in either spoken or written Bangla are by using one or more of the following (see also Lesson 20, IV, "Interjections, Expletives, and Other Emphatics"): A. MODIFIERS (adjectives and adverbs)

Çim% â kAjaTA karaba| "I'll do that particular task." (additional emphasis) Çim% â jaürI kAjaTA karaba| "I'll do that important task." (still further emphasis) Çim% â Kub jaürI kAjaTA karaba| "I'll do that very important task."

B. INVERTED SYNTAX Though syntax may be varied for a number of reasons, one effect of such change is to call attention to the word or words "out of order," thereby giving slight emphasis to it/them. Normal syntax: (1)subject (2)adverb-time (3)adverb-place (4)indirect object (5)direct object (6)verb (7)negative For example:

(1)ÇmAr baRa BAÉ (2)kAlaek% (3)ÇmAed%r puraeno bAiR%et% (4)mAmAetoebonaek% (5)fb%nArasI ZAiR%TA (6)id%ey% Çsaeb%n|

"My elder brother is going to take the Benares sari over to our old house tomorrow and give it to our cousin."

Compare with the following where slight emphasis is given to the word(s) relocated:

(2) kAlaek% (1)ÇmAr BAÉ (3)puraeno bAiR%et (5)ZAiR%TA (6)id%ey% Çsaeb%n|

(1)ÇmAr BAÉ (3)puraeno bAiR%et% (5)ZAiR%TA (2) kAlaek (6)id%ey% Çsaeb%n|

(1)ÇmAr BAÉ (3)puraeno bAiR%et (5)ZAiR%TA (6)id%ey% Çsaeb%n (2) kAlaek| "It is TOMORROW that my brother is taking the sari to the old house."

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(3) puraeno bAiR%et% (1)ÇmAr BAÉ (2)kAlaek% (5)ZAiR%TA (6)id%ey% Çsaeb%n| "It is TO THE OLD HOUSE that my brother is taking the sari tomorrow."

(5) ZAiR%TA (1)ÇmAr BAÉ (2)kAlaek (3)puraeno bAiR%et% (6)id%ey% Çsaeb%n| "It is THE SARI that my brother is going to take to the old house."

C. É SUFFIX This suffix may be added to any word to give emphasis. It follows all other suffixes or inflectional endings the word might have:

ÇmAir% baRa BAÉ "my[!] elder brother" kAlaek%É "tomorrow[!]" fb%nArasIÉ ZAiR%TA "the Benares[!] sari" id%ey% Çsaeb%n%É "he shall[!] deliver it" ÇmAr BAÉÉ puraeno bAiR%et% ZAiR%TA id%ey% Çsaeb%n| "My brother [and no one else!] is going to take the sari to the old house." ÇmAr BAÉ puraeno bAiR%et%É ZAiR%TA id%ey% Çsaeb%n| "My brother is going to take the sari to the old house [and nowhere else!]." ÇmAr BAÉ puraeno bAiR%et% ZAiR%TAÉ id%ey% Çsaeb%n| "My brother is going to take the sari [specifically the sari!] to the old house." ÇmAr BAÉ puraeno bAiR%et% ZAiR%TA id%ey%É Çsaeb%n| "My brother is going to take [for sure!] the sari to the old house." Çim% cail%t ä sAúu BASA duÉÉ iZ%KaiC%lum| "I was learning both[!] the colloquial and the literary language." (Intro Bengali, p. 316)

D. LENGTHENED CONSONANTS A certain few words may be made emphatic either by adding the É suffix, by doubling an internal consonant, or by doing both:

baRa "big; very" ba√a "very big; extremely" kaKaeno . . . nA "never" ka•aeNo . . . nA "never ever"

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fkoaõAä . . . nA "nowhere" fkoa“Aä . . . nA "nowhere at all" ik%Cu . . . nA "none, nothing" ik%∞Cu . . . nA "nothing at all" kata "so much, a lot" (See also section F below.) ka–a "so very much" baRa fb%iZ% dAm| "That's too much." (Intro Bengali, p. 147) ba√a fb%iZ% dAm| "That's much too much." ba√aÉ fb%iZ% dAm| "That's ridiculously high priced." ^gAey% õAkA KAäyAr bae√o Åsuib%eú%| "In the village there is very great difficulty of food and accommodation." (Intro Bengali, p. 354) mAhutaTulIr rA˙A, sAtaraäjA Çr ÇémAnIeTolAr paõ, nayAbAjAr, bAbur bAjAr,

ÉslAmapur, cakabAjAr, nabAbapur, paTuyATulI, ^tAtI bAjAr_ka–a paõ, ka–a su«dar su«dar rA˙A, ka–a Åil%gail%|

"Mahuttuli Road, Satraoja and Armanitola Streets, Naya Bazaar, Babu Bazaar, Islampur, ca*wk Bazaar, Nababpur, Patuyatuli, Tanti Bazaar—so very many streets, so many charming roads, and all the many, many lanes and byways." (Shamsur Rahman)

E. ä SUFFIX & paéYa»a Almost any word may be given emphasis of a sort by adding ä, which translates as "also, and, even, too." Like the emphatic suffix É, the emphatic suffix ä follows all other suffixes or inflectional endings the word might have. The emphatic suffixes É and ä cannot both be used on the same word.11 Two common occurrences of the ä suffix are in the adverbs àKaeno "even now, yet, still" and taKaeno "even then, still then." Further examples:

tuim%ä ik% gAn gAÉeb%? "Will you also sing songs?" (Intro Bengali, p. 115) àKan ÇmarAä kalakAtAy õAik%| "Now we also live in Kolkata." (Intro Bengali, p. 131)

11A separate ä suffix—different from the emphatic ä—functions to transform certain interrogatives into indefinites, which then can, and often do, have the emphatic É added; review Lesson 3, II.

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fs% ik% Çejo ftomAek% ÉMair%jI fZ%KAeb%? "Is she going to teach you English again today?" (Intro Bengali, p. 201) fs%ä ik% ftomAek% ÉMair%jI fZ%KAeb%? "Is she too going to teach you English?" fs% ik% ftomAek%ä ÉMair%jI fZ%KAeb%? "Is she going to teach English to you too?" fs% ik% ÉMair%jIä fZ%KAeb%? "Is she going to teach English too?" (fs% ÉMair%jI paRaeC%, tA Çim% jAin%|) fs% ik% ÉMair%jI fZ%KAeb%ä? "(I know she is studying English.) Is she going to teach it too?"

The POSTPOSITION paéYa»a, requiring no special case ending on the preceding word, carries the meaning of (a) "up to, until, as far as; from then on, from there on," as well as (b) "also, even, too, including"; see Lesson 5, III. With the (a) meaning, paéYa»a often accompanies expressions of time (Çj paéYa»a "until today") and place (bAiR% paéYa»a "up to the house"). With the (b) meaning, paéYa»a is found with nouns and pronouns of all sorts. Though (a) and (b) overlap in meaning, (b) tends to imply something contrary to expectations, "pushing the limits, extending the boundaries."

N.B.: The meaning of the NOUN paéYa»a is "limit, extremity."

tuim% paéYa» ik% gAn gAÉeb%? "Will you also [you who never sing] sing songs?" ÇmarA paéYa» àKan kalakAtAy õAik%| "Even we [who were not urban dwellers] now live in Kolkata." fs% paéYa»a ÉMair%jI fZ%KAeb%| "Even she [whom one may not expect to teach it] is going to teach English." fs% ÉMair%jI paéYa»a fZ%KAeb%| "She is going to teach even English [not her main subject]."

F. INTERROGATIVES ik% and kata, used RHETORICALLY for EMPHASIS:

â ZAiR%TA kata su«dar! "How beautiful that sari is!"

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Çr fs% kI ûp! "And what a beautiful form it is!" (from section I above) kI fZoBA, kI CAyA fgo, kI fë%ha, kI mAyA fgo_ kI ^Çcal ib%CAey%Ca baeT%r mUel%, nadIr kUel% kUel%| "What beauty, what cooling shade, what love and affection, Mother— What a sari you spread out beneath the banyan, along the river banks." (Rabindranath Tagore) fs% kataÉ nA sAiú%yA iC%la| "She had tried so hard!" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

G. a'Kan/Kanaa, ADDED TO VERB (abbr. of àKan "now") meaning "right away! for sure! indeed!":

maiN%mAlA balael%_"Çim%É nA haya Öeó% paRaba"Kana, . . . ' "Manimala said—'Well then, I myself shall get up, . . . '"

(Advanced Bengali, p. 146) Ç∞CA, fdob 'Kanaa àkaTu paer%| "OK, OK, I'll give [it to you] in a minute!" (Anon., in Sanibarer Cithi)

jAæabI| nA, ik%Cu darakAra fn%É| àKAnakAra flKApaRA fZ%Sa kaer% fn%_ib%el%et% YAäyAr

bÄabaêA paer% haeb%'Kana| "Jahnabi: 'No, there's no need whatsoever. Finish your studies here—

arrangements for going to England will come later, upon my word!'" (Banaphul)

fP%ra kAla sakAel% àkabAra àid%ka haey% YAeboKana| "I'll come by this way again tomorrow morning, for sure." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

Exercises—Give emphasis to the word in quotes:

1) àkeZo TAkAr fb%iZ%| tA "baRa' fb%iZ% dAm|

2) tuim% Åman bAej% baÉ Çr "kaKaeno' ik%eno nA|

3) fs% ÇmAed%r saeÆ% "iC%la' nA| Translate:

4) àÉ nAgaraedolA CARA õAkata fm%ir%-ego-rAÖƒ, àeroe‚%en%r GUiéN%, fK%lAr fmoTar gAiR%et%

fóokAóuik%, fò%Ö-eK%lAeno ÅÄAl`pAÉn fr%laäey%, Çr Çero kata kI|

(Satyajit Ray)

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5) ik% fY% kara nA| fkoeno mAen% hay?

6) katajan flok àes%eC%| BAbAÉ YAy nA|

III. jAnA "to know" The verb "to know" in Bangla presents a unique situation IN THE PAST TENSE. Normally, the PAST HABITUAL implies just that, an action which regularly, repeatedly, or customarily took place in the past. The PAST HABITUAL is often translated "used to (verb)," implying the action is not now continuing (Review Intro Bengali, Lesson 17.). For example:

bAMalAed%eZ% õAkaet% bAMalA balatAm| "While in Bangladesh, I used to speak Bangla." Or: "While in Bangladesh, I

spoke Bangla." Or even: "While in Bangladesh, I would speak Bangla." Çim% Kub is%en%mA fd%KatAm| "I used to go to the movies a lot."

The same verb form also serves as the PAST CONDITIONAL, "to express past action which was not realized" (Review Intro Bengali, Lesson 19.). For example:

bAMalAy balatAm taeb% Çr fk%Ö bAMalA buJaelo nA bael% ÉMair%ij%et% ba°&tA fd%äyA haelo| "I would have spoken in Bangla; however, since no one else understood Bangla,

the lecture was delivered in English." The SIMPLE PAST tense generally implies that an action took place once, not repeatedly, in the past. For example:

Çim% tAek% balalAm| "I spoke to her." Or: "I told him." kAlaek% àkaTA BAla is%en%mA fd%KalAm| "I saw a good movie yesterday."

With the verb jAnA, however, the English translation of "used to know," is NOT appropriate when using the past habitual tense, nor is "knew" always appropriate when using the simple past tense. The PAST HABITUAL of jAnA implies THE STATE OF KNOWING (or, in the negative, of not knowing); the SIMPLE PAST implies A CHANGE OF STATE OF KNOWING, of coming to know or of learning.

jAnatAm = "I knew" (NOT "I used to know") jAnatAm nA = "I didn't know"

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jAnalAm = "I learned; I found out; I came to know" (NOT "I knew") jAnalAm nA = "I didn't learn; I didn't come to know" fd%Zaib%ed%eZ%r sama˙a GaTanA ^àrA jAnaet%n| "They knew about everything that happened at home and abroad." (Advanced Bengali, p. 305) YaKan Öpain%Saed% Áaªa≥An ä ÁaeªopAsanA „A‡a haÉlAm àbaMa jAin%lAm fY% fs%É Öpain%Sad` àÉ

samudAy BAratabaeéS%r „AmANÄa ZA a, taKan àÉ Öpain%Saed%r „acAr ŸArA ÁAªaúaéma „acAr karA ÇmAr saMakaÓa haÉla|

"When, through the Upanishads, I obtained knowledge of and worship of Brahma and came to know that the Upanishads are the authoritative Shastras for all of India, it was then that I became resolved to preach the Brahma religion by preaching these Upanishads." (Advanced Bengali, p. 94)

jAnA is also used as a VERBAL NOUN + ÇeC%/iC%la in a GENITIVE-3RD-PERSON CONSTRUCTION meaning "to know, have knowledge of":

sakael%raÉ jAnA ÇeC%| "Everybody knows." (Amitabha Gupta) taeb% à bÄApAer% änAra sAÈ„ait%ka mtAmata ÇmAra jAnA fn%É| "However, I do not know what his current opinion is on this matter." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) pÄA∆TaiT% fY% Çsael% ik%rakama fd%Kaet% fs%TA ÇmAed%ra kAüÉ jAnA fn%É| "None of us knows what the trousers actually looked like." (Satyajit Ray) "nIladaépaN' ÅnubAed%r kaõA ÉMaer%j ib%cArapait%ed%r ÅjAnA iC%la nA| "The English magistrates were not unaware of the Nil Darpan translation." (Ksetra Gupta)

jAnA following an INFINITIVE translates "TO KNOW HOW"

ik%… fb%Z fboJA YAi∞C%la fs% maen% maen% balaiC%la, fC%el%rA fK%lA karaet% jAen% nA, fk%bal Yata rAejÄ%r fC%el%mAnuiS%|

"But it was clear that she was saying to herself that boys don't know how to play, that [this] was just so much childishness." (Advanced Bengali, p. 116)

kAelo bAjAer%r fc%ey% kam fr%eT% bÄabasA cAlAet% jAen% fs%| "He knows how to carry on business at prices less than on the black market."

(Jibanananda Das)

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Exercises—Supply some form of the verb jAnA:

1) ÅnAõabAbur saeÆ% ÇlAp kaer% @@@ it%in%ä raGunAõapur YAe∞C%n|

"After conversing with Anath Babu, I learned that he too was going to

Raghunathpur." (Satyajit Ray)

2) Çim% saitÄ% duHaiK%ta, @@@ nA fY% ftomAek% hAsapAtAel% Baiét% haet% haey%eC%| "I'm really sorry. I didn't know(!) that you had to be admitted to the hospital."

(Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

3) fdotalAr i~s%iR% kaÉ? jIbaen% fs%É „aõama @@@ il%P`Ta kAek% bael%|

"Where's the stairway to the second floor? For the first time in my life I learned

what a lift was." (Satyajit Ray)

4) tuim% fY% ÇmAr jaenÄ% Åep%•A karaiC%el% tA @@@ nA|

"I didn't know that you were waiting for me."

5) tuim% fY% ÇmAr jaenÄ% Åep%•A karaiC%el% tA ÇmAr @@@ iC%la nA|

"I didn't know that you were waiting for me."

6) Çpain% kI kaer% @@@ fY% Çim% Åep%•A karaiC%lAm?

"How did you know that I was waiting?"

IV. COMMON UNIVERSITY & GOVERNMENT TERMINOLOGY

ÉÖin%BAirs%iT%/ib%çaib%dÄAlay, kael%j, ˘ul/ɢul, "university," "college," and "school" are three distinct levels of general education. A fTol is a "school" specifically for studying Sanskrit; a mA‹AsA is an Islamic "school."

Whereas in American English one speaks of "going to school" and mean "studying at a college or university," in Bangla "school" means only "primary or secondary school," prior to studying at a college. The meaning of "college" is likewise distinct from that of "university." College indicates education at the Intermediate level (e.g., IA [Intermediate Arts], ISc [Intermediate Science]) and Bachelor's level (e.g., BA, BSc, BCom [Bachelor of Commerce]). Universities impart education leading to the Bachelor's (Honours), Master's, PhD/Dphil, and DLitt, the last being a degree awarded separately from the PhD and the DPhil and requires one to publish a book of sufficiently stellar quality (other than the doctoral thesis, if a doctorate degree was earned). In West Bengal and India generally, both English and Bangla terminology is currently in use; in Bangladesh, a conscious effort has been made to use primarily Bangla (often words coined from Sanskrit) for official use.

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University terminology:

BAÉsa-cÄAn`es%lar/ÖpAcAéY "vice-chancellor of a university" ÅúÄa•a/ÅúÄa•A "principal of a college [m./f.]; also chair of a department" pair%cAlak "director" saBApait%/fc%yAramÄAn "chairman" ÅúÄApak/ÅúÄAip%kA "professor [m./f.]" sahaeYogI ÅúÄApak/ÅúÄAip%kA "associate professor" sahakArI ÅúÄApak/ÅúÄAip%kA "assistant professor" „aBASak "lecturer" saic%b "secretary" (to various committees, sometimes to the Vice Chancellor) fkoSAúÄa•a "cashier/bursar" is%en%T "senate, the larger ruling body of the university" is%iƒ%ek%T "syndicate, the smaller, higher ruling body of the university"

University of Dhaka's Departments and Institutes (1981-82): kalA ÅnuSad "arts faculty" ib%BAg ("department"): bAMalA, ÉMaer%jI,

ÇrabI,ÉsalAim%k ¯TAiD%j, Öédu ä PAséI, Éit%hAs, ÉsalAem%r Éit%hAs ä saMa˘&it%, daéZan, gaNa-eYogAeYog ä sAMabAid%katA, ègaÃAgAr ib%≥An, saMa˘&ta ä pAil%

ib%≥An ÅnuSad "science faculty" ib%BAg: padAéõa ib%dÄA, Pail%ta padAéõa ib%≥An ä

Éel%ka¡ain%V, pair%saMaKÄAN, rasAyan, Pail%ta rasAyan, BUegol, BUta—a, gaiN%ta

ÇÉn ÅnuSad "law faculty" sAmAij%k ib%≥An ÅnuSad "social sciences faculty" ib%BAg: ÅéõanIit%, rAÙib%≥An, samAjib%≥An,

Ç»aéjAit%k saÈpaék,a flok „aZAsan ic%ik%ösA ÅnuSad "medical faculty"

iZ%•A ÅnuSad "education faculty" cAükalA ÅnuSad "fine arts faculty" jIbaib%≥An ÅnuSad "biological sciences faculty" ib%BAg: Öi⁄%d ib%≥An, „ANIib%dÄA, m&i–%kA ib%≥An,

fB%Saja ib%≥An, „AN rasAyan, maenoib%≥An, ÅnujIb ib%%≥An

bAiN%jÄa ÅnuSad "commerce faculty" ib%BAg: bÄabaêApanA, ih%sAb ib%≥An, mAeék%iT%Ma,

iP%nÄAn`s Én`i¯T%iT%ÖT samUha: iZ%•A ä gaeb%SaNA, bÄabasAy

„aZAsan, pair%saMaKÄAn gaeb%SaNA ä iZ%•aN, puiÛT% ä KAdÄa ib%≥An, samAj kalÄAN ä gaeb%SaNA, Çúuin%k BASA

Other disciplines, not departments at the

University of Dhaka ('81-'82): BASAta—a, n&ta—a, tulanAmUlak sAih%tÄa

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Government terminology:

maÀI, "minister" saic%b "secretary" (head civil servant/official of a ministry or department) „aúAnamaÀI "prime minister" muKÄamaÀI "chief minister" (head of a state in India) maÀNAlay "ministry" Yu>aa-saic%b "joint secretary" jAit% "nation, a people; caste"; jAtIya "national" rAÙ "country, state" (national state); rAÙaIya "national, of the state" sarakAr "the government"; sarakArI "governmental"

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LESSON 88

I. jAtIya saMgIta

bAMlAed%Z

"ÇmAr fsonAr bAMalA' („aõam ˙abak)

ÇmAr fsonAr bAMalA, Çim% ftomAy BAelobAis%| ic%raid%n ftomAr ÇkAZ, ftomAr bAtAs, ÇmAr „AeN% bAjAy bAiZˇ ä mA, PAguen% ftor Çem%r baen% èGAeN% pAgal kaer%, mair% hAy, hAy fr%_ ä mA, ÅèGAeN% ftor BarA f•%et% Çim% kI fd%eK%iC% maúur hAis%ˇ

(rabI«‹anAõ óAkur)

BAratabaéS

"BArataib%úAtA' ("janagaNamana') („aõam ˙abak)

janagaNamana-Åiú%nAyak jaya fh% BArataBAgÄaib%úAtA! pa∂Ab is%Œu gujarAT marAóA ‹Aib%Ra Öökal baÆa ib%ŒÄ ih%mAcal YamunA gaÆA Ö∞Calajalaiú%taraÆa taba ZuBa nAem% jAeg%, taba ZuBa ÇiZ%s mAeg%, gAeh% taba jayagAõA| janagaNamaÆaladAyak jaya fh% BArataBAgÄaib%úAtA! jaya fh%, jaya fh%, jaya fh%, jaya jaya jaya, jaya fh%ˇ

(rabI«‹anAõ óAkur)

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II. REFLEXIVE (& INTENSIVE) PRONOUNS

SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL nominative in%ej% in%ej%rA Çpain% ÇpanArA genitive in%ej%r/in%j- in%ej%ed%r ÇpanAr/Çpan- ÇpanAed%r objective in%ej%ek% in%ej%ed%r(ek%) ÇpanAek% ÇpanAed%r(ek%)

(reflexive) à ègaÃa „akAZanAra sueYoga lABa kaer% Çim% in%ej%ek% úanÄa ≥Ana karaiC%| "I consider myself blessed to have gotten the opportunity to publish this

book." (Tajul Islam) (intensive) tArA in%ej%rA ègaÃa „akAZa kaer%iC%la| Or: tArA in%ej% ègaÃa „akAZa kaer%iC%la| "They themselves had published the book."

Intensive pronouns follow immediately the noun or pronoun that they intensify. They AGREE IN CASE with the noun or pronoun to which they correspond and MAY, BUT NEED NOT, AGREE IN NUMBER. Both tArA in%ej%rA and tArA in%ej are considered grammatically correct.

ba a mAéjan karael%ä ÅnÄAnÄa ^tAtIrA tAed%ra in%ej%ed%ra saeÆ% àka fèZ%NIBu°a bael% ïIkAra kaer% nA, maen% kaer% nIcu|

"Even though they wash their clothes, other weavers do not acknowledge them [certain weavers] as included along with themselves in one and the same class, but instead consider them lower status." (Advanced Bengali, p. 183)

fs%Ésaba GaTanAek%É „aúAnata ÅbalaÍana kaer% iZ%ÓIrA in%ej%rAÉ in%ej%ed%ra „aeyojanamata CaRA bA gAna

racanA kaer% in%ta| "Following all these events closely, the artists themselves, according to their own

needs, would compose songs or poems." (Advanced Bengali, p. 186) Çid%bAsIed%ra ib%çAsa_àTA fd%batAed%ra in%ej%ra hAet% bAnAeno| "The Adivasis believe—it is made by the hands of the gods themselves." (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

The alternative genitive, in%j-, is usually, but not always, hyphenated to the following noun.

tuÉ ftor in%j-BASAy fl%K`| ^tArA in%j BASAy kaõA balaet% lAgael%n| "Write in your own language." "They began speaking in their mother tongue."

The reduplicated genitive (usually in%j) implies "each one's, his/her own, individually":

in%j in%j èZaem%r Pal fBog karAr Åiú%kAr „aetÄ%ek%raÉ õAkaeb%| "Everyone shall have the right to enjoy the fruits of his or her own labor." (Advanced Bengali, p. 260)

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Both a noun and an adjective, in%jaïa, means "one's own property, belonging to oneself":

Çeg%kAra id%en%ra DA°ArarA maen% karaet%na fY% ih%i¯T%ir%yA ba'el% fm%ey%ed%ra àkaTA in%jaïa froga ÇeC%, fY%TAra Ööasa hae∞C% tAed%ra jarAyu, . . .

"Physicians of old used to think that women had their own ailment called hysteria, the source of which was their uterus, . . . " (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

Çpain% and all its forms (which are exactly the same as the 2nd-person honorific pronoun) tend to be used in SADHU and somewhat formal CALIT Bangla.

bAXAlI ÇpanAr kaÓanA id%ey% ^cAd ä manasAr kAaih%nIek% ÅpUéba kAbÄa ä BAbaraes%r sAmaègI kaer% tuel%iC%la|

"The Bengali, with his own imagination, has made the Cand and Manasa tale into both an exquisite poem and a thing of emotional subtlety."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 184) ik… BASAra mAúÄaem% mAnuSa in%ej%ek% bÄa°a kaer%; . . . BASAra mAúÄaem% mAnuSa fY%mana ÇpanAek%

bÄa°a kair%et%eC%, ft%amain% BASAra maeúÄ% tAhAra sAmAij%ka jIbaen%ra „ait%Palana GaiT%et%eC%| "However, man, through the medium of language, reveals himself; . . . just as

man, through language, is revealing himself, so too through language his societal life is being reflected." (Advanced Bengali, p. 235)

ÅhalÄAed%bI| bael%na ik%, Bagabait%? Çpain% ik% à kaõA k&ˆAra mueK% Zuen%eC%na? tapaiï%nI| Ç≥A, ^hA| fs%É Çpain%É bael%eC%| "Ahalya Devi: 'What are you saying, my dear? Did you hear that from Krishna's

own mouth?' Tapasvini: 'Yes, my lady. She herself said it.'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

Though uncommon, human pronouns can be inflected for the locative case:

Yaid% tuim% ÇpanAet% Çpain% ZAi»% pAä àbaMa cAraid%ek %sALnA dAn karaet% pAra, tAhael% ftomAr jIban saÏA≥Ir fc%ey% sAéõak|

"If you yourself gain peace within yourself and are able to bestow solace all around, then your life is more meaningful than an empress's."

(Rabindranath Tagore) Comparable to in%j- is Çpan, used in CALIT as well as SADHU:

fs% ÇmAra Çpan BA%É| "He is my own brother [as opposed to a 'cousin-brother']." kAkAmaaiN%ra fC%el% sarala iC%la ÇmAra àkamA÷a Çpana KuRatueto dAdA| "Uncle's son Saral was my only true cousin-dada [as opposed to more distantly

related so-called 'elder brothers']." (Satyajit Ray)

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Çpain%a Çpan maen% kAja ka'er% cael%na| "You, in your own world [in your own mind—lost in thought], go about your

business." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) Meaning "spontaneously, from/of oneself," ÇpanA fõ%ek% (haÉet% in SADHU) and ÇpanA-Çpain%:

iZ%KA| ÅéõAö ~cAda, sUeéY%ra Çelo fY% cuir% ka'er% paer%_ ib%ib%| [hAis%mueK%] bAH, cuir% karaet% YAeb% fk%na? sUéYa äek% ÇpanA fõ%ek%É fd%ya fY%! "Shikha: 'In other words, the moon, who steals and wears the sun's light—' Bibi: [smiling] 'My, my. Why would he go steal it? The sun willingly and freely

gives light to him.'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) pAóaZAlA ÇpanA-Çpain% baŒa haÉyA ig%yAeC%| "The school automatically closed [due to an outbreak of cholera]." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

In SADHU and somewhat formal CALIT Bangla, the indeclinable ïayaM ("oneself") is used as an intensifier of a nominative noun or pronoun. Like in%j-, ïayaM precedes the word it intensifies, in most cases:

ïayaMa BagabAn` bael%eC%n, . . . "God himself said, . . . " (Pramatha Caudhuri, in Advanced Bengali, p. 122) paer%r maenora∂an karaet% fg%el% saraïatIr barapu÷aä fY% naTaib%eT%r dalaBu°a haey% paeR%n tAr

jA∏ alÄamAn „amAN ïayaMa BArataca«‹a| "That even Sarasvati's favorite sons fall in with profligates when they set about to

amuse others—shining proof of that is Bharatcandra himself." (Advanced Bengali, p. 123) ïayaMa k& aemohanaa ~YAra kAeC% dI•A in%ey%iC%el%na K&¯TAna habAra bÄApAer% es%É ÅÄAel%kajAƒAra

DAeP%ra saeÆ%ä it%in% kaõAbAétA bael%iC%el%na bael% maen% karAra kAraNa ÇeC%%| "There is reason to think that Krishnamohan [Banerjee] himself had spoken to

that very Alexander Duff also, the man by whom he [Krishnamohan] had been baptized, about the matter of [Madhusudan Datta's] becoming Christian." (Ghulam Murshid)

jaga‹Aem%ra rAmAyaeN%ä suelocanAra Ånueroeú% ïayaM èZIrAma fm%GanAed%ra fZ%Sak&etÄ% sadalabael%

fYogadAna karael%na| "In Jagadrama's Ramayana, at Sucolana's request Rama himself, along with his

troops, joins in Meghanada's obsequies." (Biswanath Bandyopadhyay)

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However, ïayaMa may also follow the word it intensifies:

mA‹Aes%ra ib%Zapa ïayaMa ^tAek% àÉ kael%ej% pAió%ey%iC%el%naa| "The bishop of Madras himself had sent him [Charles Egbert Kenet] to this

college [Bishop's College]." (Ghulam Murshid) floek% bael% fY% YA≥ aes%nI [f‹OpadI] ïayaMa punarAy BUmaƒael% ÅbatIéNA haey%eC%na! "People say that Yajnaseni [Draupadi] herself has once again descended to the

mortal realm." (Michael Madhusudan Datta) Also in SADHU and somewhat formal CALIT Bangla, the prefix ï, meaning "one's own," is used as a reduplicated genitive, like in%j-, implying "each one's, his/her own, individually":

ï ï kAeéY%r Pal fBog karAr Åiú%kAr „aetÄ%ek%raÉ õAkaeb%| "Each shall have the right to enjoy the fruits of his or her own industry."

In SADHU the reflexive adjective ïIya ("one's own"), like in%j-, precedes the noun it modifies:

^tAhAr àk tAÏaZAsaen% it%in% ïIya ip%tAmaha „aõam narais%Mahaed%b saÍaeŒ% il%iK%yAeC%n fY%, it%in% "ekoNAekoeN%' sUéYaed%eb%r janÄa àkaiT% kuTIr in%émAN karAÉyA fd%n|

"In one of his copper-plate inscriptions, he wrote concerning his own grandfather, Narasimhadeva the First, that he had an edifice constructed at 'Konakon' for the sun god." (Advanced Bengali, p. 175)

Exercises—Supply some form of the pronoun in%ej%:

1) ÇmAed%r DA°Ar bAbur @@@ ÅsuK karala!

2) ^rAúuin% nA õAkAet% ^tArA @@@ f~r%eú fK%et%n|

3) @@@-ed%Z sab samay i„%ya|

4) tuim% õAkael%ä ÇmAek% @@@ ^tAek% ij%e≥ %s karaet% haeb%|

5) ÇpanAr @@@ nAm nA id%ey% Ca€anAm bÄabahAr kaer%n nA fk%na?

III. sabAÉ/sakael% & sab/sakal: "all" HUMAN PRONOUN ADJECTIVE & NONHUMAN nominative sabAÉ sakael% sab sakal genitive sabAr sakael%r objective sabAÉek% sakalaek%

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A. HUMAN PRONOUNS: Both sabAÉ and sakael% can be used alone

sabAÉ YAeb%| "Everyone will go."

Both may be used in apposition to plural nouns and pronouns:

ÇmarA sakael% is%en%mA fd%Kaet% YAba| "We all shall go see the movie." ÇmAr mA ftomAed%r sabAÉek% KAäyAeb%| "My mom is going to feed all of you."

The pronoun "all, everyone" has only SINGULAR CASE ENDINGS. The human indefinite pronouns Åen%ek% ("many"), ÖBaey% ("both"), „aetÄ%ek% ("each"), and the number pronouns—dujaen%, it%najaen%, etc. ("two people, the two of us/you/them; three people, the three of us/you/them; etc.")—are declined in the same manner as sakael% (consult Appendix II, "Other Indefinite Pronouns") and can be used alone or as appositives:

Åen%ek%É hayata la•a kaer%eC%n, ÇeK%r pAtA, fKolA àbaMa paeéb%r gAey% fl%eg% õAek% àk úaraen%r Ft%lA°a Ç˙araN|

"Many have perhaps noticed, a type of oily film adheres to the leaves, the outer surface of the stalk, and the nodes between sections."

(from Lesson 19, I) . . . Åiú%kAr „aetÄ%ek%raÉ õAkaeb%| "Everyone shall have the right . . . " (from section II above)

im%el% ("together, in concert"), the past active participle of im%lA ("to assemble; to fit together, get along"), can be used after these appositive plural pronouns (sabAÉ/sakael%) as well as after compound nouns (e.g., fC%el%em%ey%) and locative subjects (e.g., fC%el%y) to mean "together":

Åen%kaguelo fC%el%y im%el% fK%lA kaer%, baes% baes% fd%iK%| "I sit and watch [while sitting I watch] many children playing together." (Advanced Bengali, p. 115) dujan fC%el%et% im%el% àkaTA fC%el%ra hAet% pA úaer% Juil%ey% tAek% fdolA fd%eb%| "Two boys together will let another boy dangle, holding him by the legs, and then

swing him." (Advanced Bengali, p. 116)

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sAlaTA fboúahay 1926; àman samay àkabAr ÇmAr sab mAmAmAis% ^tAed%r ïAmI-˚I fC%el%em%ey% im%el% àkasaeÆ% àel%n kalakAtAy|

"The year was perhaps 1926; it was then that once all of my maternal aunts and uncles, together with their husbands and wives and children, came to Kolkata." (Satyajit Ray)

[fY-YAra fpyAlA tuel% sakael% im%el% àkasaeÆ% bael%na: "cIyAésa!'] stage directions "[Each raising his or her cup, they all say together: 'Cheers!']"

(Ketaki Kushari Dyson) B. ADJECTIVES: Both sab and sakal may modify any noun, either human or non-human:

sab gAyakaek% ÅBÄAs karaet% hay| "All vocalists must practice." tuÉ ik% sab baÉ paeR%iC%s? "Did you read all the books?"

Since sab and sakal are adjectives (as well as nonhuman pronouns), these adjectives may be made into nonhuman pronouns by adding the qualifiers -TA (for "all" in the collective sense) and -guelo (for "all" of various individual objects):12

Çim% sabaTA fK%ey% fP%el%iC%| "I ate it all." (rice, for instance) Çim% sabaguelo fK%ey% fP%el%iC%| "I ate them all." (rasagullas, for instance)

12See also Lesson 13, III, "Pronouns Made from Adjectives."

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Nouns which are made plural by a preceding adjective of quantity (a numeral, for instance) do not take a plural suffix themselves (consult Intro Bengali, p. 94). However, the "pluralizing" adjectives sab/sakal, Åen%k, and ÖBay allow for (but do not require) the plural ending:13 tuÉ ik% sab baÉguelo paeR%iC%s? "Did you read all the books?" tuÉ ik% sabaguelo baÉ paeR%iC%s? "Did you read the entire bunch of books?" jAit%et% àÉsab ic%÷akaõIrA ÁAªaN| "All these artist-storytellers are brahmin by caste." (Advanced Bengali, p. 188)

C. NONHUMAN PRONOUNS: sab and sakal are nonhuman pronouns in their own right:

Çim% sab fK%ey% fP%el%iC%| "I ate everything."

13Pluralizing the noun even when there is a pluralizing adjective, such as "all," is considered by some as incorrect, although many people speak and write this way.

saeb% looks as if it should mean "all, everybody," and can be a variation of sabAÉ, the human pronoun meaning "all, everybody." saeb% also means "all told," similar to sabaZuÿ; it can mean "merely," as in "merely two days ago." But OFTEN saeb% is an ADVERB OF TIME meaning "just now" or "just this moment" or "recently": ärA òAkA fõ%ek% saeb% àes%eC%| "They have just come from Dhaka." àkaTA PuTaPueT% bA∞cA fC%el%, saeb% ^hATaet% iZ%eK%eC%_ "A good-looking baby boy, just learned to walk—" (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

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Exercises—Supply a form of the pronouns in parentheses:

1) bAMalAed%eZ% gaeb%SaNA karaet% fg%el% ÇmAedr% @@@ BAla kaer% bAMalA iZ%Kaet% haeb%|

("all," "the three [of us]")

2) ftomAed%r @@@ pAs`epoéT ÇeC%, tAÉ nA? ("both [of you]," "all,")

3) it%in% ÇmAed%r @@@ saeÆ% fd%KA karaet% cAn| ("all," "each [of us]")

4) ÇpanArA @@@ cael% àes% ÇmAek% sAhAYÄa kaüna| ("the four [of you]," "all")

5) tArA @@@ im%el% PuTabal fK%laet% YAe∞C%| ("all," "the two [of them]")

IV. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY --some relevant vocabulary rAjanIit% n. "politics" rAjaEn%it%k adj. "political" jAtIya adj. "national" Ç»aéjAit%k, Ç»aéjAtIya adj. "international" rAjÄa n. "kingdom, political state" rAejÄ%r adj. "national, of the state" rAÙ n. "political state" rAÙaIya adj. "national, of the state"

BUegol n. "geography" fBOegoil%k adj. "geographical" mAnaic%÷a n. "map" sImAnA, sImA»a n. "border" rAjaúAnI n. "capital city" ba«dar n. "port" ib%mAn ba«dar n. "airport"

sAgar, samu‹a n. "ocean, sea" ÖpasAgar n. "bay" baeÆopasAgar n. "the Bay of Bengal" Çrab sAgar n. "the Arabian Sea" paébat, pAhARa n. "mountain, hill" ih%mAlay paébat n. "the Himalayas" ÖpatÄakA n. "valley" maüBUim% n. "desert" bana n. "forest" su«darabana n. "the Sundarban jungle" jaÆala n. "jungle, wild area, desert" jaÆalIa adj. "wild, unrefined"

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p&iõ%bI n. "world, earth" mahAed%Z n. "continent" ÖpamahAed%Z n. "subcontinent" fd%Z n. "country, homeland, home, ancestral home" fd%ZI/id%iZ% adj. "local, home-grown" ib%ed%Z n. "foreign country" ib%ed%ZI adj. "foreign"; n. "foreigner" Fb%ed%iZ%k adj. "foreign"

„aed%Z n. "state" (within India) „Aed%iZ%k adj. "provincial, of the state" ib%BAg n. "division" (within Bangladesh, for instance, Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, & Sylhet) fj%lA/ij%lA n. "district" (unit in „aed%Z or ib%BAg) mahakumA/Öpaij%lA n. "subdivision" (unit in fj%lA) õAnA n. "police station" (unit in mahakumA) ègAma n. "village" (unit in police õAnA)

baÆaed%Z n. "Bengal" (West Bengal and Bangladesh) bAMalA adj. "of or pertaining to Bengal"; n. "the Bangla

language" and "the land of Bengal": ÇmAr fsonAr bAMalA, Çim% ftomAy BAelobAis%| "My golden Bengal, I love you." bAMalAed%Z n. "the nation of Bangladesh" paic%m baÆa n. "the state of West Bengal"

ib%el%t/ib%lAt n. "England/Europe/America/abroad" ib%el%tI/ib%il%tI/ib%lAtI adj. "British/foreign" ib%el%t-fP%rat adj. "back from England/abroad" „AcÄ/„AcÄ fd%Z, „AcI n. "the Orient, the East" pAcAtÄ/pAcAtÄ fd%Z n. "the Occident, the West" àiZ%yA n. "Asia" àZIya adj. "Asian"

cIn sAúAraNataÀa n. "the Republic of China" cIn fd%Z n. "China" cInA/cIen%/cIen%r/cIn fd%eZ%r adj. "Chinese" mAiék%n Yu°arAÙ n. "the United States of America" mAiék%n fd%Z/Çem%ir%kA n. "the US" mAiék%n/mAiék%nI adj. "American" Yu°arAjÄa n. "Britain, the United Kingdom" Yu°arAejÄ%r adj. "British" üiZ%yA/üZ fd%Z n. "Russia" üZ, üZaed%eZ%r adj. "Russian"

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Bangladesh—(1) districts: kaV`abAjAra, ik%eZoraga∂a, kuiRègAma, %kuim%ÔA, kuiÛT%yA, KulanA, gAÉbAŒA, fgopAlaga∂a, ca¿aègAm, ^cAdpura, cuyADAÆA, jayapurahATa, iJ%nAÉdaha, JAlakAió%, jAmAlapur, TAÆAÉl, óAkura^gAä, òAkA, id%nAjapur, naägAä, naäyAbaga∂a, naRAÉla, narais%MdI, nAeTora, nArAyaNaga∂a, nIlaPAmArI, fn÷aekoNA, fnoyAKAlI, pa¥agaRa, paTuyAKAlI, pAbanA, pAébatÄa KAgarACaiR%, pAébatÄa bA«darabAna, pAébatÄa rAÆAmAiT%, ip%erojapur, Pair%dapur, fP%NI, baguRA, baragunA, bair%ZAla, bAeg%rahATa, ÁAªaNabARIyA, fBolA, mayamanais%Maha, mAgurA, mAdArIpura, mAinkaga∂a, mui«s%ga∂a, fm%eh%rapura, fmOlaBI bAjAra, YaeZohar, raMapur, rAjabARI, rAjaZAhI, laßIpura, lAlamain%rahATa, ZarIyatapura, fZ%rapura, sAta•IrA, isrAjaga∂a, is%el%Ta, sunAmaga∂a, haib%ga∂a; (2) the capital: òAkA West Bengal, India—(1) districts: Ö–ara 24 paragaNA, fkocaib%hAra, jalapAÉguiR%, dai•%Na 24 paragaNA, dAiéj%il%Ma, nadIyA, paic%m id%nAjapur, puüil%yA, baéÿamAn, ^bAkuRA, bIraBUm, mAladaha, mu%iéZ%dAbAd, fm%id%nIpur, hAäRA, hugalI; (2) the capital: kalakAtA (kail%kAtA) India—states: ÅW „aed%Z, ÅüNAcala „aed%Z, ÇsAm (Çham), ÖiR%SÄA, Ö–ar „aed%Z, Ö–arA¥al,a kAénATakA, kAåIr àbaMa jaÎu, fk%rAlA, gujarAT, fgoyA, Ca–IsagaRa, JARaKa«da, tAim%lanARua, i÷%purA, id%ÔI, nAgABUim%, p∂Ab, paic%m baÆa, ib%hAr, maiN%pur, maúÄa „aed%Z, mahArAÙ, im%ejorAm, fm%GAlaya, rAjaêAn, is%ik%m/isk %ik%m, hAir%yAnA, ih%mAcal „aed%Z South Asia—(1) countries: fn%pAl, pAik%˙An, bAMalAed%Z, Áaªaed%Z (baémA), BAratabaéSa, BUTAn, èZIla≠A (is%Mahala); (2) major cities: KulanA, ca¿aègAma, òAkA, bair%ZAla, kalakAtA, fC%ÕaAÉ/mA‹Aj (mA«‹Aj), id%ÔI, fmoÍAÉ/fboÍAÉ, És`lAmAbAd, karAcI, lAehor, kalaeÍo, kATamAƒu, gÄAMaTak, puNAKA, fr%Æun Exercises—Find a map of South Asia and with it answer in complete sentences the following:

1) bAMalAed%eZ%r sImAnAr saeÆ% fl%eg% ÇeC% kI kI fd%Z?

2) fmoÍAÉ fkon „aed%eZ%r maeúÄ% paeR%?

3) kalakAtA fõ%ek% fsojA òAkA péY» fg%el% %fkona id%ek% fY%et%% hay?

4) bAMalAed%eZ% YamunA nadI ik% baeÆopasAgar péY» baey% YAy?

5) BUTAen%r Ö–ar sImAnAy fkon fd%Z?

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LESSON 99

I. samAelocanA

ik%eZor pAer%K àkaiT% ib%iZ%ÛTa nAm saMabAdapa÷a jagaet%r| ik%eZor pAer%K ïaégata haey%eC%n gata baCar| à baCar tAr ik%Cu ÅnabadÄa kAej%r „adaéZanIr bÄabaêA kaer%eC%n guNamuØarA| saÈ„ait% ib%RalA ÇkAed%im% Åb ÇéT àƒ kAlacAer% ik%eZor pAer%eK%r fr%¡ae¯p%kaiT%B „adaéZanI hay| ik%eZor pAer%K iC%el%n PaeToègAPAr| kAj karaet%n ih%«duêAn TAÉm`as pai÷%kAy| jagaöejoRA nAem%r Åiú%kArI ik%eZor pAer%eK%r kAej% bA˙ab haey%eC% ¯paÛTa, Zuúu d&iÛT%BaÆIr mAúÄaem%É nay, i£%yAekOZael%r BUim%kAä ÅnaïIkAéYa| fY% fkonaä racanA, tA rAjanIit%iB%i–%k fhok, ik%MabA „Ak&it%k ib%paéYay ib%Sayak fhok, ik%MabA ègAmÄa GaTanA fhok ik%MabA suKaduHaeK%r kAih%nI fhok, ik%MabA PÄAZan pÄAer%D fhok pAer%K ÖpaêApan kaer%eC%n sabaÉ sukumAr kalAr fm%jAej%| kÄAem%rA fto Åen%ek%r hAet%É õAek% ik%… pAer%eK%r mata fd%KA àbaMa fd%KAbAr •amatA bA˙aib%kaÉ duélaB| Caib%guil% samaiÛT%gataBAeb% ÇmAed%r kAel%r sabaid%k fõ%ek% fd%KA àk „ait%k&it%| kalA samAelocak

"Çna«dabAjAr pai÷%kA,' 18 Fc%÷a 1390, 1 ài„%l 1984, p&Ha 5 II. PASSIVES Bangla has two standard passives, both using the verbal noun form of the meaningful verb: A. VERBAL NOUN + 3RD PERSON OF haäyA, passive, pure and simple:

(active) Çim% tA bail%| "I say that." (passive) tA balA hay| "That is said."

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B. VERBAL NOUN + 3RD PERSON OF YAäyA/(calA) Such constructions with YAäyA are also passive but with an extra nuance of "possibility." These constructions can often be translated as "(verb)-ible/-able" or "one can (verb)" or "something can be (verb)-ed":

(active) Çim% tA bail%| "I say that." (passive) tA balA YAy| "One can say that." Or: "That can be said." (active) tuim% tA pAeb%| "You'll get that." (passive) tA pAäyA YAeb% "That will be available." Or: "One can get that." (active) fjÄoit% ^tAek% fd%eK% in%| "Jyoti didn't see him/her." (passive) ^tAek% fd%KA YAy in%| "She/He was invisible, couldn't be seen."

In English, the OBJECT of the active verb becomes the SUBJECT in the passive sentence: (active) "I see HIM (object)." (passive) "HE (subject) is seen." (passive) "HE (subject) can be seen." In Bangla, the OBJECT of the active verb remains the OBJECT of the verbal noun, even in the passive sentence. It is the VERBAL NOUN itself that becomes the grammatical SUBJECT: (active) Çim% tAek% (object) fd%iK%| (passive) tAek% (object) fd%KA haya| (passive) tAek% (object) fd%KA YAya|

ÅnÄa Karaec%r fc%ey% bAej% Karaec%É mAnuSaek% YaõAéõ afc%nA YAy| "More than by any other expenditures, a man can truly be known by what he

spends his money on frivolously." (Advanced Bengali, p. 112) baCar KAen%k paer% Kukuek% nAik% kalakAtAy fd%KA fg%eC% ÇbAr| "A year or so later Khuku was [could be] again seen in Kolkata." (Sunil Gangopadhyay) . . . YA il%eK%eC%n tAek% sAih%tÄael%KA balA cael% nA| ". . . what they have written cannot be called literature." (Jibanananda Das)

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There are two variations of the passive construction built off of the VERBAL NOUN + YAäyA in which the sense of possibility is conveyed not once but, redundantly, twice: VERBAL NOUN + fY%et + 3RD-PERSON OF pArA:

(active) Çim% tA balaet% pAir%| "I can say that." Or: "I might say that." (passive) tA balA YAy| "That can be said." Or: "One could say that." (passive) tA balA fY%et% pAer%| "That can be said." Or: "One could say that."

. . . raey%eC% ib%Zuÿa jagat s&iÛT% karabAr „ayAs_YAek% kaib%-jagat balA fY%et% pAer% . . . ". . . there remains that urge to create the perfect world—what might be called the

poet's world . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 151) àKAen% la•Äa karA YAÉet% pAer% fY%, puüil%yA àbaM afm%id%nIpur ij%lAr Ö–ar paic%m sImA»a bA

JARaègAm mahakumA haÉet% fY% sakal gAn saMag&hIta haÉyAeC%, tAhAed%r BASA Ç¥ail%k „Aed%iZ%k BASA bA kuémAil% BASA naeh%, baraMa fKo¿AÉ bAMalA|

"Here it can be noted that the language of all those songs collected from Jhargram subdivision or the northwestern border of Midnapore and Purulia is not a regional, provincial tongue nor the tongue of the low caste Kurmi but rather upcountry [i.e., Hindustani-influenced] Bangla."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 204) tArapar kaMaeèg%es%r àkaTA Intelligence Department cAÉ_fY%KAen% fd%eZ%r sab Kabar pAäyA

fY%et% pAer%| "Next, the Congress requires an Intelligence Department—where all information

about the country can be obtained." (Advanced Bengali, p. 270) INFINITIVE + pArA + 3RD-PERSON OF YAäyA:

(active) Çim% tA balaet% pAir%| "I can say that." Or: "I might say that." (passive) tA balA YAy| "That can be said." Or: "One could say that." (passive) tA balaA fY%et% pAer%| "That can be said." Or: "One could say that."

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(passive) tA balaet% pArA YAy| "That can be said." Or: "One could say that."

tA balA fY%et% pAer% and tA balaet% pArA YAy further emphasize the sense of "possibility" but are, for all practical purposes, equivalent to tA balA YAy|

rAjA dai•%NAra∂ana mufKopAúÄAyaek% balA fY%et% pAer% bAMlAra naba-jAgaraeN%ra samayakAra àkajana ïAúInaec%tA fn%tA|

"Raja Daksinaranjan Mukhopadhyay can be called one of the independent-minded leaders of the time of Bengal's renaissance." (Purnendu Patri)

balA fY%et% pAer% gAnaTA ÇmAra jIbaen%ra id%ka ió%ka ka'er% id%ey%eC%| "It could be said that this particular song determined the direction of my life."

(Ketaki Kushari Dyson) taeb% m&tÄur parapAer%r Éit%hAsaTA Yaid% fkona ÖpAey% Zuin%yA laÉet% pArA YAy, taeb% tAr fc%ey%

lAB ÇeC% ik%? "But if by some means the tale of the hereafter could be heard, what greater gain

than that is there?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 132) kaib%tA racanAr paÿait% saÈpaeék% saMae•%ep% balaet% pArA YAy àÉ: . . . "Concerning the process of composing poetry, in brief one can say this: . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 150)

C. bael% as a PASSIVE—"one calls (X) such and such," "they call (X) such and such," or, often

as a true passive, "(X) is called such and such":

àek%%/tAek% bael%_ . . . fgojAit%r kalÄANAeéõ% àk flOik%k Öösab Ånuiı%t hay, tAhAek% bAúanA parab bael%| ". . . a public festival for the welfare of the cow is celebrated, called the Badhana

festival." (Advanced Bengali, p. 199) ÉhAek% ÅhIrA saÆItaä bael%| "It is called 'Ahira' music also." (Advanced Bengali, p. 199) àek%É ik% bael% saBÄatA? "Is This Called Civilization?" (Michael Madhusudan Datta) fdKala, ik… fdKA-haäyA àek% bael nA| "He saw [her], but it wasn't what is actually called 'seeing somebody.'" (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

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kAek% bael% . . . (tA)_ tuim% ik% ÅparAúa kAek% bael%, tA jAna? "Do you know what is called 'transgression'?" (Michael Madhusudan Datta) Zuen%iC% bAbAra mueK% Yata Öpaed%Za tAra maeúÄ% bAra bAra "ÖÕit%' kaõATA fZonA fY%ta| BAXA fbotael%ra JuiR% fb%ec% fZ%SakAel% fk% haey%eC% la•pait% úanI fs%É gaÓa Zuen% Zuen% ÖÕait% fY% kAek% bael% fd%eK%iC% su¯paÛTa tAra Caib%| "Among all the advice I heard from Father's mouth Time and again there was that one word, 'improvement.' Who was it, selling broken bottles by the basketful, Who in the end became a millionaire? From hearing constantly that very tale I saw a picture clear enough of what one calls improvement." (Rabindranath Tagore)

YAek/fY%TAek%% bael% . . . (tA)_ àta rAe÷% P`lÄAeT%ra darajA fKolA fr%eK% BAelo kaeroin%, tuim% Çra duégAmaiN% CARA fk%Ö bAiR%

fn%É, du-jaen%É ÅeGoer% GumUe∞Co_YAek% bael% fcoraek% fD%ek% ÇnA, à h'elo tA-É|

"It was hardly wise to leave the door to the flat open so late at night, and nobody home but you and Durgamoni, and the two of you unconscious, sound asleep—what is called inviting thieves, that's what this was."

(Buddhadeva Bose) üiD%| Çsuna, ÇamarA ÇpanAra f¡%in%eX%ra janÄa àkaTA fCo¿a d&ZÄa ÅiB%naya kair%| fY%TAek% balA

fY%et% pAer% [fY%TAek% bael%]àkaTA im%in%-pAlA_ "Rudy: 'Come on, we'll act a small scene in order to train you. What could be

called [What is called] a mini-drama—'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

floek% bael% Though not a grammatical passive, the expression "people say" or "they say" often functions like a passive and can be translated "it is said."

D. mArA YAäyA and passives with paRA There are several verbs for which the OBJECT in the active construction BECOMES the SUBJECT IN CERTAIN PASSIVE SENTENCES (paralleling the English passive).

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mArA "to hit, strike; to kill, cause to die," i.e., causative of marA ("to die")13

(active) fs% i£%ek%T balaTA fm%er%eC%| "He hit the cricket ball." (active) fs% tAek% fm%er%eC%| "He struck him." (or: "He killed him.")

Often, but not always, the speaker will use the auxiliary fP%lA with mArA when the intended meaning is "to kill" as opposed to "to hit":

(active) fs% tAek% fm%er% fP%el%eC%| "He killed him." kaé–A| (saeroeS%) fsonAra naba| h~ÄA| äek% YaKana „asaba kaer%iC%el%, taKana nun KAÉey%% fm%er%

fP%l`et% pAra in%| "Head-of-the-house: (enraged) 'Your "Golden" Nobo! My foot! When you gave

birth to him way back when, why couldn't you have just force-fed him salt and finished him off!'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

(passive with haäyA_NOT exceptional) tAek% mArA haey%eC%| "He was struck/killed." (passive with YAäyA_EXCEPTIONAL) fs% mArA fg%eC%| "He died."14 gata sa‡Aeh% YArA mArA fg%eC% tArA saba Åmara ZahIda, gaNatAiÀ%ka Åiú%kAra ra•Ara janÄa

tArA „ANa id%ey%eC%| "Those who died last week are all immortal martyrs who gave their lives

to protect democratic authority." (Advanced Bengali, p. 271) YaKana ära fmoeT% daZa baCara bayasa, taKana ära mA kÄAn`sAer% mArA YAn| "When he was but ten years old his mother died of cancer."15 (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) ÇmAra bAabA YaKana mArA YAna taKana ÇmAra bayasa ÇRAÉ baCara| "When my father died, I was two and a half years old." (Satyajit Ray)

13See also Lesson 13, II for causatives of this type with "strengthened" stem vowels. 14With mArA YAäyA, "to die, pass away, perish," the nuance of "possibility" is absent. 15The present tense is often used with the verb mArA YAäyA to express an action that took place in the past.

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Passive constructions using the verb paRA:16

úarA "to catch, seize" (active) puil%Z fcoraek% úaer%eC%| "The police caught the thief." (passive with haäyA and YAäyA—NOT exceptional) fcoraek% úarA haey%eC%| "The thief was caught." fcoraek% úarA YAeb% nA| "The thief can't be caught." (passive with paRA—EXCEPTIONAL) fcor úarA paeR%eC%| "The thief was caught." ÇmarA úarA paRaba nA| "We shall not be caught."

The subject is in the nominative case; SUBJECT and VERB AGREE. tuim% ÅdÄa haÉet% it%na id%basa ÖpabAsa kair%yA fd%Ka| tuim% Yaid% ÉitmaeúÄ% nasIrAmabArura

BAƒAraGaer% úarA nA paRa, taeb% ÇmAek% fó%ÆAÉyA mAir%ä, Çim% Çpai–% kair%ba nA| "For three days, starting today, go without food and see how it feels. If in that

time you aren't caught inside Nasiram babu's larder, then flog me with a lathi, I won't complain." (Advanced Bengali, p. 105)

fsomanAeõ%ra ˚I èZImatIra Åib%iZÄ% fchArAet%É ÅsuKa úarA paeR%| "From Somnath's wife Srimati's very appearance, of course, her ill health is

obvious [i.e., is 'caught' or discerned]." (Jibanananda Das) mArA "to die" . . . ik% Çj BIl rAjakumAr rAjÄahArA haey% rAeg%-duHaeK% buk fP%eT% mArA paRaeto? ". . . would today the prince of the Bhils have died of a broken heart, out of rage

and sadness, having lost his kingdom?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 129)

16A further discussion of passives, including with paRA, can be found in Smith, Bengali Reference Grammar, section 39, "Compounds with the Verbal Noun," pp. 143-44.

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cApA "to suppress, crush, etc." kaey%ka mAsa úaer% JAem%lA calAra para GaTanATA cApA paeR%| "After the unpleasantness had proceeded for several months, the incident was

hushed up." (Ghulam Murshid) tAra bIéYAiù%ta fBogabuiÿ% ZIéNa haey% fZ%Sa paéYa»a iB%k`eToir%ya ib%eb%ek%ra fm%dAit%-ZaeYÄ%ra nIec% cApA

paeR%eC%| "Its [the Renaissance's] manly sensuality, vitiated, ultimately was tucked under

the emasculation-bed of Victorian conscience." (Sibnarayan Ray) jIbanAna«da dAZa ¡Aem%ra in%ec% cApA paeR YAna 1954-à| "Jibanananda Das was run over by a tram in 1954."

Exercises—Make the following sentences passive (omit the active subject):

1) tArA ÇmAed%r Kub BAla kaer% KAäyAla fs%id%n|

2) puil%Z fZ%S paéYa»a suBASca«‹aek% úaraet% pAer% in%|

3) Çim% ió%k balaet% pAir% nA, Çj b&iÛT% haeb% nA haeb% nA|

Translate:

4) paer%Z ca«daek% ÉyAMa DA°AraÉ balA cael%| (Satyajit Ray)

5) ÉhAek% kaib%-cair%t-kaõA ih%sAeb%ä pAó karA YAÉeb%| (Anon.)

6) tAek% [mAen kaib%tAr "laij%k'a] la¨Gana karael% bA Öep%•A karael% kaib%ra ÅiB%e„%ta mAen%TA úarA

paRaeb% fk%na? (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

III. mata There are two separate words, spelled the same but pronounced differently: A. As a NOUN, mata, pronounced m]t, means a number of things—"opinion, view" and

"consent, agreement" and "doctrine, creed":

ftomAr mat kI? "What's your opinion?" ÇmAek% är mat fp%et% haeb%| "I have to get her consent." matAmat "opinions, views pro and con" mataeB%d "a difference of opinion"

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B. As a POSTPOSITION REQUIRING THE GENITIVE, mat/maetoa, pronounced m]to, (interchangeable with matan/m]ton) can mean (1) "like; satisfying," (2) "worth," and (3) "for":

mata, meaning "like," etc., becomes part of a POSTPOSITIONAL PHRASE which behaves like an ADJECTIVE/ADVERB:

"like, similar to, approximate to"—

^cAed%r mata fC%el% "a moon-like child" mAey%r matana hAis% "a maternal [mother-like] smile" ÇpanAr mata flokaek% ÇmarA cAÉ| "We want a person like you." â fm%ey%iT% Puel%r matana fd%Kaet%| "That girl looks like a flower." Çim% àkaTu Ç∞CaeÕ%r maeto haey% paRalAm| "I became a little overwhelmed." Or, literally: "I became a little like

someone overwhelmed." (Anon.) "satisfying, suiting, equaling"—

maen%r maeto k'er% tArAy tArAy sAij%ey% tulael%n masij%d| "To his heart's content, he adorned the mosque with stars." (from Lesson 3, I) . . . ÇK fõ%ek% àKan Fd%in%k 150 ik%eloègAem%r mata fmom ÖöpAdan karaeC%| ". . . now they are producing daily approximately 150 kilograms of wax

from sugar cane." (from Lesson 19, I) taeb% iZ%•akatA àbaMa Journalism fboú hay ÇmAr maen%r mata kAj haÉeb%| "However, perhaps teaching and journalism would be the occupations I'd

prefer [occupations suiting my heart, dear to my heart]." (Advanced Bengali, p. 270) tAek% ÇmAr õAémasP`lAe % dujaen%r maeto cA Baer% id%et %balalAm| "I told him to fill my thermos flask with tea enough for two persons."

(Satyajit Ray)

VERBAL NOUN + mata may mean (a) approximately the same as the verbal noun + genitive case (consult Lesson 6, II, B) and translate as "to + verb," similar to an infinitive in English, or (b) "worthy of," the verb being translated with "-ing":

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"to + verb"—

. . . àÉ kaémasUcIr fp%Caen% ib%rAT samaéõan õAkael%ä „Aed%iZ%k kAÖn`is%el% tAek% pAZ kair%ey% fn%äyAr maeto „aeyojanIya saMaKÄAgair%ıatA "bAmapaÃI'ed%r iC%elo nA|

". . . though behind this agenda there was wide-spread support, in the provincial council itself the Leftists did not have the necessary majority to pass it." (Advanced Bengali, p. 262)

fb%ZI ic%ió% fl%KabAr maeto Zai°% Yaid% ftomAr nA õAek%, . . . "If you don't have the strength to write a lot of letters, . . . " (Rabindranath Tagore) mAr KuZI habAr mata fkonaä Kabar fn%É| "There is no news to make Mother happy." Or, literally: "Mother has no

news [from which] to become happy." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay) fsomanAõa cAey% cumuka id%ey% balael%_õAk`| tuim%É ió%ka kaer%Ca èZImatI, àKAen%

õAkabAra matana TAkA fn%É_balA Öic%ta iC%la dAdAek%| "Somnath took a sip of tea and said—'Forget it. You did right, Srimati,

we really don't have enough money to live here—and it was right for you to tell dada.'" (Jibanananda Das)

"worth, worthy of + verb + ing"—

Kub su«dar, Åen%k dUr fõ%ek% àes% fd%KAr maeto| "Very beautiful [the mosque], worth coming from far away to see." (from Lesson 3, I) fdyA| àÉ fr%, fs%É ÇbAra ÇpanAek% Öe–%ij%ta karA hae∞C%_ ÅiB%manÄu| [Öe–%ij%taBAeb%] Öe–%ij%ta habAra matanaÉ ib%Saya| "Deya: 'Hey, there, it's getting you all excited—' Abhimanyu: [excitedly] 'That's a topic to get excited about.'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

ADVERB OF TIME + mata behaves like an ADVERB and translates as "for":

Çjaek%r mata õAk| "Let it be for today." Or: "That is it for today." saŒÄAr par pUébapair%ic%ta kAeó%r fgolATAy ig%yA fs% rAe÷%r mata ÇèZay laÉla| "After sundown, he went to the familiar woodshed and took shelter for

that night." (Advanced Bengali, p. 142)

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fC%el%eb%lAra fkon` GaTanA maen% õAkaeb% Çra fkon`TA fY% ic%rakAel%ra maeto mana fõ%ek% mueC% YAeb% fs%TA Çeg% fõ%ek% fk%Ö balaet% pAer% nA|

"Ahead of time no one can tell which of one's childhood events will be remembered and which ones will be wiped from the mind forever." (Satyajit Ray)

C. As a SUFFIX, mata may be combined with (1) adjectives (a) to mean "-ish" or "sort of" and (b)

to make adverbs (see also Lesson 12, III), and with (2) nouns to mean (a) "according to, in keeping with" and also (b) "-ish," "-like," and "sort of":

"-ish, -like, sort of"—

su«daramata àkajan "a prettyish somebody" BAlamata fC%el% "a nice sort of boy" iB%iK%ir%mata àkaTA floka àes% d~ARAy| "A beggar-like person came and stood [before us]." (Abdul Mannan Syed)

adverb—

KuiZ%mata "as you wish, according to one's desires" BAlamata il%eKo! su«daramata il%eKo! "Write well! Write gracefully!" kAjakaéma ik% Çra ió%kamata karAra ÖpAya ÇeC% kAü?17 "Can anyone do his job properly anymore?" (Dilara Hashem)

"according to, in keeping with"—

paer% fs% bARIr ÖóAen% òuik%yA ÅBÄAsamata Çègaeh%r suer% DAik%la_ä mA dug`gA_ä Åpu_

"Later he entered the inner courtyard of the house and, according to habit, called in an eager voice—O Durga—O Opu—" (Advanced Bengali, p. 143)

fs%Ésab GaTanAek%É „aúAnata ÅbalaÍan kaer% iZ%ÓIrA in%ej%rAÉ in%ej%ed%r „aeyojanamata CaRA bA gAn

racanA kaer% in%ta| "Following basically those particular episodes, the artists themselves would

compose their own songs or rhyming verse as needed [according to their own needs]." (Advanced Bengali, p. 186)

17A number of spellings of the indefinite genitive are found: kAü, kAüra, kAero/kAraä|

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àÉ in%ey% Çim% àKan ÇraÈBa kair%et% pAir%, tArapar suib%úAmata ÅnÄa kAej%ä hAt id%et% pAir%| "I can start now with this. Later, I can take up other tasks, at your convenience

[i.e., according to C. R. Das' convenience]." (Advanced Bengali, p. 270)

it%ir%Za bai÷%Za baCara baey%es% rabI«‹anAõa rIit%matana „ait%iı%ta, bAMlA sAih%etÄ%ra ÅnÄatama „aúAna fl%Kaka ih%es%eb% ïIk&ta, Çra à baaey%es% jIbanAna«dara maA÷a àkaKAnA kAbÄaègaÃa fb%ir%ey%eC%, tAä ib%eZ%Sa fkÖ pA–A fd%yain%, pa÷a-pai÷kA fõ%ek% ^tAra kaib%tA fP%rata Çes%|

"At the age of thirty or thirty-two, Rabindranath was well established, acknowledged as one of the major writers of Bangla literature; and at this same age, only one volume of Jibanananda's poetry had appeared, and even then no one paid it much heed; his poems came back from journals and magazines [rejected]." (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

ÇyAr kAeC% duÉ Yamaj fm%ey% fmonA Çr il%sAek% fr%eK% äed%r mA ÅiP%es% YAbAr samay bael%

fg%el%n, samayamata äed%r fgosal kair%ey% fY%na fK%et% fd%äyA hay| "Leaving the twin girls Mona and Lisa with the maid-servant, their mother said,

as she was about to go to the office, 'See to it that they are bathed and fed at the proper time.'" (from Lesson 14, I)

cAkair% CAiR%el% Çim% jun mAes%r fZ%eS% fd%eZ% iP%ir%et% É∞CA kair%, ÅbaZÄa Yaid% samayamata

passage pAÉ| "Once I quit my job, I would want to return home during the latter part of June,

that is, of course, if I were to secure passage [on a steamer] in time." (Advanced Bengali, p. 269)

Exercises—Translate:

1) ic%rakAel%r ÅBÄAsamata d&iÛT% ÇpanA fõ%ek% ^bA hAet%r kabaij%r id%ek% cael% fg%la| C'TA fb%ej% ft%ero

im%in%T| (Satyajit Ray)

rIit%mata means "according to custom" but is most often used colloquially to mean "THOROUGHLY, COMPLETELY." samayamata means "according to a fixed time, according to the age, according to the demands of the times," but is most often used colloquially to mean "IN TIME."

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2) ÅéõAö, rAjAr catuiéd%kaTA hAis%hIn fK%lAhIn ZaÂahIn janahIn BISaN maüBUim% karaet% pArael% tAed%r

maen%r maeto rAjasaÈËam rae•% hay| (Advanced Bengali, p. 115)

3) äek% saöeloka balAr mata im%õÄA Çr ik%CuÉ haet% pAer% nA| (Anon.)

4) fkoeno is%ÿA»a karAr mata „amAN fm%el% nA| (Anon.)

5) . . . fmoT rAjaïa haÉet% ZAsan saMa£A»a Karac bAed% YAhA ÅbaiZ%ÛTa õAik%eb% tAhA ÉMaer%j fkoÈpAin%

É∞CAmata bÄay kair%eb%| (Advanced Bengali, p. 252)

6) taKanakAr id%en% Åen%ek%r bAiR%et%É kÄAem%rA õAkata nA; bA õAkael%ä, fs%TA hata cAr-^pAc TAkA

dAem%r baAVa kÄAem%rA; tAÉ id%ey% ft%man BAelo Caib% Öóata nA, Å»ata ^bAiú%ey% rAKAr maeto ègup

Caib% ta nayaÉ| (Satyajit Ray)

IV. TIME OF DAY A. TELLING TIME:

kaTA bAej%? "What time is it?" àkaTA bAej%| "It's one o'clock."

Error to avoid: kata bAej%? "how ridiculous is it?"

kata = "how much," but NOT "how much o'clock" bAej% is both an adjective ("ridiculous, worthless") as well as a verb (3rd-

person present of "to strike") ADJECTIVES MODIFYING NUMBERS:

saäyA/fsoyA "and a quarter, a quarter past" sAeR% "and a half, half past" fpOen%/fpoen% "less a quarter, a quarter to"

saäyA dueTo bAjaeb%| "It'll be a quarter past two."

ka = short form of kaya, "how much" (cf., Ca = Cay "six" and na = nay "nine")

TA (in time expressions) = "o'clock"

bAjA "to sound, strike" ("It strikes [one bell , two bells , etc.].")

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„Ay sAeR% it%naeT% haey% àelo| "It's almost three-thirty." ió%k fpOen% cAraeT% fb%ej% fg%eC%| "It's exactly a quarter to four."

fd%R "one and a half" and ÇRAÉ "two and a half" are SEPARATE NUMBERS in Bangla:

fd%RaTA (NOT sAeR% àkaTA) bAej%| "It's half past one." ÇRAÉTA (NOT sAeR% dueTo) fb%ej%eC%| "It has struck two-thirty."

saäyA, sAeR%, fpOen%, fd%R, and ÇRAÉ are not limited to expressions of time of day, e.g., saäyA ^pAc fk%ij% "five and a quarter kg's [kilograms]"; sAeR% Cay TAkA "six and a half takas [Bangladesh] or rupees [India]"; fpOen% sAt mAÉl "six and three-quarter miles"; fd%R baCar "a year and a half"; ÇRAÉTA Gar "two and a half rooms."

MINUTES AFTER THE HOUR (use the PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLE of bAjA):

ÇTaTA fb%ej% ^pAc im%in%T| Or: ÇTaTA fb%ej% ^pAc| Or: ÇTaTA ^pAc| "[It's] five past eight."

MINUTES BEFORE THE HOUR (use the INFINITIVE of bAjA):

bAeroTA bAjaet% kuiR% im%in%T bAik%| Or: bAeroTA bAjaet% kuiR% im%in%T| Or: bAeroTA bAjaet% kuiR%| "[It's] twenty to twelve."

② ③ ④

TA becomes in the Kolkata dialect fTo after the numeral two and fT% after three and four only (see Intro Bengali, p. 94). In the Dhaka dialect, TA is used with all numerals including two, three, and four.

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Idiom: är bAeroTA fb%ej% fg%eC%| "It's all over for him./ He's done for./ He's finished." puraeno fnegiTBguelor bAeroTA fbej fgeC| "The old negatives [of Satyajit Ray's films] are in rotten shape." (Dilip Basu, paraphrasing Ismail Merchant)

B. SPECIFYING A PARTICULAR TIME:

kaTAy Çsaba? "What time shall I come by?" CaTAy Çes%n nA18 "Why not come by at six."

Note: kaTAy, kaTAr samay/samaey% "at what time [o'clock]" (locative optional) The expected reply to kaTAy ("at what o'clock") is a specific time; the reply to kaKan ("when") can be less specific but need not be so, depending on the circ*mstances. For example:

Question: kaKan Çsaeb%? "When are you stopping by?" Answer : naTA nAgAd Çsaba ik%? "Shall I drop in around nine?" Or: kAl Çsaet% pAir%| "I can come over tomorrow." Question: cATa^gAy YAäyAr f¡%nTA kaTAy òAkA CAeR%? "What time does the train to Chittagong leave Dhaka?" Answer: àgAraTA fb%ej% bAÉZ im%in%eT%r samaey% CAeR%| "It leaves at eleven-twenty-two." Question: kaKan àKAen% ^epOCAeb%? "When will it arrive here?" Answer: paraid%n sŒÄAy CaTA fb%ej% caiÔ%Z im%in%eT%r samay ^epOCobAr kaõA| "It's due to arrive the following evening at six-forty." Or: paraid%n sŒÄAy ^epOCobAr kaõA| "It's due to arrive the following evening."

18The honorific present imperatives in the Dhaka dialect end in àn; in the Calcutta dialect, Ön, e.g., Çs%un|

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Question: tAÉael% sAeR% CaTAr maeúÄ% Ée¯T%Zaen% ig%ey% hAij%r haäyA Öic%t? "Then I should be at the station by six-thirty?" Answer: ij%|19 Çim% CaTAr maeúÄ% fs%KAen% ig%ey õAkaba| "Yes, Sir. I'll be there by six."

C. MEASURING TIME:

ÇmAed%r Kub kam samay ÇeC%| "We have very little time." paen%ra im%in%T haey% fg%eC%| "Fifteen minutes have passed."

with lAgA—

fs%KAen% fY%et% ÇmAr kata•aN lAgaeb%? "How long will it take me to get there?" Çú Ga∆TA lAgaeb%| "It'll take half an hour." Çero Åen%k samay lAgaet% pAer%| "It might take a lot more time." ca«dananagar ^epOCaet%É lAgala fd%R Ga∆TA| "It took an hour and a half to reach Candan Nagar." (Satyajit Ray)

19ij% is a deferential "yes" (ij% nA "no") used among Muslims; among Hindus, Çe≥ or Çe≥ % ^hÄA is used as a deferential "yes" (Çe≥ % nA "no").

maeúÄ%, with expressions of time means "not exceeding the time specified": sAeR% CaTAr maeúÄ% "not later than six-thirty" sAeR% Ca Ga∆TAr maeúÄ% "within six and a half hours' time" àk baCaer%r maeúÄ% iõ%is%s fZ%S karaet% haeb%| "The thesis must be finished within one year." maeúÄ% maeúÄ%, mAeJ% mAeJ%, or mAeJ maeúÄ = "from time to time"

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la≤A kAiT%et% àkaTu samay lAig%la| "It required a little time to cut through the awkwardness." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

D. PERIODS OF THE DAY: In neither English nor Bangla are the limits of periods of the day (e.g., morning, noon, afternoon, etc.) firmly fixed. Nevertheless, names for individual periods correspond in general to certain hours of the day, though the limits of some of those periods can vary according to the season, i.e., according to the length of daylight:

fBor "dawn/early morning," about 4-6 a.m. sakAl "morning," 7-11 a.m. dupur (iŸ%„ahar, in SADHU) "noon," 12-2 p.m. ib%ek%l (ib%kAl/Fb%kAl) "afternoon," 3-5 p.m. saeŒÄ% (saŒÄA) "twilight, evening," 6-7 p.m. rAi÷%20 (rAt) "night," 8 p.m.-3 a.m. dupur rAi÷% (or rAt adupur) "midnight"

In English one speaks of 8 o'clock in the EVENING, or even 9 or 10 in the evening; in Bangla from 8 o'clock on is considered NIGHT (rAi÷%, not saeŒÄ%). fb%lA "period of day, time" usually implies morning time, when used by itself:

Åen%k fb%lA haey%eC%| "It's late in the morning."

Other meanings include "turn, time":

taeb% ÇmAr fb%lA lAió% fk%na? "But why wield the rod when it is my turn?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 104)

àÉ fb%lA: "opportune time, opportunity"

àÉ fb%lA à gaÆA-mA'r fZoBA YA fd%KabAr fd%eK% nAä, Çr baRa àkaTA ik%Cu õAkaeC% nA| "At this opportune time, what there is to see of Mother Ganges' beauty, gaze upon

it now, for little of it will last for long." (Advanced Bengali, p. 110-11)

20The locative case is often rAe÷% (rAet%) and sometimes rAi–%er% instead of the expected rAi÷%et%|

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Following other names of periods of the day, fb%lA means simply "time," e.g., fBor fb%lA "dawn [time]/early morning [time]." As with samay, the locative case is optional with fb%lA:

Çj sakAl fb%lA àlAm| "I came this morning." kAl dupur fb%lAy bAiR% õAkaeb% nA| "She won't be home tomorrow at noon."

If fb%lA is not present, the names of the periods of the day require the case ending, when used in the locative sense:

Çj sakAel% Çip%es% fg%la| "He went to the office this morning." dupuer% Kub kam KAn| "She eats very little for lunch."

Names of periods of the day can be used as adjectives before expressions of "o'clock":

fBor ^pAcaTAy Öóael%n| "He got up at five o'clock in the morning." kAl rAt daZaTAr samay tArA ^epOeC%eC%| "They arrived at ten yesterday evening."

There is no equivalent to "a.m." and "p.m." in Bangla. The above adjectival construction serves the same purpose in most situations, i.e., rAt (daZaTA) = (10) p.m. Some schedules use the 24-hour clock: 13.00 = 1:00 p.m., etc. Exercises—Give the times in Bangla:

1) 12:15 p.m. 2) 6:45 p.m. 3) 7:30 a.m.

4) 3:18 5) 9:57 6) 1:30 Respond in complete sentences in Bangla:

7) How long are you going to stay here?

8) When does the lecture begin?

9) How long will it take to get from here to the university?

10) What time is it now?

11) Can you meet me at 2:30?

12) Do we have to be home before midnight?

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LESSON 1010

I. ïAgata BASaN

mAnanIya „aúAn Åit%iõ%, saBApait%, ca¿aègAm ÅéõanIit% saim%it%, saÎAin%ta „ait%in%iú%b&«da, Ba‹amaih%lA ä Ba‹amaehodayagaN: ca¿aègAm ÅéõanIit% saim%it%r iŸ%tIya bAiéS%k saeÎ%laen%r ÅBÄaéõanA pair%Saed%r saBApait% ih%sAeb% Çim% ÇpanAed%r ïAgata jAnAbAr sueYog fp%ey% ÅtÄa»a gaiéb%ta fboú karaiC%| . . . . Çim% ÇZA kair%, à saeÎ%laen%r ÇelocanA Pala„asU haeb% àbaMa ÇmarA ègAmIN pair%kaÓanA àbaMa ÖÕayaen%r samasÄAsamUha pair%ic%iΩ%ta karaet% àbaMa tAr samAúAn ä ÖÕayan bÄApAer% parAmaéZa dAn karaet% sa•am haebo| ÅBÄaéõanA kaim%iT%r pae•% Çim% àÉ saeÎ%laen% ÅMaZaègahaNakArI sakalaek% ä ib%eZ%SaBAeb% bAÉer% fõ%ek% Çgata „ait%in%iú%b&«daek% ïAgata jAnAÉ| tAed%r ÅMaZaègahaeN%r ŸArA ÇmAed%r à saeÎ%lan sAPalÄamaiƒ%ta haeb%| àta ÅÓa samaey%r maeúÄ% à saeÎ%lan ÅnuıAn karAr k&it%‘a ca¿aègAm ib%çaib%dÄAlaey%r ÅéõanIit% ib%BAg, ca¿aègAm kael%j àbaMa ca¿aègAm sarakArI bAiN%jÄa kael%ej%r| ca¿aègAm fj%lA kaét&pa•a àbaMa ca¿aègAem%r ib%iB%⋲ a bAiN%jÄa „ait%ıAn ä bÄA≠asamUha YArA ÇmAed%r à bÄApAer% Çiéõ%k àbaMa ÅnÄAnÄaBAeb% sahaeYoig%tA kaer%eC%n tAed%r kAeC% Çim% k&ta≥a| Ba‹amaih%lA ä maehodayagaN, Çim% ÇpanAed%r sAdar ïAgata jAnAÉ àbaMa ÇpanAed%r ÇelocanA Pala„asU fhok_à kAmanA kair%| úanÄabAd, à. àm. jaih%üi◊ %n KAn saBApait%, ÅBÄaéõanA pair%Sad tAir%K, ca¿aègAm iŸ%tIya bAiéS%k saeÎ%lan 24eZ% ài„%l, 1976 ca¿aègAm ÅéõanIit% saim%it%21

21Both kaim%iT%, from English, and saim%it%, from Sanskrit, are used in Bangla to mean "committee."

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II. AUXILIARY VERBS22 The term "compound verb" designates a construction of at least two words, the last of which being a verb, the other word or words being either (a) another verb in its past active participial form or (b) a noun. For example:

a. PAP + verb in%ey% YAäyA "to take" b. noun + verb ÇZA karA "to hope"

The term "auxiliary verb" will refer here only to certain final verbs in the (a) type of compounds. Auxiliary verbs, though they have a literal meaning of their own, are not translatable literally but instead add a nuance to the "meaningful" verb that they follow. Take, for instance, three compound verbs of the (a) type in which YAäyA is the final verbal element:

c. in%ey% YAäyA "to take" d. fn%em% YAäyA "to descend" e. paeR% YAäyA "to fall"

In the (c) example, YAäyA, though not always translated, does mean "to go," and such a meaning is implied by this compound verb, which can be translated quite literally "to take and go." The actions, in this case, are sequential; first the action of "taking" occurs, then the action of "going." The YAäyA here is NOT what we are calling an auxiliary verb. In the (d) example, YAäyA does not represent an action independent of nAmA ("to descend") but simply gives direction to the action signified by nAmA; YAäyA here implies that the nAmA, in this case, means "to GO down." (The corresponding compound, fn%em% ÇsA, means "to COME down.") The actions of "descending" and "going" are not sequential. The subject of the verb does not first descend and then go somewhere; he or she simply descends, going. In the (e) example, YAäyA again does not represent an action independent of paRA% ("to fall") and, moreover, does not represent an action at all. The YAäyA, in this case, does not mean "to go" but instead adds a nuance of finality (however superfluous that might seem) to the action of falling. There are not two actions expressed here, and so there is no question of sequentiality. The YAäyA in the (d) and (e) examples above is what is being called an auxiliary verb. The YAäyA in these two examples does not represent the literal action of the verb "to go" but instead adds something to the "meaningful" verb, nAmA and paRA respectively. The YAäyA in the (c) example, on the other hand, does stand for the verb "to go" and is NOT an auxiliary, in the sense that we are using the term.

22See Smith, Bengali Reference Grammar, for an excellent presentation of auxiliaries, in particular what he calls "aspective auxiliaries," pp. 149-58.

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The following verbs, all perfectly good and "meaningful" in their own right, also may function as AUXILIARY VERBS:

ÇsA/YAäyA fd%äyA/fn%äyA õAkA (ÇC-) äóA, ftolA, paRA, fP%lA, and basA

A. ÇsA/YAäyA: As auxiliaries, ÇsA ("to come") and YAäyA ("to go") may add (1) DIRECTION or (2) FINALITY or CERTAINTY to the "meaningful" verb. For example:

DIRECTION

calA ("to move") is unspecific as to whether it means to go or to come:

cael% ÇsA "to come" cael% YAäyA "to go"

nAmA ("to descend, get down") as mentioned above, is unspecific as to whether it means to

go down or come down:

fn%em% ÇsA "to get down, come down" fn%em% YAäyA "to get down, go down"

fP%rA ("to return") is unspecific as to whether it means to return from here to there ("to go

back") or from there to here ("to come back"):

iP%er% ÇsA "to return, to come back" iP%er% YAäyA "to return, to go back"

CERTAINTY or FINALITY

YAäyA, as an auxiliary meaning certainty or finality, is more common than is ÇsA: ÇsA ("to come")—the auxiliary (YAäyA only) adds some certainty:

tArA àes% fg%eC% "They have arrived." pUjAr CuiT% àes% fg%la| "The puja vacation arrived." (Advanced Bengali, p. 145)

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àes% YAäyA (3rd-person + genitive construction) = "to matter, to make any difference": kApaTA Çeg% BAeX%in%, àbAer%ä BAXala nA, BAXael%ä kAür ik%Cu àes% fY%ta nA| "The teacup hadn't broken before; didn't break this time either; and if it did break, no

one would have cared one way or the other." (Jibanananda Das) ftomAr ik%Cu àes% YAy ik%? "Does it make any difference to you?" ^hÄA, Kub àes% YAy| "Yes, it makes a great deal of difference." ^hÄA, Kub YAy Çes%| "Yes, it makes a great deal of difference."

The two verbs may be inverted, but then both are finite verbs (YAy Çes%), not one a PAP and the other a finite verb.

õAkA ("to remain, stay")—the auxiliary (YAäyA only) adds some certainty:

. . . ik%CuTA fmom tAr maeúÄ%ä fõ%ek% YAy| ". . . a small quantity of wax remains in it [the pulp of pulverized sugar cane]."

(from Lesson 19, I) õAmA ("to stop, end")—the auxiliary adds finality:

b&iÛT% fõ%em% àes%eC% "The rain has stopped." b&iÛT% fõ%em% fg%eC% "The rain stopped."

balA ("to say, speak")—the auxiliary (YAäyA only) adds some finality:

fs% bael% fg%eC% fY% . . . "He said that . . . "

haäyA ("to be, become, happen; to be born")—the auxiliary adds finality: fZS hey fgeC "It's over, finished." fZS hey àes%eC% "It's over, finished." Zuü hey fgeC "It's already begun."

baÆaed%eZ% fb%ed%ra flopaÉ haÉyA ig%yAeC%| "In Bengal, the Vedas have disappeared completely." (Advanced Bengali, p. 94)

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rAjarAnI balael%n_"Çr kaTA id%n fõ%ek% YA, fC%el%iT% haey% YAk|' "Her highness said, 'Stay a few days more; let the child be born.'" (Advanced Bengali, p. 126)

B. fd%äyA/fn%äyA As auxiliaries, fd%äyA and fn%äyA imply direction of the results of the "meaningful" verb. fd%äyA implies that the results of the action of the "meaningful" verb are DIRECTED AWAY FROM THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE. fn%äyA implies that the results of the action of the "meaningful" verb are DIRECTED TOWARD THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE.

(without aux.) àÉ kaõATA ftomAr BAÉek% bala| "Tell this to your brother." (with aux.) àÉ kaõATA ftomAr BAÉek% bael% dAä| "Tell this to your brother."

The auxiliary here simply adds an extra nuance, emphasizing that the action of "speaking a message" is directed away from the subject of the sentence ("you") and toward someone else ("your brother").

(without aux.) àÉ kaõATA fl%Ka| "Write this down." (with aux.) àÉ kaõATA il%eK% nAä| "Write this down." (with aux.) àÉ kaõATA il%eK% dAä| "Write this down."

Again, the auxiliary simply adds a nuance, emphasizing that the action of "writing something" is directed toward or intended for the benefit of the subject of the sentence ("you")—in the sentence with nAä—and directed away from or intended for the benefit of someone other than the subject of the sentence (other than "you")—in the sentence with dAä|

Çim% tA kaer% fd%ebo| "I'll do it." (for someone other than me) Çim% tA kaer% fn%ebo| "I'll do it." (for me) Çim% Caib% fd%iK%ey% fd%ba| "I'll show [you/somebody] a picture." Çim% Caib%TA fd%eK% fn%ba| "I'll take a look at the picture." fs% Çer%k id%n buiJ%ey% fd%ba| "I'll explain it [to you] another day." (Jibanananda Das)

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àKan àÉ ih%es%baTA bueJ% nAä| "Now see that you understand these figures." (Jibanananda Das) . . . fl%KA ÇmAy pAóAeb%? Çim% ÅnubAd k'er% fn%ebo| ". . . would you send me an article? I'll translate it [for myself, for my own

benefit]." (from Lesson 13, I) fs%Ésab GaTanAek%É „aúAnata ÅbalaÍan kaer% iZ%ÓIrA in%ej%rAÉ in%ej%ed%r „aeyojanamata CaRA bA gAn

racanA kaer% in%ta| "The artists themselves, as they saw fit, used to compose simple rhyming verse or

songs, centered basically around all these events." (Advanced Bengali, p. 186)

Fairly common, though redundant, are the constructions id%ey% fd%äyA and in%ey% fn%äyA:

àKuin% rais%d id%et% haeb%? id%ey% fd%eb% YaKan suib%eú% haeb%, àKuin% ik% darakAr| "Should I give you the receipt right this moment?" "Give it when it's convenient; what's the need right now?" (Jibanananda Das) ftora bAbA iP%rael% àkabAra DA°Aer%ra kAeC%ä hayata fdORuet% haeb%| ÅiP%s nA fY%et% pArael%

CuiT% in%ey% fn%eb%na| ÖpAya ik% Çra? "When your father gets back, he may have to run right out to the doctor's [because

your grandfather is ill]. If he can avoid the office, he'll take a day off. What alternative is there?" (Dilara Hashem)

C. õAkA/ÇC- The primary meanings of õAkA ("to remain, stay" and also "to continue, be accustomed to") and of ÇC- ("to be, exist") are also the nuances of these verbs when used as auxiliaries:

Çim% KAbAr fK%ey% àkaTu Zuey% iC%lAm "After I had eaten, I was lying down for a while." (literally: "I lay down and was

in that state of lying down") (Intro Bengali, p. 213) fs% baraeP%r äpar paeR% ig%ey% hAt fB%eX% baes% ÇeC% "She fell on the ice and broke her arm, and she is laid up." (literally: "she sat

down and is in that state of sitting down") (Intro Bengali, p. 216) „aetÄ%k g&haêaÉ k&iS% ä ÅnÄAnÄa kAeéY%r janÄ afgo-pAlan kair%yA õAek%| "Each and every householder keeps cows for cultivation and other tasks." (Advanced Bengali, p. 199)

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fs%É Å¥ael%r àk fèZ%NIr fsOKIn flok fpoSA kuRA pAKIr sahAyatAy banÄa kuRA iZ%kAr kair%yA õAek%|

"A certain class of leisured people of that locality hunts wild kuras with the help of trained kura birds." (Advanced Bengali, p. 205)

jagaöib%KÄAta ParAsI BA ar froD~ÄA iY%in% ÅtÄa»a jaR„a˙aer%r fd%ha fõ%ek% ÅsaMaKÄa jIib%ta„Ay

fd%b-dAnab fk%eT% bAr kaer%eC%n, it%in%ä Zunaet% pAÉ, YaKan-taKan hAet% kAdA in%ey%, ÇXuel%r iT%ep% mAiT%r putul taey%r kaer% õAek%n|

"The world-famous French sculptor Rodin, who chipped out countless lifelike gods and demons from the body of utterly inert stone, would also, so we hear, at any odd time take clay in hand and, with his fingers, fashion clay figurines." (Advanced Bengali, p. 121 & Lesson 4, II, exercises)

fs% tAed%r bAiR%et% ig%ey% õAek| "He goes to their house time and again." Or: "He was accustomed to going to

their house." (Anon.) fC%el% fb%lAy im%eõÄ% bael% õAik% ta fs% tuim% jAna, ik%… baRa haey% ftomAra sAm`en% kaKana ta im%õÄ

bail%in%, mA| "During childhood I fibbed constantly, that you know. But once grown, I have

never lied in front of you, Mother." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

When the "meaningful" verb is in the infinitive form, the auxiliary õAkA implies CONTINUOUS action of the "meaningful" verb:23 fs% tAed%r bAiR%r id%ek% f~h%eT% fY%et% õAkala "She continued walking towards their house." (See also Lesson 15, II, A.)

D. äóA, ftolA, paRA, fP%lA, and basA The first two, äóA/ftolA, in a sense, are a pair, as are the next two, paRA/fP%lA| The first member of each pair is used with intransitive verbs (taking no object) while the second member of the pair is used with transitive verbs (taking an object).

rAjapu÷a bAp`pAr su«dara ZrIra id%na-id%na flohAra maeto Za°a haey Öóala| Day after day Prince Bappa's handsome body became strong like iron.

(Abindranath Tagore)

23Difference between continual/continuous: a faucet drips continually but pours in a continuous stream.

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taKana it%in% bAp`pAra ZarIer%ra saeÆ% manaek%ä gaeR% tulaet% lAgael%na| Then he [the Brahmin priest] began to develop Bappa's mind also, in conjunction

with his body. (Abindranath Tagore) Though not interchangeable, these five auxiliaries all imply that the action expressed by the "meaningful" verb has been done either (a) somewhat suddenly, quickly, unexpectedly (particularly with basA) or (b) completely, or both.

"gair%ba ha'el%É ÅparAeú%ra Åiú%kAra jaœAya nA,' àkaTu Åsaih%ˆu BAeb%É ba'el% ÖóalAma Çim%| (suddenly)

"'Just because one is poor does not give him the right to commit an offense,' I spoke out, somewhat impatiently." (Buddhadeva Bose, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 118)

sutIéõa à ij%in%saTAr mAen% ió%k bueJ% Öóaet% pAer% nA| (completely) "Sutirtha wasn't able to comprehend exactly the significance of this thing." (Jibanananda Das) „Ay ^payatAiÔ%Z baCar Çeg% ÇlIjAn bÄApArI pueroeno masaij%daTAek% natun k'er%

tuel%iC%el%n| (completely) "About forty-five years back, Alijan Byapari had renovated that old mosque." (from Lesson 3, I) maen%r maeto k'er% tArAy tArAy sAij%ey% tulael%n masaij%d| (completely) "He, to his heart's content, decorated the mosque with stars." (from Lesson 3, I) kaey%kaid%na kAja kair%bAra paer%É pUjA Çis%yA paiR%la| (quickly & completely) "After working there for but a few days, the [Durga] puja festival rolled around."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 143) àta GuraCa fk%na, ¡Aem% Öeó% paRa sutIéõa| (quickly & completely) "Why are you wandering about so; get on the tram, Sutirtha." (Jibanananda Das) sAhasa kaer% bael% fP%el% bAdaZA, "ÇbuúAbI|' (suddenly) "Badsha blurted out boldly, 'Abudabi.'" (Syed Shamsul Haq, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 131) Çja ftomAra Fd%nai«d%na fl%KA fZ%Sa kair%yA fP%la| (quickly & completely) "Today finish up your daily writing quickly." (Advanced Bengali, p. 96)

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ä „Ò kaer% baes%, "Ç∞CA, fCoTamAmA, ära maeto kata iB%•uk ÇeC%?' (suddenly, unexpectedly) "She blurts out the question, 'Uncle, how many beggars are there like her?'" (Ritwik Ghatak) ku∂a GARa iP%rAÉyA muKa KAnA ib%k&ta kair%yA bail%la, "YA fB%eb%ic% tAÉ| Åm`in% ip%Cu fD%ek%

bas`il%?' (suddenly, unexpectedly) "Kunja, turning his head and making a horrible face, said, 'Just as I thought. So

you call me back just like that?'" [Calling someone from behind is considered dangerously inauspicious.] (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

These five auxiliaries are not used in negative sentences. There is no simple rule governing which auxiliaries can be used with which "meaningful" verbs. Take note of occurrences when you come upon them in your readings and conversations. Exercises—Try your hand at choosing the appropriate auxiliary. All sentences are, with some abridgement, from Abanindranath Tagore's "rAja kAih%nI,' pp. 37, 47, 87, 97, 126, 131.

1) Çgun haóAö úU-úU kaer% ∏ ael% @@@| (Öóaelo, õAkaelo)

"The fire suddenly flared up with an intense flame."

2) saba samaya pAhAeR%ra gAey% Puel%ra fgoCA PueT% @@@| (mAraeto, paRaeto, õAkaeto)

"On the side of the mountain clusters of flowers were always in bloom."

3) Çim%É ftoek% fC%el%ra maeto buek% fT%en% @@@| (id%lAm, in%lAm)

"It was I who drew you to my chest like a son."

4) pAóAen%ra taeloyAra ic%etoer%ra paõaGATa rae°%ra fèsoet% rAXA kaer% %@@@| (Öóaelo, tulaelo)

"The Pathan swords turned the streets and lanes of Chitor red in streams of

blood."

5) Yata bueRo-bueRo rAjaputa saédAra tAek% úaer% @@@| (basael%n, fK%el%n, àel%n)

"All the old Rajput headmen surrounded him."

6) „akAƒa baTagAeC%ra pAeZ% àkaTA suRaÆa pAtAel%ra id%ek% fn%em% @@@| (ÇeC%, fg%elo)

"Beside a gigantic banyan tree a tunnel descended toward the nether world."

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III. haey% & ih%es%eb%/ih%sAeb%: "as" As POSTPOSITIONS REQUIRING NO CASE ENDING ON THE PRECEDING WORD, haey% and ih%es%eb%/ih%sAeb% mean "as." The word haey% suggests more permanence ("having become such and such" or "being such and such") whereas ih%es%eb%/ih%sAeb% is more for just a given situation ("counted as or considered as" or "in the capacity of"): haey%—

Çim% ftomAr baŒu haey% fs% kaõA ftomAek% balaiC%| "I am telling you that AS YOUR FRIEND." Çpain% mAiék%n rAÙdUt haey% tA balaeC%n taeb% saitÄ% kaõA balaet% fg%el% kI maen% kaer%n? "You are saying that AS THE AMERICAN AMBASSADOR, but in truth what

do you really think?"

Contrast this haey% with haey as a postposition requiring the genitive case on the preceding word and meaning "for" or "on behalf of." (See Lesson 2, III.) Çim% ftomAr baŒur haey% fs% kaõA ftomAek% balaiC%| "I am telling you that ON BEHALF OF a friend of yours." Çim% ftomAr baŒu haey% fs% kaõA ftomAek% balaiC%| "I am telling you that AS a friend of yours." Çpain% mAiék%n rAÙdUet%r haey% balaeC%n . . . "You are speaking FOR the American ambassador . . . " Çpain% mAiék%n rAÙdUt haey% balaeC%n . . . "You are speaking AS the American ambassador . . . "

Åen%ek% balaeC%, pAZAra Gaer% nA ik% froj saŒÄAy Çsata ib%RAla haey%| "Many say that she used to come to Pasha's house every evening AS A CAT."

(Syed Hamidul Husain) nArI haÉyA àÉ duHaKa ik% kair%yA sahÄa hay? "AS A WOMAN (BEING A WOMAN), how can you tolerate this sorrow?"

(Asutosh Bhattacarya) ÅiB%BAbakaed%ra „ait%in%iú% haey% Çim% ^dARAba Éel%k`aZaen%| "AS A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE GUARDIANS [of the college students], I

shall stand for the election [to the College Committee]." (Jibanananda Das)

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ku∂a BayAnaka £uÿa haÉyA bail%la_"fpoRAaramuKI, tuÉ fCoTa fbona haey% baRaBAÉek% tAiR%ey% id%s`'|

kusum bail%la, "id%É'| "Kunja, furious, said, 'Shameless one, you, BEING THE YOUNGER SISTER,

are throwing out of the house [your] older brother.' Kusum replied, 'Yes I am.'" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

ih%es%eb%/ih%sAeb%—

. . . saBApait% ih%sAeb% Çim% ÇpanAed%r ïAgata jAnAbAr sueYog fp%ey% ÅtÄa»a gaiéb%ta fboú karaiC%|

". . . I am very honored to have the opportunity, AS CHAIRMAN, to welcome all of you." (from section I above)

fm%ey%ra bAbA ih%sAeb% ÇmAra kaétabÄa fY% Çim% fm%ey%ra ib%ey% ió%ka samaey% id%É| "AS THE GIRL'S FATHER it is my responsibility to get her married at the proper

time." (Intro Bengali, Part II, Lesson 26a) „amaõanAõ ib%ZI „aúAnata rabI«‹anAeõ%r sAih%tÄ asamAelocak ih%es%eb% ïIk&ta hael%ä àÉ ègaeÃ% it%in%

Ünaib%MaZa ZatAÂIr àk fèZ%ıa kaib%r jIbanakaõA ib%pulaBAeb% tuel% úaer%eC%n| "Pramathanath Bishi, though acknowledged primarily AS A CRITIC of

Rabindranath's literature, in this book [i.e., the one referred to] has taken up, in detail, the life story of one of the finest poets of the 19th century." (Advanced Bengali, p. 167)

àÉ BAb ä Bai°% rasA’ak kAbÄakAih%nI in%ey% paTuyA raX ä fr%KA id%ey% fY% Çel%KÄa racanA karata

iZ%Óaba˙u ih%sAeb% fs%guil%ä ÅtulanIya| "Those pictures which, from [taking] these devotion- and emotion-filled tales, the

patuya created with [giving] color and line are incomparable AS ART OBJECTS." (Advanced Bengali, p. 184)

janasAúAraeN%r saMa˘&it%r bAhan ih%sAeb% àÉ paTaic%e÷%r fkona tulanA pAäyA YAy nA| "AS CONVEYORs of culture of the common people, these scroll paintings are

incomparable." (Advanced Bengali, p. 189)

ih%es%b/ih%sAb, as a NOUN, means "account"; ih%es%b karA, "to calculate"

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Exercises—Supply either haey% or ih%es%eb% in the blanks:

1) ik%… pAóak @@@ ÇmAr maen% hay, àÉ Öi°%iT% Çúuin%k bAMalA kAebÄ% jIbanAna«da saÈpaeék% YataTA

„aeYojÄa, àman Çr kAero saÍaeŒ%É nay| "But, as a reader, it seems to me, this statement [i.e., that "poetry is not to be understood,

it is to sound"] is, in the field of modern Bangla poetry, more applicable to Jibanananda than to anyone else." (Advanced Bengali, p. 159)

2) ûpakaõAr arAjArA rAjA @@@É jaœAya| "Fairy-tale rajas are born as rajas [as opposed to those rajas who, in real life, had to

struggle to become rajas]." (Purnendu Patri)

3) kalakAtAr nabAb @@@ §AÉeB%ra „aõama maen% paRala nabak&aeˆ%ra kaõA| "As Kolkata's Nabab, Clive's first thoughts were of Nabakrishna." (Purnendu Patri)

4) saMabAdapae÷%r paébaiT%ek% duiT% paéYAey% BAg karA haey%eC%: „aõam paéYAey%r saMabAdapae÷%r Åiú%kAMaZa fl%KakaÉ

Å≥Ata, iŸ%tIya paéYAey%r sAMabAid%ek%rA fl%Kak @@@ ïIk&it% pAbAr dAbI rAeK%n| "The journalism chapter divides into two phases: in the first phase the majority of writers

for newspapers were anonymous; journalists during the second phase claimed recognition as writers." (Advanced Bengali, p. 246)

5) gata sAt id%en%r GaTanAy fboJA YAe∞C% fY%, bAMalAed%eZ% sarakAer%r sama˙a ZAKA ÇmAed%r ÇÉnasaÆata

pair%cAlak @@@ ègahaN kaer%eC% àbaMa ÇmAed%r sab in%eéd%Z in%ey%eC%| "From the events of the past seven days it is clear that in Bangladesh all branches of the

government have accepted us as the legal administrators and have taken all our directives." (Advanced Bengali, p. 272)

6) gupI bAGAr gaÓ fto bAXAilr „AeNr i„y| fdKaet igey bueRo fKAkA @@@ fYet hay| "The Goopi and Bagha story [a children's story by Upendrakishore Raycaudhuri with

film version by Satyajit Ray, sequel by his son, Sandip Ray] is dear to a Bengali's heart. As an overgrown kid, I have to go see it." (Dilip Basu)

IV. KINSHIP TERMS (≥Ait%‘a pair%BASA) "Ref." means a term of reference; "add." means a term of address; unmarked kinship terms are both terms of reference and address. When a term of reference is given with no corresponding term of address and if the person referred to is junior to the speaker, it can be assumed that the name (proper name or, if appropriate, nickname) of the person is used for a term of address. If

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the person addressed is senior to the speaker, an honorific title or suffix may be attached to the proper name or to the kinship term.24 HINDU MUSLIM

24For honorific titles and suffixes, see Lesson 6, IV, "Common Terms of Address & Reference (other than genuine kinship terms)"; for a fuller account of Bangla kinship, see Ronald B. Inden and Ralph W. Nicholas, Kinship in Bengali Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1977). 25Many families make up special, affectionate names for grandparents.

mother mA ÇÎA father bAbA ÇwA elder sister id%id% ÇpA, bubu younger sister (ref.) fbon fbon elder brother dAdA baRa BAÉ, BAÉyA, dAdA younger brother BAÉ BAÉ

wife (ref.) ˚I, baÖ ˚I, baÖ husband (ref.) ïAmI ïAmI daughter (ref.) fm%ey% fm%ey% son (ref.) fC%el% fC%el%

grandfather (paternal)25 óAkuradA dAdA/dAdu grandmother (paternal) óAkuramA dAdI grandfather (maternal) dAdA/dAdu nAnA grandmother (maternal) id%id%mA nAnI grandson (ref.) nAit% nAit% granddaughter (ref.) nAtanI nAtanI

father's elder brother fj%óA cAcA his wife fj%óI cAcI father's younger brother kAkA cAcA his wife kAkI cAcI father's sister ip%sI PuPu her husband ip%es%, ip%sA PuPA mother's sister mAsI KAlA her husband fm%eso KAlu mother's brother mAmA mAmA his wife mAmI mAmI

cousins: (all ref.) fj%óatuta BAÉ/fbon cAcAta BAÉ/fbon KuRatuta bAÉ/fbon cAcAta BAÉ/fbon ip%satuta BAÉ/fbon PuPAta BAÉ/fbon mAsatuta BAÉ/fbon KAlAta BAÉ/fbon mAmAta BAÉ/fbon mAmAta BAÉ/fbon

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26ZAlA, "brother-in-law," is also a curse word.

nieces and nephews: (all ref.) sister's daughter fbonaiJ% fbonaiJ% brother's daughter BAÉiJ% BAÉiJ% sister's son fbonaepo fbonaepo brother's son BAÉaepo BAÉaepo a man's/husband's sister's daughter BAganI BAganI a man's/husband's sister's son BAgaen% BAgaen%

in-laws: mother-in-law (ref.) ZAZuRI ZAZuRI father-in-law (ref.) çaZur çaZur elder brother's wife baÖid%, baÖóAn BAib% younger brother's & son's wife baÖmA baÖmA husband's brother's wife (ref.) jA jA husband's elder brother (ref.) BAZur, BAsur BAZur, BAsur husband's younger brother (add.) óAkuraepo (ref.) fd%är fd%är husband's sister (ref.) nanad nanad elder sister's husband (ref.) jAmAÉ bAbu, Ba©Ipait% duloBAÉ daughter's husband (ref.) jAmAÉ jAmAÉ wife's sister (ref.) ZAlI ZAlI wife's brother26 (ref.) ZÄAlak, ZAlA ZÄAlak, ZAlA

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LESSON 1111

I. kaibtA

"èZImatI rANu fsom'27

kalÄANIyAsu mAiT%r Üeé› gAn fg%ey% fP%er% ïraeg%r Yata pAKI, ftomAr kae∆ó% ig%yAeC% tAhArA tAed%r ka∆óa rAiK%'| fY% gaŒaéba-eloek%r ïapan fh%ir% fmorA in%iZ%id%n, tuim% Çin%yACa ka∆óa Bair%yA tAed%r murail% bIN| tuim% Çin%yACa Zuúu suer% suer% BASAhIn Çeb%dan, fY% sur mAyAy ib%kaiZ%yA äeó% ZaZI tArA ÅgaNan| fY% suer%-ïareg%% ˙ab-gAn gAeh% su«dar suraúunI%, Åsu«dar àÉ úarAy ftomAr kae∆ó% fs% gAn Zuin%|| "kaib%dA'

banaègAm, òAkA, 7 ÇSAô, 1335|

"najaül racanA-saÈBAr,' „aõam Kaƒa, Çbadul kAid%r kaét&k saÈpAid%ta

(kalakAtA: haraP „akAZanI, tAir%K fd%äyA hayin%), p&Ha 131| 27Protiva Bose, née Som and wife of Buddhadeva Bose, was a renowned singer in her younger days. She would later become an equally renowned writer of prose fiction.

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II. CAUSATIVE VERBS TO REVIEW: Causative verbs (implying that the subject of the verb "causes" some person or object "to do" something) are generally made by adding Ç to the noncausative verb stem:28

fd%K- the stem of "to see" fd%KA- the stem of "to show" (i. e., cause someone to see) fZon- the stem of "to hear" fZ%nA- the stem of "to inform, etc." (i. e., cause someone to hear)

The causatives of "to see" and "to hear" have as one of their meanings "TO SEEM, APPEAR" (with the PERSON in the OBJECTIVE CASE) and "TO SEEM, SOUND":

nAnAra mueK% hAis% fn%É, kAÕAä fn%É| baRa üÛT fd%KAy ^tAek%| "There was no smile, nor indeed any tears on grandfather's face. He looked

extremely angry." (Dilara Hashem) jAeh%ed%ra kAen% fm%ey%mAnuSa ZaÂaTA fY%na àkaTu ib%èZI fZonAya| "To Zahed's ear, the word 'girl person' sounded rather ugly." (Dilara Hashem)

bAj- the stem of "to ring, sound" (as in "the bell rings") bAjA- the stem of "to play, cause to sound" (as in "she plays the vina") fZ%K- the stem of "to learn" fZ%KA- the stem of "to teach" (i. e., cause someone to learn)

A. "STRENGTHENED" STEM VOWEL & "DOUBLE" CAUSATIVES A few verbs whose stem vowel is the inherent Å have formed their causative by "strengthening" (you could also simply say "changing") that Å to an Ç| These same verbs may also, but do not necessarily have to, form a standard causative (adding the causative marker to the verb stem) from both the "non-strengthened" and the "strengthened" verbs. For example,

∏ alA "to burn," as in "the candle burns" (NON-CAUSATIVE) ∏AlA "to cause to burn, ignite," as in "I light the candle" (CAUSATIVE) ∏ alAeno "to cause to burn, ignite," as in "I light the candle" (CAUSATIVE) ∏AlAeno "to cause to burn, ignite," as in "I light the candle" (CAUSATIVE)

28For the conjugation of causative verbs, see Appendix 1.

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With this particular verb set given above, the three causative forms would seem to be interchangeable, though individual speakers might prefer one of those causative forms over the others. In other sets of four (one non-causative and three causative), the three causative forms may have different meanings and not be interchangeable at all. With some of these verb sets, one or another of the causatives may not even be glossed in the standard dictionaries. Consult several dictionaries to learn how lexicographers handle these various causative forms. Consider the following sets, and note some of the ideosyncracies of each set.

galA "to melt, soften"

abaraPa gael% fg%la| "The ice MELTED."

gAlA "to melt something; cause liquid to flow out, to lance [a blister]"

afs% BAet%ra fPna gAela| "He STRAINS water out of the rice." calA "to move, go"

fs%a cael% fg%la| "She WENT away."

cAlA "to move something, cause something to be active"

afs% tAra ^GuiT% cAel%| "She MOVES her chess piece." naRA "to move, fidget, wiggle"

. . . mueK%ra iB%taer% naeR% tAra ÅsahAya jaKamI ij%BaKAnA| ". . . his helpless, injured tongue FIDGETED within his mouth." (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

nARA "to move something, shake, wag"

fsomanAõa balael%_ik%CuÉ ftomAra BaAelo lAeg% nA bACA? fC%el%iT% mAõA nARala| "Somnath said, 'Is there nothing to your liking, little one?' The boy SHOOK his head." (Jibanananda Das)

paRA "to fall"

Remember: There is also the hom*ophonous verb "to read."

id%naeZ%eS%ra Jair%yA-paRA Puel%ra maeto paiR%yA ÇeC%| "[Prabha] was LYING [on the bed] like a FALLEN flower at the end of

the day." (Rabindranath Tagore, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 24)

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pARA "to fell, cause to fall; to pluck, pick"

fd%iK%lAma, Çim% in%ej% kApaRaTA CAtATA pAiR%yA laÉel% fs% àmana BAba úAraNa kaer%, fY%na tAhAra Åiú%kAer% ha˙ae•%pa karA haÉet%eC%|

"I noticed that if I were to GET DOWN the clothes, the umbrella myself, she would assume an attitude as though her authority were being usurped." (Rabindranath Tagore, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 20)

sarA "to move aside, step aside; to issue forth"

fs% saer% YAya| "He MOVES ASIDE."

sArA "to finish a task, " among other meanings (note that the task is being "moved aside," figuratively); "to cure, heal; to correct, restore; to repair, mend"

fs kAjaa fs%er% cael% àelo|% "She FINISHED the task and came over." fs älA-ÖóAy BugaiC%l, taeb% fs%er% Öeó%eC%|% "He was suffering cholera, but

has RECOVERED." The causative made by the addition of Ç to their noncausative stem:

galAeno "to melt, to cause something to melt"

fs% Fb%dÄuit%ka hApaer% baRa baRa muic%et% fsonA galAy . . . "He melts the gold in big crucibles in an electric furnace . . . " (Parasuram, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 81)

calAeno "to cause something to move, to force someone to move" naRAeno "to cause something to move, wiggle; to push aside"

^fk%ed% fk%eT% mAõA ^KueR% tAra kaõA naRAna YAya nA| "Crying, weeping, try as s/he might, the words just couldn't be dislodged." (Rabindranath Tagore, cited in Jnanendramohan Das's bAÆAlA BASA

ÅiB%úAna) paRAeno "to cause to read, to teach" (The causative given here is from the verb "to

read," not from the hom*ophonous verb meaning "to fall," though the Samsad dictionary indicates that the hom*ophonous paRAeno meaning "to cause to fall" does exist)

àKAen% bAMlA paRAeno haya| "Bangla is TAUGHT here."

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sarAeno "to cause someone or thing to move aside; to transfer; to dismiss"

fco*ka sair%ey% fn%ya maenoraem%ra fco*ka fõ%ek%, . . . "He AVERTED his eyes from Manoram's, . . . " (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

And, these verbs of "strengthened" stem vowel also have a "double" causative form, i.e., a causative by two different constructions:

gAlAeno "to melt, to cause something to melt" (glossed, in saMsad bAÆAlA ÅiB%úAna, by the word gAlA, which in turn is glossed by galAeno, i.e., gAlAeno corresponds to the other two causatives)

cAlAeno "to cause to move; to drive [a car]; to operate [a machine]; to introduce or

make current [an idea]"

gAiR% cAlAet% pAir% nA| "I cannot drive a car."

nARAeno "to cause something to move, shake, wag" (glossed in the Samsad

dictionary as equivalent to nARA) pARAeno "to cause someone else to pluck, to have something picked"; used with

the word "sleep" to form the verb "to cause [a child] to go to sleep"

gAiR%et%É mA tAra fC%el%ek% Guma pAiR%ey% id%la| "The mother put her son to sleep right in the car."

sArAeno "to repair, mend; correct, restore"

gAiR%TA sArAeno hala%| "The car was fixed."

B. MOCK CAUSATIVES A fair number of verbs in Bangla are causative in form (display the Ç causative marker) but have no discernible causative meaning:

GumAna/GumAeno "to sleep" (NOT "to cause someone to sleep") pAóAna/pAóAeno "to send" (NOT "to cause someone to send")

These causative-in-form-but-not-meaning or mock causative verbs generally have no noncausative form, nor is there any standard way of making such verbs truly causative. In the case of GumAna, for instance, the causative is conveyed by the construction Gum pARAna ("to lull [a

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child] to sleep"), a compound verb comprised of the noun Gum ("sleep") + pARAna ("to cause to fall"); see above. Other mock causatives may be made to express "causativeness" by different means. Some mock causative verbs:

àgan "to advance, go forward" (See section C below.) ij%rAna "to rest, relax" fdORAna "to run" (Note: The PAP of this verb is usually noncausative in form,

e.g., fdOeR% YAäyA "to run"; the causative meaning of fdORAna is expressed by fdOR karAna|)

fp%CAna/ip%CAna "to go in reverse, fall back; to postpone, put off" fp%ran "to cross, cross over, pass through, get through" (See section C below.) f~pOCAna "to arrive, reach" (Note: The noncausative verb f~pOCA means the same,

"to arrive, reach"; f~pOCAna can also be causative in meaning, "to cause someone to arrive, to escort"; other ways of making this verb causative in meaning are presented in Intro Bengali, pp. 219, 376.)

fb%RAna "to walk, stroll, tour" fb%ran "to go out, come out, leave" (See section C below.)

C. ALTERNATIVE CAUSATIVE MARKERS ä and Ö Though the standard causative verb stem marker is Ç, the alternative causative marker, ä, may be used in any causative verb in which the vowel immediately preceding the causative marker is high, i.e., É or Ö (consult Intro Bengali, pp. 270, 376):

GumAna or Guemona (because of the Ö) "to sleep" ic%bAna or ic%ebona (because of the É) "to chew" ij%rAna or ij%erona (because of the É) "to rest, to relax" juRAna or jueRona (because of the Ö) 1. "to cause to join together something, to attach" 2. "to cool, to console, to satisfy" fdORAna or fdOeRona (because of the Ö sound in ã) "to run" f~pOCAna or f~pOeCona (because of the Ö sound in ã) "to arrive, to reach" ib%lAna or ib%%elona (because of the É) "to give away, distribute" bulAna or buelona (because of the Ö) "to pass one's hand over lightly, to pet"

Three mock causatives, however, are exceptions to this causative-verb-stem-marker rule and allow for either the ä and, in one case, the more standard Ç, or—and this is exceptional—the inherent Å or the Ö vowel as their causative markers:

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fb%rana/fb%üna/fb%erona "to go out, come out, emerge" (equivalent to bAr haäyA, bAih%r haäyA; PAP is fb%ir%ey%)

^hÄA, ftomAr jaenÄ% àKana Çim% ic%in% iB%e•% karaet% fb%üÉ| "Yes, and for you I should go out now and beg for sugar!" (Dilara Hashem)

fp%rana/fp%üna/fp%erona "to cross, cross over, pass by"

(equivalent to pAr haäyA; PAP is fp%ir%ey%)

fs%É fY% Åen%k rAet% pAÈpasur KaT KaT ZaÂa kaer mAhutaTulIr gail% fp%üet%n it%in%? "[You mean] the one who late at night used to pass through the side streets

of Mahut Tuli, his pumps tapping the pavement?" (from Lesson 3, I)

àgana/àguna/àegona/àgAna "to advance, go ahead, progress" (equivalent to Çeg%

YAäyA; PAP is àig%ey%; the verb ÇgAna exists also, having the same meaning as àgana)

pair%tÄa°a haäyAr Çeg% bÄAec%laés 1-0 fgoel% àig%ey%iC%la| "Before [the game] was discontinued, Bachelors [a hockey team] had gone

ahead in goals 1-0." (from Lesson 5, I)

Note: The high vowel É of the PAP does NOT raise the stem vowel à of the above three verbs to É; their finite verb forms often use either the Ö or the ä marker.

The following verbs are also sometimes inflected using the Ö causative marker:

fdORAna "to run"—fdORuba "I shall run" f~pOCAna "to arrive, reach"—f~pOCulAm "I arrived"

D. 3–Å•ara VERBS There are many verbs in Bangla that have three "letters" (Å•ara) in their stem. An Å•ara here means any letter of the alphabet: consonants, with or without an accompanying vowel, and initial-position vowels (as opposed to postconsonantal vowels). For example: ÇTakAn ("to impede, obstruct; to detain") stem, ÇTakA- the three Å•ara_Ç, Ta, and kA

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kAmaRAn ("to bite") stem, kAmaRA- the three Å•ara_kA, ma, and RA The "3–Å•ara" verbs have several features in common:

1. They all are CAUSATIVE IN FORM BUT NONCAUSATIVE IN MEANING.

(See section B above.) 2. The PAP is made either with the causative ending Éey%, or the noncausative ending à:

ÇTaik%ey% or ÇTaek% kAmaiR%ey% or kAmaeR%

The noncausative PAP (ÇTaek%, kAmaeR%) is more common in today's colloquial Bangla. All other verbal forms (except for the PAP and the two tenses made from the PAP, i.e., the present completive and the past completive) are exactly the same in form as any causative verb.

kAmaeR%eC% "it bit/has bitten" kAmaRAy "it bites"; kAmaRAeb% "it will bite"

3. They frequently have a corresponding word, most often a noun, which is sometimes though not always the three Å•ara minus the causative verb marker Ç:

ÇTak n. "impediment, obstruction; detention" kAmaR n. "a bite, the act of biting"

That noun in many cases can be combined with one of the common verbs of action (karA, fd%äyA) to form a compound verb that has the same meaning as the 3-Å•ara verb itself:

ÇTak karA "to impede, obstruct; to detain" kAmaR fd%äyA "to bite"

4. Besides the standard passives, which apply to all verbs, some of the 3-Å•ara verbs can, in addition, be made passive by adding YAäyA (sometimes paRA) to the PAP of the 3-Å•ara verb:

ÇTaek% YAäyA "to become obstructed; to be detained" In passive constructions of this sort, the SUBJECT of the PASSIVE sentence is not a verbal noun29 but the PERSON OR THING ACTED UPON; the verb YAäyA agrees with that subject:

29The subject is a verbal noun in the standard passive constructions; review Lesson 9, II.

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(active) tArA ÇmAek% ÇTakAelo| "They detained me." (passive) Çim% ÇTaek% fg%lAm| "I was detained." Or: Çim% ÇTaek% paRalAm| "I got detained." (active) subIr fdOeR% ig%ey% tAr paõ ÇTakAe∞C%| "Subir runs and blocks his path." (Sunil Gangopadhyay) (passive) tAr paõ ÇTaek% YAe∞C%| "His path is being blocked."

5. If the second Å•ara is a consonant (the most common situation), the 3-Å•ara verb stem is PRONOUNCED IN TWO SYLLABLES, i.e., the inherent vowel Å of the second Å•ara is never pronounced in verbal forms.

ÇTakA- aT - ka- ÇTakAlAm aTkalam kAmaRA- kam - Ra- kAmaRAb kamRabo

If the second Å•ara is a vowel, the 3-Å•ara verb stem is pronounced in three syllables. ÇäRAna ("to recite repeatedly")

ÇäRA- a - o - Ra ÇäRAlAm aoRalam óAärAna/óAÖrAna30 ("to view, see, visualize, view as")

óAärA- Tha - o - ra óAärAb Thaorabo

ÇmAek% dAlAl óAÖer%Ca nAik%? "Do you take me for [view me as] an agent?" (Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay)

Some 3-Å•ara verbs, with corresponding words (nouns, mostly—note any spelling changes):

ÇäRAna v. "to recite repeatedly" ÇäRa n. "a whirlpool" ^ÇcaRAna v. "to comb; to scratch" ^ÇcaRaaa n. "the act of scraping with the fingernails; a scratch" (àka ^ÇcaeR% "upon a cursory examination") ÇTakAna v. "to impede, obstruct; to detain" ÇTak n. "an impediment, obstruction; detention" (v. with karA) kAmaRAna v. "to bite" kAmaR n. "a bite, the act of biting" (v. with fdäyA%)

30The sadhu form is óAharAna and is pronounced as though its second Å•ara were a vowel, i.e., there are three syllables in its verb stem. The corresponding noun, óAhar, has alternative spellings—óAär and óAÖr|

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f~kAkaRAna v. "to shrink or cause to shrink; to curl or cause to curl" f~kAkaRA adj. "curly, curled" f~kAcakAnaa v. "to shrivel; to contract, wizen" f~kAca n. "a wrinkle, a fold" ku¥ana n. "the act of shrivelling, wizening, curling" (not all 3-Å•ara verbs have an obvious corresponding noun) fkAdalAna v. "to dig with a spade or shovel" fkAdAl n. "a spade, shovel" culakAna v. "to itch" culaknA/culakain% n. "scabbies; an itching sensation" óAärAna v. "to view, see, visualize, view as" óAhara n. "the act of seeing, noticing, envisioning" (v. with karA) úamakAna v. "to scold, reprimand; to intimidate" úamaka n. "the act of scolding, threatening" (v. with fdäyA%) pAlaTAna v. "to exchange, substitute; to change, alter; to revoke" pAlaTa n. "a reversal, return" pAlaTApAlaiT% n. "the act of exchanging" (v. with karA) ip%CalAna v. "to slip, slide" ip%Cala adj. "slippery" badalAna v. "to exchange, substitute; to change, alter; to transfer" badala n. "the act of exchanging, transferring" (v. with karA) fZoúarAna v. "to rectify, correct" fZoúana n. "the act of purification, rectification" (v. with karA) ^sAtarAna v. "to swim" ^sAtAra n. "the act of swimming" (v. with kATA, fdäyA%) sAmalAna v. "to check, restrain; to manage; to keep safe" sAmAla n. "the act of restraining, etc." (v. with karA) interjection, "beware! take care!" hAtaRAna v. "to misappropriate, take for oneself" hAta n. "the hand" (v. with karA)

4–Å•ar verbs: There are a few verbs which have 4–Å•ara in their stem; such verbs correspond to one or another of the onomatopoeic words:

JamaJam expressing "jingling of anklets; patter of rain falling in torrents" JamaJam karA v. "to jingle; patter" Jalamal expressing "glitter, coruscation" JalamalAna/Jalamal karA v. "to glitter, coruscate" taRabaR expressing "excessive hurry, rapidity" taRabaRAna v. "to hurry; to move or speak rapidly"

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hanahan expressing "walking rapidly" hanahanAna v. "to walk rapidly"

Such expressive verbs are often used in the PAP in an adverbial sense; their PAP form is usually made with the normal causative ending Éey%|

frodaTA ma«dA| suémAra manaTA BArI ahaey% YAy| JamaJaim%ey% b&iÛT% àel% ma«da lAeg% nA| ik%… àÉ fm%GalA id%na BAelo lAeg% nA, fk%mana fY%naa mana KArApa kaer%|

"The sunshine was less intense. Surma felt slightly depressed. She didn't mind if it rained in torrents, but a cloudy day like this had no appeal for her. It made her feel bad." (Dilara Hashem)

fs% hanahain%ey% fb%ir%ey% fg%la| "She left hurriedly."

but also:

àÉ bail%yA taékara”a pAZa kATAÉyA hana hanaa kair%yA cail%yA fg%el%na| "Saying this, Tarkaratna passed by and hurriedly left."

(Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) Exercises—Translate:

1) I love to eat Bangla sweets.

When friends come over, I love to serve (to feed) them sweets.

2) She slept all night last night.

She put her son to sleep early.

3) The car sped along the main road.

He drives the car much too fast.

III. VERBS "to be"31 A. copula verb "to be"

31Charles A. Ferguson, a linguist who contributed much to the study of Bangla, is particularly helpful on the rather complex matter of the verb "to be"; those interested in pursuing the subject further and from a different perspective, see Ferguson, "Verbs of 'Being' in Bengali, with a Note on Amharic," The Verb "Be" and Its Synonyms: Philosophical and Grammatical Studies, ed. John W. M. Verhaar, vol. 5 (Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1972), pp. 74-114.

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The very first lesson in Intro Bengali introduces the copula verb "to be" ("A is B" sorts of sentences): ÇmAr nAm [is] rAm| It is noted there that the verb haäyA in the PRESENT TENSE, AFFIRMATIVE, is NOT EXPRESSED in Bangla, whereas in the PRESENT TENSE, NEGATIVE, a conjugated verb using the stem na- IS EXPRESSED.32 At the same time, it is pointed out that hay nA does exist but that it will not be discussed in that first lesson. Furthermore, it states that the present tense, affirmative, is found (1) when the intended meaning is a habitual or permanent condition, or (2) in a historical narration.33 The two illustrative examples are the following:

ZainbAer gAiR cAlAeno Za°a hay| "It gets [or: it is] difficult to drive on Saturdays." (Intro Bengali, p. 61) ÇemirkA ÇibÛkAr hay sAeR% cArfZo baCar Çeg | "America was discovered four and a half centuries ago." (Intro Bengali, p. 61)

The first example is valid, illustrating the point: traffic jams are a permanent feature of Saturdays. The second example is only half valid.

Bangla tends to use the PRESENT TENSE FOR NARRATION OF PAST EVENTS, what one might call a "historical present"; English tends to use the simple past tense ("historical past") when narrating those same events. Columbus sailed the ocean blue in fourteen hundred ninety-two. Bangla prefers "Columbus SAILS" to "Columbus SAILED." rabI«‹anAõa 1885 fõ%ek% 1895 àra maeúÄ% ^tAra ËAtuÛpu÷I Éi«d%rA fd%bI fcOúurANIek%

Åen%kaguil% ic%ió% fl%eKn| "From 1885 to 1895 Tagore WRITES [not wrote] many letters to his niece Indira

Devi Caudhurani." (Advanced Bengali, p. 115)

The fact that the second example above is in some sense historical narration accounts for the present tense of the verb; historical narration does not, however, account for the use of haäyA| The hay in the sentence is a part of a "noun + verb" compound verb. The word ÇibÛkAr is a noun, which glosses as both "discovery" and "invention." Two compound verbs made from this noun

32Negatives are reviewed in Lesson 20, II. 33Introduction to Bengali, p. 61, states the following: "the present tense form of the verb haäyA can mean only (a) an event as a law or habit, or (b) a narrated past event."

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are ÇibÛkAr karA ("to discover, to invent," a transitive verb) and ÇibÛkAr haäyA ("to be discovered, to be invented," an intransitive verb).34

A modified, "nonhistorical," version of the example above could be made eliminating the present tense, affirmative, verb "to be," but with somewhat ironic overtones: ÇemirkA ÇibÛkAr| "America is an invention."

B. existential verb "to be" In a subsequent lesson in Intro Bengali (pp. 191-92) existential verbs (verbs of existing) are reviewed. Notice in the examples that follow, a location is specified. With the existential verb "to be," a location is almost always either expressed or implied; something usually exists somewhere. Pure and simple statements of existence (with no location implied), however, also occur: (fsO«daéY ÇeC%| "Beauty exists.")

1. fKokA bAiRet| "Khoka is [exists at this moment] in the house." 2. fKokA bAiRet ÇeC| "Khoka is at home." (and, probably, was a moment ago and will be a little while hence) 3. fKokA bAiRet õAek| "Khoka lives/stays/remains at home." 4. fKokA bAiRet hay| "Khoka is born at home." (literally: comes into existence, becomes)

1. The absence of the verb makes a statement about the moment only. 2. ÇC_ implies a somewhat longer duration. 3. õAk_ implies an even longer duration, verging on permanency. 4. ha_ expresses a change of state (in ex. above, from "nonbeing" to "being").

34Given the English rendering, it would seem as though the distinction between these two compound verbs should be designated "active" vs. "passive." Intro Bengali (p. 235) uses "transitive/intransitive" to indicate the difference between Zuü karA and Zuü haäyA, two other verbs of the "noun + verb" type: äTA Zuü kareC%| He is beginning it. (transitive) (Here, "it" is the object of the verb "to begin.") äTA Zuü he∞Ca| It is beginning. (intransitive) (Here, "it" is the subject of the verb.) Another pair of examples: fs baÉTA fZS kaereC| She finished the book. isenmA fZS haeyeC| The movie ended. Following Intro Bengali's lead, I too am calling this distinction "transitive/intransitive" rather than "active/passive." For (other) passive constructions, review Lesson 9, II.

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Situation: You fly from San Francisco to New York and have to change planes in Chicago; you call home from O'Hare airport and when asked, "Where are you?" you reply—

Çim iZ%kAegoet| "I'm in Chicago." You are vouching for your location for that MOMENT only or, more realistically, for a

short period of time before catching the next plane.

Situation: Your home is in San Francisco, but you are in Chicago now attending the University of Chicago; you call an uncle and aunt who live in the suburbs and haven't seen you for several years. When asked "Where are you?" you reply—

Çim iZ%kAegoet ÇiC| "I'm in Chicago." You are vouching for your location for not just the moment but for A PERIOD OF

TIME—in this case it just happens to be several years.

Situation: You live in Chicago and run into an old friend from high school. When asked "Where are you these days?" you reply—

Çim iZ%kAegoet õaAik| "I'm in Chicago." You are saying that you live in Chicago. It may not be your permanent residence for all

time to come, but it is RELATIVELY PERMANENT.

TIME SCALE

(NO VERB) >|<

ÇC_ |<===============>|

õAk_ |<======================================================>|

ha_

STATE "A" STATE "B"

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C. further consideration of the copula verb "to be" There are two copula constructions ("A is B"), one in which B is a PREDICATE NOMINATIVE and one in which B is a PREDICATE ADJECTIVE (Lesson 13, II, C). In the case of a PREDICATE NOMINATIVE (i.e., when both A and B are a noun or a pronoun), the meaning of the sentence is: A EQUALS B. For example, in the sentence "My name is Ram," the name equals Ram. In the case of a PREDICATE ADJECTIVE (i.e., when B is an adjective), the meaning of the sentence is: B is an ATTRIBUTE or FEATURE of A; or, put another way, A possesses the QUALITY designated by B. For example, in the sentence "Ram is tall," one of Ram's attributes is his height. Further examples: "Ram is tired"; "Ram is happy." Unlike the existential verb "to be," where absence of the verb conveys the added nuance of a momentary state of existence, the absence of the verb in a copula "to be" sentence makes no such implication automatically. "His name is Ram" suggests that his name is, and is going to continue to be, Ram. "Ram is a student," however, suggests that he is a student now but does not imply that he is a perpetual student or student by nature. "Ram is tall" implies that Ram is not tall momentarily but on a permanent basis, as a fact of life, so to speak. "Ram is tired" does not imply that he is constantly tired.

"Ram is happy" may help to illustrate that the copula construction by itself does not imply either a momentary state or permanence. "Happy" is conveyed in Bangla by two rather common adjectives, KuiZ (also spelled KuZI, Kuis%) and suKI| rAm KuiZ| "Ram is happy." —The implication is that Ram is right now happy, pleased.35 rAm suKI| "Ram is happy." —The implication is that Ram is by nature a happy fellow.

The addition of the verb ÇC- in a copula sentence can extend the duration of what might logically be construed to be just a momentary state:36

35A conventional manner of responding when introduced to someone is to say, "I am pleased to meet you," conveyed in Bangla by "Çim% KuiZ halAm|' 36In the previous lessson (10, II.C) it was noted that ÇC- as an auxiliary likewise functions to extend the duration of time of the main verb: Çim% bais| (I sit down.) Çim% baes ÇiC| (I am sitting.)

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Çim% §A»| "I am tired." Çim% Çja sArA id%na Kuba §A» ÇiC%| "I was [am and continue to be] tired the whole day." (Intro Bengali, p. 215)

PRESENT—

For both of these copula constructions—as stated in Intro Bengali—the PRESENT TENSE, AFFIRMATIVE, is NOT EXPRESSED in Bangla, whereas in the PRESENT TENSE, NEGATIVE, a conjugated verb using the stem na- IS EXPRESSED.

ÇmAr nAm rAm| ÇmAr nAm rAm nay| "My name is Ram." "My name is not Ram." rAm laÍA| rAm laÍA nay| "Ram is tall." "Ram is not tall."

For the predicate-nominative copula construction, there are times (for slight emphasis and for variety's sake) when one may EXPRESS the verb "to be" in the PRESENT AFFIRMATIVE—the tense used, however, is not the simple present tense but the PRESENT CONTINUATIVE:

ÇmAr nAm hae∞C rAm| "My name is Ram."

The present continuative comes BETWEEN the subject and the predicate nominative, NOT AT THE END of the sentence. This construction with the present continuative is NEVER USED IN THE NEGATIVE. PAST—

The PAST TENSE of both copula constructions uses the stem iC- ÇmAr nAm rAm iCl, taeb% ÇjakAl sakael% ÇmAek "raihm' DAek| "My name WAS Ram, but these days everyone calls me Rahim." ɯkuel õAkaet rAm ^fbeT iCla, taeb àKana fs fbZ laÍA| "In school Ram WAS short, but now he's quite tall."

If the past tense of the verb haäyA is used, it is with the meaning of a change of state (of "becoming" and not of simply being):

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Çim musaalamAn hael% ÇmAr nAm raih%m hala| "When I converted to Islam, my name BECAME Rahim." baR baeyes rAm fbZ laÍA hal| "Ram BECAME quite tall as an adult."

FUTURE—

The FUTURE TENSE of both copula constructions uses both haäyA and õAkA|

haäyA expresses "becoming" in the future õAkA expresses "remaining" in the future Çim musaalamAn hael%ä ÇmAr nAm rAmÉ õAkeb (raÉeb)| "Even if I convert to Islam, my name will be [remain] Ram!" Çim musaalamAn hael%É ÇmAr nAm rihm haeb| "As soon as I convert to Islam, my name will be [become] Rahim." Çim ÇTaTAy Ft%rI õAkebo| "I shall be [become and then stay] ready at eight." tuim Yaid% Çeg% Ft%rI haä, tA hael% ÇmAek% DAkaeb ik?| "If you are ready before then, will you call me?" (Intro Bengali, p. 283)

As noted above, compound verbs of the type "noun + verb" can be formed with haäyA| Such verbs are considered intransitive (i.e., do not allow for a direct object). The corresponding transitive verb is made with karA: ÇibÛkAr karA ("to discover, to invent," a transitive verb) ÇibÛkAr haäyA ("to be discovered, to be invented," an intransitive verb) (cf. ÇibÛkAr karA haäyA "to be discovered, etc.," passive of transitive verb) fZS karA ("to end, to complete"—somebody does the action) fZS haäyA ("to end, to be completed"—the action happens) Zuü karA ("to begin, to start"—somebody does the action) Zuü haäyA ("to begin, to start"—the action happens) rAÕA karA ("to cook"—somebody does the action) rAÕA haäyA ("to cook"—the action happens) The intransitive verb (with haäyA) will always be in the third person: "It" is discovered/ends/starts/cooks.

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The most common, colloquial way of conveying the sense of "have to/has to do something" is with the INFINITIVE and haäyA, always in the THIRD PERSON (if in finite form, i.e., completing an independent clause).

ÇmAek bAiR fYet haeb| "I have to go home." ÇmAek bAiR fYet hy| "I have to go home." ÇmAek bAiR fYet hal| "I had to go home." ÇmAek bAiR fYet hael tuim ik saeÆ Çseb? "If I have to go home, will you come along?" . . . ftomAek kAÖek% idey ÇmAek fnäyAet haeb . . . " . . . you will have to have someone take me . . . " (Intro Bengali, p. 374)

The first and last examples above, using the FUTURE TENSE, convey the sense of having to do something either NOW or in the FUTURE. The second example, using the PRESENT TENSE, conveys the restricted sense of having to do something (a) IMMEDIATELY, RIGHT NOW! or (b) REGULARLY, HABITUALLY.

The human actor in these sorts of sentences is most frequently (about 85% of the time) in the OBJECTIVE case but can also be in the POSSESSIVE case: ÇmAek% bAiR fYet haeb| "I have to go home." (more common) ÇmAr bAiR fYet haeb| "I have to go home." (less common)

One of the passive constructions37 is made by adding to the VERBAL NOUN some form of haäyA, always in the THIRD PERSON (if in finite form, i.e., completing an independent clause).

PAMZAn Zuü karA haeyeC| "The function has been launched." (a true passive) PAMZAan Zuü haeyeC| "The function has begun." (an intransitive verb)

In a CONDITIONAL sentence ("if . . ., then . . . "), the VERB—even the copula verb "to be"—must be EXPRESSED in the "if" clause.

tuim rAm; fs raihm| "You are Ram; he's Rahim."

37Review Lesson 9, II, A.

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tuim Yaid rAm haä, fto fs ik% raihm| "If you're Ram, then is he Rahim?"

Following a CONDITIONAL CONJUNCTIVE, haäyA, always in the THIRD PERSON, conveys the meaning of a rather mild commitment to the action expressed by the verb in the conditional—"it would be OK to (verb)" or "it would do to (verb)" or "why not (verb)."

bAiR fgel hay| "Yeh, why not go home." (not terribly committed) PAMZAn Zuü karA hael hay| "It's fine with me if the function is launched." ÇmAek rAm DAkel hay| "If you want to call me Ram, OK, go ahead."

Just a reminder: In Bangla, it is rather common to have a verbal noun as the subject of a predicate-adjective type of copula sentence:

ÉMirij balA sahaj| "Speaking English is easy."

One must be certain, however, that what is an adjective in the English sentence can be rendered by an adjective in the normal, colloquial Bangla version of that same sentence. In the above example, "easy" is an adjective in both languages. Now consider the following similar looking sentences:

Speaking English is possible. Speaking English is convenient.

The first sentence of this pair is rendered in Bangla by a predicative-adjective copula sentence ("possible" is an adjective in both languages); the second sentence of the pair is rendered in Bangla not by a copula but by a sentence with the existential verb "to be."

"Speaking English is possible." ÉMirij balA saÈBab| (copula verb "to be") "Speaking English is convenient." ÉMirij balAr sauibeú (ÇeC optional)| (existential verb "to be")

What is rendered by the adjective "convenient" in the English sentence is, in the Bangla sentence, a noun ("convenience"), not an adjective. From Lesson 6 (section II, B), where "the verbal noun in the genitive case with a following noun" was considered, there come the following examples:

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àKan ÇmAed%r fd%eZ% fkon` fkon` ib%Saey% kAj kair%bAr suib%úA ÇeC% tAhA àKAn fõ%ek% buiJ%et% pAir%et%iC% nA|

"From here [England] I am unable to know in which fields at present in our country there are opportunities to work." (Advanced Bengali, p. 267)

^gAey% õAkA KAäyAr ba√a Åsuib%eú%| "In the village there is very great difficulty of food and accommodation." Or: "Staying in a village and eating there can present problems." Literally: "There is a very great inconvenience to live and eat in the village." (Intro Bengali, p. 354)

Rewriting the sentences (and changing the meaning) by replacing suib%úA/Åsuib%eú% (noun) with saÈBab/ÅsaÈBab (adjective) would produce the following sentences:

àKan ÇmAed%r fd%eZ% fkon` fkon` ib%Saey% kAj karA saÈBab tAhA àKAn fõ%ek% buiJ%et% pAir%et%iC% nA|

"From here [England] I am unable to know in which fields at present in our country it is possible to work."

^gAey% õAkA KAäyA ba√a ÅsaÈBab| "It's virtually impossible to live and eat in the village."

Similar, in grammar, to the noun-adjective pair suib%úA/saÈBab is the pair %darakAr/ Öict|

darakAr (noun) "need, necessity" Öict (adjective) "proper, just, reasonable, suitable, morally compelling"

In answer to the question—

mu˙APA, ftomAr àKan bARIet% YAbAr darakAr ÇeC% ik%? "Mustafa, is it necessary for you to go home now?" (Intro Bengali, p. 198)

Mustafa might reply in English, "Yes, I have to go home," which could be translated into Bangla in a number of ways, including—

1. ÇmAek bAiR fYet haeb| "I have to go home." 2. ÇmAr bAiR YAbAr darakAr ÇeC%| "I have to go home." Or: ÇmAr bAiR YAäyA darakAr%| "I have to go home." (limited to non-negative, present-tense sentences with darakAr)38 3. ÇmAr bAiR YAäyA Öict| "I have to go home."

38Though a noun, darakAr can be used in a present-tense, affirmative sentence as though it were an adjective ("necessary," adj., instead of "necessity," n.); see Lesson 6, II, B for a note on this particular noun.

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The first of the replies is the least marked for "external" or "internal" pressure. The second implies an "external" pressure, that the reason Mustafa must go home is something external to him; the need or necessity that compels him is imposed upon him from without. The third reply implies an "internal" pressure, that the reason Mustafa must go home is something that he feels from within. This third sentence can be rendered "I should go home" or "I ought to go home," and with both of these renderings there is the sense of moral compulsion or conscience at work. Grammatically, also, the second and third responses differ.

ÇmAr bAiR YAbAr darakAr ÇeC%| (existential verb "to be") ÇmAr bAiR YAäyA Öict| (copula verb "to be")

D. further consideration of the existential verb "to be" The third-person of the existential verb often translates in English as "there is/are":

bAgAen% gACa ÇeC%| "There are trees in the garden." (Intro Bengali, p. 110) bAgAen% gACa fn%É| "There aren't trees in the garden." Or: "There are no trees in the garden."

Compare the similar looking copula and existential sentences:

iZkAegoet garam| "It is hot in Chicago." (copula "to be") iZkAegoet gACa (ÇeC% optional)| "There are trees in Chicago." (existential "to be") iZkAegoet garam nay| "It's not hot in Chicago." (copula) iZkAegoet gACa fn%É| "There aren't trees in Chicago." (existential)

Though commonly seen in the third-person ordinary, ÇC- can be INFLECTED FOR ALL PERSONS. The most common form of greeting uses ÇC-

fk%amana ÇeCo? "How are you?"

Note: The verb implies duration greater than the moment only. BAl ÇiC| tuÉ kI rakam ÇiCs? "I'm fine. How about you?"

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The Bangla counterpart of the English verb "TO HAVE"—a very common verb, of course, and introduced in the second lesson of Intro Bengali—is a construction using the existential verb "to be," ÇC-

ÇmAra bÉ ÇeC| "I have a book." Or: "I have books." Literally: "There is a book of me." Or: "My book exists." "Book," which is the object of the English sentence, is the SUBJECT of this Bangla sentence. ÇmAra bÉ fn%É| "I don't have a book." Or: "I don't have books." Literally: "There is not a book of me." Or: "My book does not exist." ÇmAra bAbA-mA ÇeCn| "I have my parents." Or: "My parents are still alive." Literally: "My father and mother exist." Or: "There are a father and a mother of me." "Father and mother" are the SUBJECT of the Bangla sentence. ÇmAra bAbA-mA fn%É| "I don't have my parents." Or: "My parents are dead." Literally: "My father and mother do not exist."

Colloquially, ÇC- is used to indicate INCLUSION within a group:

ÇmrA cA-PA fKet YAi∞C| tuÉ ik ÇiCs? "We're going for tea. Are you with us?" isiDZn! Çim är maeúÄ nAÉ! "Sedition! Count me out!" Or: "I'll have no part of it!" (spoken by Amal to Bhupati in Satyajit Ray's film Charulata)

Following the INFINITIVE, ÇC- conveys the sense of MORAL OBLIGATION:

ftomAedr àman kaõA balaet fn%É| "You should not say such things." This construction is comparable to that of verbal noun + Öic%t: ftomAedr àman kaõA balaA Öic%t nay| "You ought not to say such things."

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In a CONDITIONAL sentence ("if . . . , then . . . "), ÇC- CANNOT appear in the "if" clause and is replaced by õAkA|

ÇmAedr àman kaõA Yid balaet nA õAek, fto baleboÉ nA! "If we shouldn't say such things, then we won't!"

E. further consideration of the verb "to become"

haäyA means both "to be" and "to become," the latter implying a change of state.

Compare the similar looking sentences: fCel BAelo| (copula verb "to be") "The boy is good." Or: "He's a good boy." fCel BAelo ÇeC| (existential verb "to be") "The boy is well." Or: "He's doing just fine." fCel BAelo hy| (verb "to become") Literally: "The boy becomes good." Or: "He develops into a good kid." bAbA-mA Ba‹tA fZKAel fCel BAelo hy| "If the parents teach good manners, the child turns out fine." fCel BAelo nay| (copula verb "to be") "The boy is not good." Or: "He's a rotten kid." fCel BAelo fnÉ| (existential verb "to be") "The boy is not well." Or: "He's not in good shape." fCel BAelo hy nA| (verb "to become") Literally: "The boy does not become good." Or: "He went astray."

The verb ÇC- is "defective," having only a present (ÇC-) and a simple past (iC%l-) tense. For all nonfinite forms (i.e., the verbal noun, PAP, infinitive, and conditional conjunctive) and for any tense other than the present and simple past, a form of õAkA or, in certain cases, haäyA must be used in place of ÇC-|

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bAbA-mA Ba‹tA nA fZKAel fCel BAelo hy nA| "If parents don't teach manners, the child doesn't turn out right." tA ny| (copula verb "to be") "That isn't it." tA fnÉ| (existential verb "to be") "There isn't any of that." tA hy nA| (verb "to become") "That doesn't happen." Or: "That doesn't come into existence."

Exercises—Negate the following sentences and translate: Example: fs Kub §A»| Answer: fs Kub §A» nay| "He's not tired."

(One frequently hears the simple negative particle-- fs Kub §A» nA|

1) itin àKana ÅiP%es%|

2) ÇmAra Çjaek% lAÉeÁ%ir%et% YAäyA Öic%ta|

3) àmana kaõA Zunael% ära muKa lAl ahay|

Substitute the words in parentheses for an appropriate word or words in the sentence, make any changes necessary, and then translate:

4) ÇmAra Çja ftomAed%ra äKAen% YAäyA ÅsaÈBaba| (gata kAla)

5) fY jAyagAya ÇmAra mA õAek%na fsKAen% Kuba fb%iZ% b&iÛT% paRaelo nA| (haya)

6) àrA ÇmAded%ra Gain%ıa baŒu iC%la| (hae∞C%)

IV. PREFIXES With very few exceptions, prefixes in Bangla come from Sanskrit. Like the original Sanskrit prefixes, those in Bangla frequently have more than one meaning, sometimes contrary meanings. Consequently, it is not always possible to determine the meaning of a word with a prefix just by knowing the meaning of the basic word and that of the prefix. You also must know which of the meanings of the prefix is in effect. Luckily, the meaning of a number of prefixes is predictable:

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Å (Ån before vowel-initial words), a negative prefix (consult Intro Bengali, p. 284)

(ÖÕata "elevated, advanced") ib%eZ%SataHa ÅnuÕata fèZ%NIr ih%«durA pUjA kaer%| "In particular, the BACKWARD Hindu classes do [Daksin Ray's] puja." (from Lesson 12, I)

Åit% (ÅtÄ before vowel-initial words), "very, excessive"

(Öi°% "statement, utterance") àkaõA balael% ik%Cu ÅtÄui°% haeb% nA fY% . . . "It would not be any EXAGGERATION if one said this, that . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 184)

Ånu denoting: following, younger, imitating

(gaman "act of going, movement") iZ%SÄa BaraŸAjaä jalapUéNa kalas in%ey% ^tAr Ånugaman karael%n| "Disciple Bharadvaja also, taking up the full water jug, FOLLOWED him

[Valmiki]." (Advanced Bengali, p. 304) Åpa denoting: bad, opposite to, unnatural

(bÄabahAr "use; behavior") àkamA÷a janasAúAraeN%r sataéka d&iÛT%É àÉ ïAúInatAr ÅpabÄabahAer%r KabaradArI karaeb%| "It is only the watchful gaze of the people that will guard against MISUSE of this

freedom." (Advanced Bengali, p. 260) Ç’a "self, one's own"

(„atÄay "trust, confidence, conviction") àed%eZ%r in%éBIk mAnuS ÅsAúAraN sAhas ä Ç’a„atÄaey%r pair%cay id%ey%eC%| "The dauntless people of this land have shown uncommon bravery and SELF-

CONFIDENCE." (Advanced Bengali, p. 273) Öpa denoting: subordination, similar but less than, adjacency

(BASA "language, speech") fZonA YAe∞C% Fm%iõ%lI BASA nAik% ih%«dIraÉ àk ÖpaBASA| "One hears that the Maithili language is, after all, a DIALECT of Hindi." (Advanced Bengali, p. 219)

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ku "bad" (See su below.)

(kAéYa "act, deed, work") . . . bÄAú fs%É kalaka∆óa f£O¥aek% baú k'er% ik% kukAéYa kaer%eC%| ". . . what an AWFUL DEED the hunter did by killing that sweet-throated heron."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 304) icr% "everlasting, for all time"

( aib%çAsa "trust, belief") "mahArAj, kaer%Ca ik%! ÇèZaydAtA ic%raib%çAsI BIlarAjaek% Kuna kaer%Ca?' "Maharaj, what have you done! Have you slain that giver of refuge, the EVER-

TRUSTWORTHY king of the Bhils?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 130) dur, duZ, duS, dus, duHa (1) "difficult"; (2) "bad"

(laBÄa "obtainable, attainable") 1. àk-àkaiT% duélaB mAnuS àÉûp ¯PaiT%ek%r maeto ÅkAraN Jal`mal kair%et% pAer%| "There are RARE individuals who, like this sort of crystal, are able to sparkle

spontaneously." (Advanced Bengali, p. 112) (buiÿ% "understanding; intellect; propensity") 2. tuim% in%ıur, duébuiÿ%, Éi«‹%yAsa°a| "You are cruel, DEVIOUS, hedonistic." (Advanced Bengali, p. 308)

dUra "distance"

Though a noun, not a prefix, dUra often translates as though it were a prefix

(daéZan "act of seeing") fs%É ÅeYoúÄAy fb%da≥ a dUradaéZI mahAet%jA „ajAgaeN%r i„%ya rAjA daZaraõa rAja‘a karaet%n| "In that Ayodhya ruled King Dasharatha, dear to his subjects, of great vigor,

FARSIGHTED, and knowledgeable in the Vedas." (Advanced Bengali, p. 305)

Sanskritic "sandhi" (juncture) rules, used in Bangla, are as follows: dur before vowels and voiced consonants (g, G, j, J, etc.) duZ before unvoiced palatal consonants (c, C ) duS before unvoiced velar, retroflex, and labial consonants (k, K, T, ó, p, P ) dus before unvoiced dental consonants (t, õ ) duHa before sibilants (Z, S, s )

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in%r, in%Z, in%S, in%s, in%Ha, nI a negative prefix (consult Intro Bengali, p. 284)

"Sandhi" rules similar to those cited for dur, etc., apply, plus nI before the consonant r, as in nIraba "silent; without sound"

(Å a "arms, weapons"; Çpad "danger") fd%eZ%r in%ra a janasAúAraNaek% Kun kaer% sAmair%kbAih%nI ik% fd%eZ%r ÅKaƒatA, samaËAt&‘a àbaMa

in%rApa–A Å•u⋲ a rAKaeC%? "By murdering the UNARMED common people of this country is the military

maintaining SECURITY, a sense of brotherhood, and the unity of the nation?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 272)

para "not one's own, of another"

(Åéõa "wealth, benefit") sutarAM sAih%etÄ% fK%lA karabAra fY% Åiú%kAra ÇmAed%ra ÇeC%, Zuúu tAÉ naya_ïAéõa àbaM parAéõa

à duey%ra Yugapaö sAúanAra janÄa maenojagaet% fK%lA karAÉ hae∞C% ÇmAed%ra pae• saéba„aúAna kaétabÄa|

"Consequently, it is not simply that we have the right to indulge in literature—in order to perform simultaneously both for our own interests and ALTRUISTICALLY, it is our first and foremost duty to play in the world of the mind." (Advanced Bengali, p. 122)

bada "bad, offensive"

(nAma "name, reputation") ib%luTA sAeú% badanAma fd%yain%| "That Bilu fellow of his own accord had not given [her] a BAD NAME [i.e., she

had earned it on her own]." (Dilara Hashem) ib% (bÄ before vowel-initial words) (1) a negative prefix; (2) denoting: intensity, extra, greater

(ba a "clothing") 1. fgoTA katak ib%ba a Kued% fC%el% im%el% Åen%k ib%eb%canAr par óAärAel% fY%, . . . "A number of very small, NAKED boys, after much deliberation, came to the

conclusion that, . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 115) (ic%i÷%ta "painted, decorated, picturesque") 2. jagaet% àman ra”a ib%ic%i÷%ta m&ga õAkaet% pAer% nA, àeY% mAyA tAet% ÇmAr sae«d%ha fn%É| "Such a gem-STUDDED deer could not possibly exist in the world; there is no

doubt that this is Maya." (Advanced Bengali, p. 308)

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fb% a negative prefix (used with, but not exclusively with, Perso-Arabic words)

(Çdab% "etiquette, courtesy") fC%el%ed%r fK%lA tArA fb%yAdaib% maen% kaer%| "They considered the boys' play IMPUDENCE." (Advanced Bengali, p. 115) (See also Lesson 1, II, "Spelling.") (TAÉm "time") tA CARA fb%TAÉem% kAja karAra jaenÄ%% bARait% . . . "And besides, it will be extra for working at ODD HOURS . . . " (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) (pARA "neighborhood") kI jAin% bAbA, ik%… Ka∞caraTA ÇmAra id%ek% ärakama kaer% tAik%ey% ÇeC% fk%na, fY%na pARAra

kukura fb%-pARAra kukuraek% fd%eK% kaTamaTa kaer% tAkAy, Çra gar`gar` kaer%| "What do I know, pal, but why does that low-life stare in my direction like that,

just as some neighborhood dog on spotting an INTERLOPER dog stares angrily and gives a low growl?" (Samaresh Basu)

mahA "great"

(paébat "mountain") mahApaébat ib%dIéNa h'el% fY%man hay fs%Éûp BUim%kaÈpa hala| "It was an earth tremor, as though a GREAT MOUNTAIN were cleft asunder."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 306) sa "with, together with"

(fP%n, fP%nA "foam, lather") Çim% raNaêael% fs%É it%najaen%r saeP%n üiú%r pAn karaet% cAÉ| "I want to drink the FROTHY blood of those three, on the battlefield." (Advanced Bengali, p. 308)

sama "equal, same"

(kAlIna adj. "of a time") iZabanAaõ [ZA˚I] ÅbaZÄa bai≠ %macae«‹%ra sAih%tÄa racanAra fkona ÇelocanA àKAen% kaer%na in% ik%…

bai≠ %ma samakAlIna BASA-Cae«d%ra pair%caya ¯paÛTaBAeb% bÄa°a kaer%eC%na| "Sibnath Sastri, of course, has not discussed here any of Bankim's literary works,

but he has clearly acquainted us with the language fashions of Bankim's time [Bankim's CONTEMPORARY language fashions]."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 107)

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saha "joint-, sub-, deputy, assistant; in conjunction with"

(ka¸mI "worker, employee") ÇwAsa tAÉ àÉ duÉ sahaka¸mIra kAeC% ic%raid%na k&ta≥ a iC%el%na| "That is why Abbas [Uddin Ahmad] was forever grateful to these two CO-

WORKERS." (Selina Bahar Jaman) (fYAga "a joining, yoga") . . . ib%Zuÿa hair%ca«danasAr sahaeYoeg% . . . ". . . IN CONJUNCTION WITH the essence of pure white sandal wood . . . " (from Lesson 15, I)

su "good" (See ku above.)

(ïAdua "tasty, tasteful, delicious") ÅiB%manÄu| saitÄ%, Çep%laguelo raes% Baiét%| kATaiC%, Çra rasa iC%TakAe∞C%| maen% hay Kuba

suïAdua haeb%| "Abhimanyu: 'Yes, indeed, these apples are full of juice. I cut them and juice

squirts out. I'm sure they'll be really SUPER DELICIOUS.'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

ïa "one's own"

( aca•ua "eye") tuim% sakalaÉ ïacae•% fd%iK%yACa, . . . "You saw it all with YOUR OWN eyes, . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 101)

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LESSON 1212

I. ib%çaekoS

dai•%NarAy_bAMalAr „ais%ÿa flOik%k fd%batA| ÉhAek %fm%id%nIpur, YaeZohar, KulanA àbaMa caiwZ paragaanA fj%lAy „Ay sakal fèZ%NIr, ib%eZ%SataHa ÅnuÕata fèZ%NIr ih%«durA pUjA kaer%| ÉhAr pUjAr Çiú%kÄa fd%KA YAy caiwZ paragaanA fj%lAr dai•%NAMaeZ%, saÈBabataHa â Å¥alaÉ dai•%NarAey%r pUjAr Ööpai–%êal| su«darabaen%r Åiú%bAsI àbaMa â ÅraeNÄ% YAtAyAtakArI sakala fèZ%NIra ih%«du, àmana ik% bahu musalamAnaä dai•%NarAyaek% ÅraNÄara•aka àbaM bÄAèGakuel%r Åiú%ed%batA bail%yA ib%çAs ä pUjA kaer%n| dai•%NarAey%r pUéNa mUiét% Åit% suèZI àbaMa bIeroic%ta| pair%∞Cad ä „aharaNAid% ih%«duYugIya fYoÿA bA rAjAr Ånuûp| mUiét%bÄatIta É~hAr "bArA' bA muKamaƒal-Åi≠%ta GaT „atIkaûep% fpOS-saMa£Ai»% bA payalA mAeG% bÄApakaBAeb% pUij%ta hay| dai•%NarAey%r bAiéS%k bA ib%eZ%S pUjAek% "rAey%r jAtAl pUjA' balA hay| Åen%k êael% ÁAªaeN%tara jAit%r flok ÉhAr pUjAy fpOeroih%tÄa kair%yA õAek%n| k&ˆarAm dAs „aB&it% ÉhAr mAhA’Äa ÅbalaÍan kair%yA maÆalakAbÄa racanA kair%yAiC%el%n| "kAlurAy' ‹a| fgoep%«‹ak&ˆa basu

"BArataekoS,' catuéõa Kaƒa (kalakAtA: baÆIya sAih%tÄa pair%Saö, tAir%K fdä%yA hayin%), p&Ha 10|

II. ADJECTIVES A. ADDING THE GENITIVE Just as genitive pronouns (e.g., ÇmAr) are adjectives (i.e., they modify or qualify a noun/pronoun), so too other words can be made into adjectives by the addition of the genitive:

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NOUN + GENITIVE

kalakAtAr kaRacA "the Kolkatan chronicles," lit. "the chronicles of Kolkata" kAej%r flok "an industrious person," lit. "a person of work" bAiR%r paõ "the way home," lit. "home's path" majAr gaÓa "a funny story," lit. "a story of humor" hAet%r fl%KA "handwriting," lit. "writing of the hand" fd%bIr is%l`ek%r cAdaraiT% dujaen%r gAey% jaRAeno| "Devi's silk shawl was wrapped around both of them." Literally: "Devi's shawl of

silk was wrapped around the bodies of the two." (Saradindu Bandyopadhyay)

VERBAL NOUN + GENITIVE (See also 6.II.)

iP%er% ÇsabAr samay nInAek% ftomAr saeÆ% in%ey% àeso| "When you come back [at the returning time], bring Nina with you." (Intro Bengali, p. 203) ÇmAr mata ÅegoCaAla flokaek% Gar sAjAenor ÖpaYu°a fB%eb% tuim% ÇmAr dAm baiR%ey% id%el%| "You overrate me, thinking it appropriate for a sloppy person like me to arrange

the house [thinking me appropriate of arranging]." (Intro Bengali, p. 373) fk%haÉ ÖpaYu°a fK%lAr sAõI bail%yA maen% haÉla nA| "It didn’t seem that anyone was a suitable playing companion." (Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay) . . . ÇmAid%gaek% ic%÷akUeT% YAÉbAra paõa fd%KAÉyA id%yA, . . . ". . . having shown us the path [of/for going to] Citrakuta, . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 100) bAMalA balAra floka fp%el% BISaNa KuZI haya| "He's extremely delighted when he comes across a Bangla-speaking person."

(Ketaki Kushari Dyson) mA‹AjI úUp, mAeC%r ft%l, Çr maRAepoRAr gaŒa fm%ZAeno àkaTA gaŒa| "It was a smell blended of Madras incense, fish oil, and the odor of burning

corpses." (Anon.) àKan Çr tAek% fp%Caen% TAnabAr fk%Ö fn%É| "Now there was no one to hold him back." (Anon.)

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BAbabAr ik%CuÉ fn%É| "There's nothing to worry about." (Anon.)

NOUN cum ADVERB + GENITIVE Many adverbs are formed from nouns with the addition of the suffix à| Those same nouns—probably known to us more readily in their adverbial forms—can be made into adjectives with the genitive. You might want to think of these adjectives as being made from the adverb plus the genitive (even though technically they come from the noun).

bAÉer%r i~s%iR% "the outside steps" fB%taer%r/iB%taer%r kaõA "inner thoughts" sAmaen%r pukur "the pond up ahead" fp%Caen%r/ip%Caen%r fd%yAl "the back wall" in%ec%r talAy "on the floor below" äpaer%r/Öpaer%r DAkabAVa "the upper mailbox" paer%r p&ıA "the next page" Çeg%r baCar "the previous year" àkaid%en%r bÄApAr "a one-day affair" "ÇT baCar Çeg%r àkaid%n' "A Day Eight Years Ago" (Jibanananda Das) àkaTA jaürI im%iT%Maà Çú Ga∆TAr ba°&tA id%ey%eC%n| "At an important meeting he delivered a half-hour speech." (Anon.)

With a certain limited number of nouns that also function as common adverbs of time and place, the genitive case ending is kAr (fk%r) instead of simply r or àr:

àKanakAr id%n "present times, these days" taKanakAr id%n "those days, olden times" fkoõAkAr Ft%rI "made where?" fs%KAnakAr BASA "the language of that place" ÇmAed%r àKAnakAr kAéYasUcI baŒa fr%eK% rAäyAlaip%iƒ%et %ig%ey% im%iT%Ma karA ÇmAed%r pae•%

saÈBab haeb% nA| "It would not be possible for us to put aside our local (i.e., of here) agenda and go

off to Rawalpindi to attend a meeting." (Advanced Bengali, p. 272) ÇjakAlakAr kAyadA "the current fashion" Çjaek%r Kabaer%r kAgj "today's newspaper" (Çjaek%r colloquial form of ÇjakAr) kAlaek%r rAÕA "yesterday's [or tomorrow's] food" (kAlaek%r col. form of kAlakAr)

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Çj ("today") and kAl ("yesterday, tomorrow") have alternative, commonly used forms: Çjaek% ("today") and kAlaek% ("yesterday, tomorrow"). If kAl is modified by gata or ÇgAmI, as in ÇgAmI kAl and gata kAl, then the fk% ending is not used.

Even fewer nouns can take either the r/àr or the kAr genitive:

äpaer%r/Öpaer%r; äparakAr/ÖparakAra "above, upper" Åen%ek% maen% kaer%n, àÉ úaraen%r ÇRA-ÇiR% paeT%raÉ CAp paeR%eC% ^sAcIr ib%KÄAta ftoraeN%r

äparakAr nAnA ic%e÷% fZoiB%ta pAõaer%r kaiR%guil%r äpaer%| "Many are of the opinion that this type of horizontally unfurling scroll paintings

left their influence on the upper stone joists, decorated with various pictures, of the renowned gate at Sanchi." (Advanced Bengali, p. 187)

àide%k%r, äid%ek%r; àid%kakAr, äid%kakAr "of this/that direction, side" àet%É fboJA YAy, äid%kakAr saMaKÄAlaGu dael%r kaõAmatan nA calael% àid%kakAr saMaKÄAgair%ıa

dalaek% rAjaEn%it%k saMaGaeéS%r badael% sAmair%k saMaGaeéS%r mueKomuiK% haet% haeb%| "From this it is clear that if we do not proceed according to the dictates of that

side's [West Pakistan's] minority party, this side's [East Pakistan's] majority party will have to face, instead of a political clash, a military one."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 272) Çeg%r; Çeg%kAr "of before, previous, former, older"

Note: Çeg%kAr adds the kAr suffix to the adverb Çeg%, not to the noun Çga| Çeg%kAr samay "older/olden times" (Intro Bengali, p. 366) àek%bAer% ib%Z baCara Çeg%kAr saba GaTanA ïe·% iP%er% àla| "All of the events of a full twenty years ago returned in a dream." (Mahasweta Devi) i£%samAes%ra Çeg%kAra mAla fto, tAÉ| bAÉer% fd%Kaet% fb%Za fmoTAesoTA Çra su«dara sabuja|

ik%… iB%taer%ra ~JAj ca'el% fg%eC%| "It's pre-Christmas stock, that's why. They [the green chillies] look good on the

outside, plump and a beautiful green. But their inner fire is gone." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

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B. ADJECTIVAL SUFFIXES & PHONETIC ALTERATION OF NOUN/ADJECTIVE There are a great many suffixes that—when added to a noun and with no alteration of that noun—turn the noun into an adjective. (See the list of suffixes in section IV below.) Some nouns (and adjectives) may be made into adjectives (or adjectives of a different sort) by the addition of suffixes with accompanying alteration ("strengthening") of internal vowels:

–Ék (The "strengthening" of internal vowels follows Sanskritic "sandhi" rules.)

ADJECTIVE FROM ǻair%ka% "sincere, heartfelt" Żara "heart, interior, interval"

fs%É úaméIya saMgIet%ra Ç»air%ka BAba . . .% "that religious music's HEARTFELT emotions . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 117)

„Aõaim%k "initial, early, primary" „aõama "first" mAis%k "monthly" mAs "month" Fd%in%k "daily" id%n "day" ãpanÄAis%ka "novelist" ÖpanÄAsaa "novel" rAjaEn%it%k "political" rAjan%Iit% "politics" asAMagaóain%k "organizational" asaMagaóana "organization"

kAej%É Çbul hAiZ%em%r „Aõaim%k rAjaEn%it%k ic%»A àbaM asAMagaóain%k Zai°%r maeúÄ% fY% saÈBAbanA iC%elo tA . . .

"Consequently the possibilities which were inherent in Abul Hashim's INITIAL POLITICAL ideas and ORGANIZATIONAL strengths, they . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 263)

Å becomes Ç Ç remains Ç É/Ñ becomes â Ö/Ü becomes ã

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–à (The "strengthening" of internal vowels follows Bangla vowel shifting rules.)39

ADJECTIVE FROM àkaeG%ey% "boring, monotonous" àk GA "one beat [on a drum]" fk%el% "blackish" kAla "black" fs%ek%el% "old-fashioned" fs%kAl "olden times, then"

kait%pay fs%ek%el% kAdaÍarI úaraeN%ra ÖpanÄAsa . . .% "many OLD-FASHIONED Kadambari type of novels . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 107)

pARAe^g%ey% "rural" pARA^gA "countryside" bAraem%es% "throughout the year" bAramAs "twelve months" frojaeg%er% "earning" frojagAr "income"

ÇmAr Åman frojaeg%er% fC%el% . . . "such an INCOME EARNING son of mine . . . " (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

saébaen%eZ% "ruinous" saébanAZ "destruction" nATuek%% "dramatic, theatrical" nATaka "drama, play" Zahuer% "urban" Zahara "city, town"

-ä The preceding vowel is raised to the "high" vowel—see box above.

ADJECTIVE FROM fk%ejo "efficient, active, useful" kAja "work"

39For a review of vowel alternation, a.k.a. vowel harmony and vowel shifting, consult Intro Bengali, pp. 76-77.

The preceding vowel is raised to the "high" vowel: high (place of tongue in mouth) e -> i i u @ -> e e o a gets raised to e @ ] ] -> o a o -> u low (tongue in mouth)

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fk%ejo saÈ„adAery%ra pAey% pAey% t&NapuÛpaZUnÄa . . . "devoid of grass and flowers, due to the feet of the INDUSTRIOUS

community . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 112) fB%eto "rice-eating" BAt "cooked rice"

fB%eto bAXAlI "a 'real' Bengali!"

kueno/kueNo "domestic; bashful" fkoN "corner; zenana" fk%eóo "wooden" kAó "wood" f∏oero "feverish" ∏ ara "fever" fTeko "bald" TAk "baldness; bald" fm%eóo "of the field" mAó "field, ground" C. PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLE fd%eK% Though a PAP, fd%eK%, in conjunction with other adjectives, may function as an adjective:

duégA lAlapAR kApaR pair%et% BAlabAes%, tAhAr janÄ abAiC%yA àkaKAnA BAla kApaR, BAla fd%iK%yA ÇlatA kaey%k pAtA|

"Durga loved to wear a red-bordered sari. He selected for her a nice piece of material and several leaves [full] of FINE LOOKING alta dye for her feet." (Advanced Bengali, p. 143)

àkaTA baeRo fd%eK% üÉ mAC ú'er% bAiR% ÇnabAr Öpa£am karaeC%| "He is about to bring home a BIG LOOKING rui fish he caught." (Rabindranath Tagore)

D. PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE (See Intro Bengali, p. 321.) E. VERBAL NOUN WITHOUT THE GENITIVE (See Intro Bengali, p. 320.)

„akAƒa baTagAeC%r mAeJ% pAtAy-òAkA fCoTaKAT apAiK%r bAsAiT% fY%man, . . . "Just like the little bird's nest HIDDEN amongst leaves of a huge banyan tree, . . .

" (Advanced Bengali, p. 125) F. VERBAL NOUN + GENITIVE (Review Lesson 6, II, B and section II, A.2 above.)

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Exercises—Translate:

1) ^tAr Gaer% su«dar fd%eK% PuladAin% fr%eKo| (Rabindranath Tagore)

2) àÉ duHasamaey% ib%úabAek% sAhAYÄa karAr fk%Ö iC%la nA| (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

3) ip%Tuil% fgolAara Çl`panA id%et%eC%_pa€alatA, pAKI, úAen%ra ZIS`, natuna äóA sUéYÄa|

(Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay)

4) fs%É ÇmAr saébaen%eZ% iB%KAir%| (Rabindranath Tagore)

5) basuŒarA tAr ^Çcael%r fp%yArAguelo rAKael%| (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

6) fs%TA kaeb%kAr dAg tA fboJabAr fkona ÖpAy fn%É| (Satyajit Ray)

III. ADVERBS There are three categories of adverbs: (1) words that are adverbs and adverbs only; (2) adjectives that, with no modification, can be used as adverbs; and (3) adjectives and nouns that have been altered to become adverbs. A. ADVERBS AND ADVERBS ONLY

tARAtAiR% "quickly, early" Çe˙% "slowly; softly, quietly" (often reduplicated, Çe˙% Çe˙%)

B. ADJECTIVES USED AS ADVERBS Several of the more common adjectives can be used, without modification, as both adjective and adverb:

BAla "good; well" KArAp "bad; badly" su«dar "beautiful; beautifully" im%iÛT% "sweet; sweetly"

it%in% Kub su«dar ^àek%eC%n| "She has painted quite beautifully." fs% im%iÛT% bael%| "He speaks sweetly."

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C. ADVERBS MADE FROM ADJECTIVES & NOUNS

Any adjective can be made into an adverb by the addition of the word kaer% (PAP of karA) or the word BAeb%| (In the CALIT language, kaer% tends to be preferred; BAeb% is more prevalent in SADHU.)

it%in% Kub su«dar kaer% ^àek%eC%n| "She painted quite beautifully." fs% im%iÛT% kaer% bael%| "He speaks sweetly."

Some adjectives can be made into adverbs by the addition of the suffix à| Which

adjectives allow for this is not predictable, so simply take note when you come across such a construction.

sahaj "simple, easy, straightforward"

ftomarA fb%Z sahaej% bAMalA iZ%KaCa| "You are learning Bangla quite easily."

or ftomarA bAMalA fb%Z sahaj kaer% balaCa| "You are speaking Bangla in quite a simple manner."

Some nouns can be made into adverbs by the addition of the suffix à%|

bAih%r n. "the outside" bAih%er% (SADHU), bAÉer% (CALIT) adv. "outside" iB%tar n. "the inside" iB%taer%, fB%taer% adv. "inside" Çga n. "the forepart, tip" Çeg% adv. "ahead, early, previously"

These same NOUNS can be made INTO ADJECTIVES by the ADDITION OF THE GENITIVE case. (See section II, A.3 above.)

Some adjectives and nouns can be made into adverbs by the addition of the suffix tH,

which is often shortened in spelling to t| (See Lesson 1, II, L.)

„aõam adj. "first" „aõamatHa/„aõamata "initially, firstly"

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iŸ%tIaya adj. "second" iŸ%tIaytaaH "secondly"

àÉ ÅMZaiT%ra guü‘a duid%ka fõ%ek%: „aõamata saM˘&ta nATaek%ra ÅnubAda ih%es%eb%, iŸ%tIaytaa ib%dÄAsAgaer%ra racanArIit%r „ait%in%iú%%mUlaka in%daéZana ih%es%eb%|

"This portion's significance lies in two areas: first, as a translation of a Sanskrit drama, and secondly, as a representative example of Bidyasagar's writing style." (Advanced Bengali, p. 99)

„aúAna adj. "main, primary" „aúAnataH "mainly, primarily" Palaa n. "fruit, result" PalataH "consequently, as a result"

PalataH DAen%ra kaib%tA, hab`s`-àra daéZana, suÉP`eT%ra bÄaÆa ik%MbA ¯Taeén%ra ÖpanÄAsa bAXAlI iZ%i•%tamaen%ra Ö≤Ibaen% ib%eZ%Sa fkona CApa fP%el% in%|

"Consequently, neither Donne's poetry, Hobbes' philosophy, Swift's satire, nor Sterne's novel left any real mark on the process of revivification of the Bengali educated mind." (Sibnarayan Ray)

mUla adj. "original, fundamental"; n. "root, origin" mUlataaH "originally, fundamentally" saÈBaba adj. "possible, probable" saÈBabataHa "possibly, probably"

Exercises—Translate the following sentences, then remove the adverb and retranslate. Next, construct new sentences corresponding to the original, but using different adverbs.

Example: Çeg% àfso| Response: "Come early." àfso| tARAtAiR% àfso| fd%rI kaer% àfso nA| Åib%laeÍ àfso|

1) ikCu BAla kaer la•ÄaÉ kair in| (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

2) ik… inejek Bul bueJiClum| (Rabindranath Tagore)

3) mAnas ZÂ kaer hAes| (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

4) Çpin inHsaMfkoec ÇmAedr pUjA èghaN kaün| (Rabindranath Tagore) 5) sahaejÉ pAäyA fgla TÄAiV| (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

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IV. SUFFIXES Like the prefixes, most Bangla suffixes come from Sanskrit. There are more suffixes than prefixes, and they are more circ*mscribed (and therefore more predictable) in their meaning than are prefixes which, as seen in the last lesson, can have widely disparate meanings. Some of the following suffixes are adjectives and even nouns in their own right; some are strictly suffixes and cannot stand alone as separate words. The following list is by no means inclusive of all the suffixes used in Bangla. ÅúIn "under the control of, subordinate to"

à CARA sAma»a-„aBAbAúIn dai•%NapaÃI mahael%ä bÄApAraiT% in%ey% Çbul hAiZ%m àbaMa ^tAed%r "bAmapaÃI' Öpadael%r ib%üeÿ% dAüN àk ib%ûp „ait%i£%yAr s&iÛT% hay|

"Moreover, in the Rightist camp also, CONTROLLED BY FEUDAL INTERESTS, a fierce and quite ugly reaction developed against their Left-wing faction and Abul Hashim." (Advanced Bengali, p. 261)

Żara "different, other than; limit, end" (also: n. "interval; the heart, the mind")

ib%≥ a catuÛpaed%ra kAeC% iZ%•AlABa bÄatIta ftomAed%ra ≥AnenoÕait%ra ÖpAyA»ara fd%iK% nA| "I don't see ANY OTHER MEANS of your edification except to learn from

experienced quadrupeds." (Advanced Bengali, p. 104) (YugA»ara, "a new age, an epoch-ending revolution")

Åiù%ta "possessing, endowed with"

purIet% fY%kAel% fbOÿaúaéma „aBAbAiù%ta iC%la, fs%kAel%ra Ft%yArI fkonaä mUiét% ÇeC% bail%yA „amAiN%ta hay nAÉ|

"It has not been verified that we have any images made during the time when Buddhism was INFLUENTIAL [ENDOWED WITH INFLUENCE] in Puri." (Advanced Bengali, p. 178)

Åeéõ% "for the purpose of, for, on account of"

. . . sAma»aZai°% àman cAp s&iÛT% kaer% fY% Ç’ara•Aeéõ% musail%m lIg maiÀ%‘a fs%É ib%l „atÄAhAr kaer% in%et% bAúÄa hay|

". . . the feudal forces created such pressure that, FOR SELF-PRESERVATION, the Muslim League leadership was obliged to withdraw that particular bill." (Advanced Bengali, p. 262)

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Ç∞CaÕa "covered with, pervaded"

Öpara… tAed%r Åen%kaek%É fs%É paõ fõ%ek% ib%cÄuta kaer %musail%m lIeg%r patAkAtael% samaeb%t kaer% pair%eZ%eS% tAed%raek% kaer%iC%elo hatAZA∞CaÕa ä ib%ËA»a|

"Furthermore, though causing many of them [the youth] to forsake that path [the truly Leftist way] and rally around the Muslim League's standard, in the end it [Abul Hashim's political philosophy] left them confused and DISILLUSIONED." (Advanced Bengali, p. 263)

Ç’ak "fundamentally, whose 'soul' is"

it%in% mUlata hAsÄarasA’ak racanAy pAradaZéI| "He is essentially an expert in HUMOROUS writing." (Advanced Bengali, p.

145) Çid% "etc., with X at the forefront" (See „amuK below.)

. . . taõAip% rAjA daZaraõ fk%na àel%n nA àjanÄa baiZ%ıAid% bÄa˙a hael%n| ". . . VASHISTHA AND THE REST became anxious over why King Dasharatha

had not appeared, despite that [the arrival of the auspicious time]." (Advanced Bengali, p. 307)

pair%∞Cad ä „aharaNAid% ih%«duYugIya fYoÿA bA rAjAr Ånuûp| "THE GARMENTS AND THE WEAPONS, ETC., are similar to those of the

kings and warriors of the Hindu period." (from Lesson 12, I) ÇnA% "-hood, -ism, -ness, -ship"

fn%k`TAÉ haÉet% buTa paéYa»a ÇgAegoRA ib%lAet%ra CApamArA| fk%bala raMiT%et% bAXAil%yAnA bajAya raih%yAeC%|

"From his necktie to his boots there were all the trappings of England. Only in his coloring was his BENGALINESS maintained."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 168) ÇpaÕa "affected by or with"

Çra ip%tA ÇmAra,a ib%ìayApaÕa haÉyA, Åin%em%Sa nayaen% in%rI•aNa kair%et%eC%na| "And my father, SURPRISED, stares unblinking." (Advanced Bengali, p. 168)

Çib%ÛTaa "absorbed in, possessed by"

floek% ib%ìayAib%ÛT% haÉyA YAaÉet% lAig%la| "People were AMAZED." (Advanced Bengali, p. 108)

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Çsa°a "devoted to, attached to"

ÅeYoúÄAy kAmAsa°a, nIca„ak&it% bA n&ZaMasa puüS, ÅõabA Åib%ŸAn bA nAi˙%k fd%KA fY%ta nA| "In Ayodhya one did not see LUSTFUL, base, cruel persons nor the uneducated

or the atheist." (Advanced Bengali, p. 305) Éka (See section II above.) Ñ "of, pertaining to"

tAhA àkaid%ek% ib%dÄAsAgarI bA Å•ayI BASAra ä Åpara id%ek% ÇlAlI BASAra maúÄagA| "It [Bankim's prose style] proceeded between on the one extreme a

BIDYASAGAR- and AKSAY-LIKE language and on the other extreme a 'ALALER GHARER DULAL'-ISH sort of idiom."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 108) Ñya "of, pertaining to"

àid%ek% ik%… ÇmAed%r saMasadIya dal òAkAy àes% jamAey%t haey%eC%| "On the other hand, our PARLIAMENTARY contingent assembled in Dhaka."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 271) Öic%t "appropriate to, suitable"

fYObaenoic%t ÖösAha ÇmAr ÇeC%| "I have that YOUTHFUL enthusiasm." (Advanced Bengali, p. 266) dai•%NarAey%r pUéNa mUiét% Åit% suèZI àbaMa bIeroic%ta| "Daksin Ray's full image is very handsome and BEFITTING A WARRIOR."

(from Lesson 12, I)

ÖœuK "facing, on the verge of"

taKan fmogal sAÏAjÄ pataenoœuKa| "At that time, Mughal rule was ON THE VERGE OF COLLAPSING."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 118) äyAlA/älA (m.), äyAlI/ÖlI (f.) denoting: one in the profession of, one endowed with

ä gAnaälA Çer%akaTA gAn gAä| ÇmAra Çra %fkoõAä YAbAra fn%É| ik∞Cu karAra fn%É| "Oh, SONG-WALLAH, sing another song. I've nowhere else to go, nothing in

particular to do." (Suman Cattopadhyay)

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àKan fY%KAen% fj%nAer%l fpo¯T Çip%es%r GaiR%äyAlA bAiR%, ÉMaer%jaed%r „aõam duéga Ft%ir% hala fs%ÉKAen%, lAladIiG% pARAy|

"Where now stands the general post office building WITH ITS CLOCK FACADE [building ENDOWED WITH A CLOCK] was precisely where the Britishers' first fort was built, in the Lal Dighi neighborhood."

(from Lesson 2, I) bAiR%ÖlI bAiR% badael%eC%_ "The LANDLADY had moved—" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) àkaid%na k&ˆaemohana maúura bÄApAer% ÇelocanA kaer%na ÅÄAMil%kAna cAeéc%ra àkajana äparaäyAlAra

saeÆ%| "One day Krishnamohan [Banerjee] discussed the matter of Madhu [Michael

Madhusudan Datta] with one of the HIGHER-UPS in the Anglican church." (Ghulam Murshid)

ka "the one who does an action"

iZ%banAõa ZA˚I (1847-1919) „aúAnata úéma„acAraka ä samAjasaM˘Araka ih%es%eb% pair%ic%ta| "Sibnath Sastri (1847-1919) is mainly known as a PREACHER of religion and a

societal REFORMER." (Advanced Bengali, p. 107) kara "making, causing; maker, doer"

mAen%, kAjaguelo ÇpanAr pae•% ïai˙%kara hael% mAen% ~Kuej% pAna, Çra Åïai˙%kara hael% mAen% ~Kuej% pAna nA, àÉ fto?

"That is to say, if the actions, from your perspective, MAKE YOU FEEL COMFORTABLE, they are significant, and if they CAUSE YOU DISCOMFORT, you find no meaning in them. That's it, isn't it?"

(Ketaki Kushari Dyson) karaN "making, -ize, -izing, -ization"

YAnabAhanasaha sakal guü‘apUéNa iZ%Óa Åib%laeÍ% jAtIyakaraN karA haeb%| "All vital industries along with transportation shall without delay be

NATIONALIZED." (Advanced Bengali, p. 260) kAra "the one who does or makes"

it%in% bAMlAed%eZ%ra ÅnÄatama fèZ%ıa mananaZIla „abaŒakAra ih%es%eb%É ìaraNIya| "He is remembered as one of Bengal's most thoughtful ESSAYISTS." (Advanced Bengali, p. 121)

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kArI "the one who does an action"

fd%eZ% YaKanaÉ gaNatAiÀ%k ha˙A»aer%r saÈBAbanA fd%KAYAy, taKanaÉ SaRaYaÀakArIrA tA bAnacAl kaer% fd%bAr janÄa Öeó% paeR% lAeg%|

"As soon as the possibility is seen for a democratic transfer of power, CONSPIRATORS set about busily to subvert it."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 272) fKeko "one who eats, or something eaten by"

. . . ärA hae∞c% fn%eR%_Çsala gaüeK%eko fn%eR%, . . . ". . . they are the nere—the original BEEF-EATING nere, . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 110) (fpokAeK%eko, "moth-eaten")

fKor "one who eats or is addicted to"

tuim% kamalAkA»a, dUradaZéI, fk%na nA, ÇiP%MeKor, tuim%ä ik% fd%iK%et% pAä nA fY%, úanIra fdoeS%É dair%e‹% fcora haya?

"You are Kamalakanta, a far-sighted one, because, an OPIUM ADDICT—can you not also see that it is through the faults of the rich that the thief is born out of poverty?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 105)

gata "pertaining to, related to, internal to; gone to"

sahakaémI ÅnÄAnÄa jAet%r Åen%k kAüiZ%ÓIed%r mata àrAä jAit%gata fp%ZA fC%eR% fb%kAr haey% paeR%eC%|

"Like many fellow craftsmen of various other castes, they too [the patuyas] have given up their CASTE-RELATED professions and joined the ranks of the unemployed." (Advanced Bengali, p. 183)

(ÇÉnagata "legal, legally") (fbÄ%i°agata "personal, individualistic") kusuma fs%ÉKAen% bais%yA paiR%yA mahA ÅiB%mAnaa-Baer% tAhAra paraelokagatA jananIek% Öe◊%Za

kair%yA bail%yA Öió%la, "mA haÉyA à ik% ÅsahÄa Za÷utA sa»Aen%ra „ait% sAiú%yA ig%yACa mA!' "Kusum sat down right there and, full of anger and hurt feelings, called out,

addressing her DECEASED [GONE TO HEAVEN] mother, 'Ma, as a mother, how could you have nurtured this unbearable enmity towards your own child!'" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

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ig%ir% "the occupation of, -ship"

it%in% hayaeto fB%eb%iC%el%na, iZ%•akatA Çra pai÷%kAra kAja im%el% it%in% fD%puiT%ig%ir%ra tulanAya fb%iZ% Çya karaet% sa•ama haeb%na|

"He perhaps had thought that, with teaching and the job at the paper together, he would be able to earn a better income than with a deputyship [i.e., Deputy Magistrate's position]." (Ghulam Murshid)

cÄuta "dislocated from, devoid of"

samAej%ra maenora∂ana karaet% fg%el% sAih%tÄa fY% ïaúaémacÄuta haey% paeR%, tAra „amANa bAMlAed%eZ% Çja duélaBa naya|

"It is not hard to find today in Bengal proof that when literature sets off to please society, it becomes DEVOID OF ITS TRUE DHARMA."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 123) ja "born, born of, produced by"

àr fp%Caen% Yui°% YAÉ õAkuk nA fk%na, fY% ÖpakaraeN %iZ%ÓIek% kAj karaet% hay fs% ij%in%s G&iN%ta bael% ib%eb%ic%ta haäyAy caémakAr samAej% Å»Äaja fõ%ek% fg%eC%|

"Whatever the reasoning behind this might be, because the materials with which these artisans must work are considered loathsome, leather-workers remained LOW [LOW-BORN] within society."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 183) janak "engendering, producing"

bÄAeú%r àÉ kAéYa in%tA»a Åúaémajanak ≥An k'er% it%in %balael%n, . . . "Considering the hunter's deed as most UNRIGHTEOUS, he said, . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 304)

jIbI "whose livelihood is, one who practices such and such"

fpoeTorA [pTuyArA] in%ej%ed%r ib%çakaémAr sa»An bael% dAbI kaer%, BAratabaéSIya samAej%r Çr daZaTA iZ%ÓajIbIeèZ%NIr mataÉ|

"Like a number of other ARTISAN groups in Indian society, patuyas claim themselves to be the sons of Visvakarma." (Advanced Bengali, p. 183)

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≥ a "knowing, versed in"

fb%da≥ a tapaïI paiƒ%taeèZ%ıa nAradaek% muin%bar bAfiIik% ij%≥AsA karael%n, saÈ„ait% p&iõ%bIet% fk% ÇeC%n iY%in% guNabAn, bIéYabAn, úaéma≥ a, k&ta≥ a, satÄabAdI ä d&ôaÁata|

"That best of sages, Valmiki, asked Narada, that KNOWER OF THE VEDAS, ascetic, and greatest of scholars, 'At present in this world who is there who is virtuous, heroic, VERSED IN THE DHARMA, GRATEFUL [KNOWER/ACKNOWLEDGER OF WHAT WAS DONE FOR HIM], truthful, and firm of resolve?'" (Advanced Bengali, p. 303)

tama the superlative suffix, "most"

èZaim%ek%r Åiú%kAr: èZaim%kaed%r in%ñtama majurI ä mahAéGaBAtA „acail%ta ÅbaêAnuYAyI in%ic%ta karA haeb%|

"Workers' rights: Workers' MINIMUM daily wages and allowances shall be guaranteed, based upon the current financial situation."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 260) (fèZ%ıatama adj. "best [most best]") (ÅnÄatama adj. "one of several, a particular one from among others") úaéma ib%Sayaka gadÄa racanAra it%in% ÅnÄatama îaÛTA| "He [Debendranath Tagore] was ONE OF the pioneers in the field of prose

writings of a religious nature." (Advanced Bengali, p. 94)

tara the comparative suffix, "more"

jAtIya ÖÕayaen%r ïAeéõ% pu˙aek%r ÇmadAnI ä ra‡AnI nIit% sahajatara karA fhok| "In the interest of national advancement, let the policy governing import and

export of books be LIBERALIZED." (from Lesson 7, I) tuim% ik% jAna nA fY% ftomAr fc%ey% i„%yatara ÇmAr fk%Ö fn%É, Zuúu rAm CARA?40 "Don't you know that I have no one MORE DEAR than you, except for Rama?"

(Advanced Bengali, p. 306) fs%É ib%SAdabAir „abAha daéZana kair%yA ÅnutApI mAib%yA Çraä Åiú%akatara duHKAnael% daØIBUta

haÉet% lAig%el%na| "Upon seeing the waves of waters of sorrow [tears], the contrite Mabiya began to

burn in the even GREATER flames of sadness." (Mir Mosharraf Hosain) (fèZ%ıatara adj. "better [comparatively best]") (fk%amanaatara adj. "what sort, of what kind?")

40For grammarians of today, the use of tara with the comparative fc%ey% is considered incorrect. Such a construction does occur, however, as the example cited here demonstrates.

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tA makes for an abstract noun

nAgair%k Åiú%kAr: bAk` ïAúInatA àbaMa fl%KA, Çe«dolan, fm%lAem%ZA ä saMabAdapae÷%r ïAúInatA in%ic%ta ä kAéYae•%e÷% „aeYojÄa haeb%|

"Citizens' rights: FREEDOM of speech and for newspapers, FREEDOM to assemble, to discuss, and to write shall be guaranteed and applicable in practice." (Advanced Bengali, p. 260)

tulÄ "comparable to, equal to"

. . . ÁaªAra in%iém%ta sUéYaraiå%tulÄa dI‡a bANa . . . ". . . a radiant arrow, COMPARABLE TO THE SUN'S RAYS, made by Brahma . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 308)

‘a makes for an abstract noun

ÇmAed%r pair%èZamI mAnuSaek% ^bAcAet% haeb% dAir%‹Äa, frog àbaMa fb%kAra‘a fõ%ek%| "Our hardworking people must be saved from poverty, disease, and

UNEMPLOYMENT." (Advanced Bengali, p. 273) dAtA "giver of"

gu‡a kaib ä taKana „ait%BAra ÖösAhadAtA iC%el%na| "Gupta Kobi [Iswarcandra] was at that time also the one WHO GAVE

ENCOURAGEMENT to the gifted." (Advanced Bengali, p. 107) dAra "possessor of; causing; involved with"

ib%lu „AyaÉ nAnAek% óA¿A ker% balata_â fY% suBASa basura cÄAlA| ÅKaƒ BAraet%ra dAbIdAra| "Bilu used to tease his grandpa often, saying—'Here's Subhas Basu's disciple. An

ADVOCATE FOR [CLAIMANT OF] a united India.'" (Dilara Hashem) Çkabaer%r Çmael% fb%hAlA fõ%ek% dai•%eN%çar paéYa»a jAyagAr ^àrA jaim%dAr| "During the reign of Akbar, they were the ZEMINDARS [LAND HOLDERS]

from Behala to Daksineswar." (from Lesson 2, I) Ÿaya "two, both" (a dual suffix)

ft%man samaey% àkaid%na rAjaËAt&Ÿaya, YatI«‹aemohana óAkura àbaM mAÉek%el%ra maeúÄ% bAMlA nATaka in%ey% kaõAbAétA calaiC%elo|

"At such a time one day there took place a discussion among THE TWO RAJA BROTHERS [Iswarcandra and Pratapcandra Singh], Yotindra Mohan Tagore, and Michael, about the Bangla theatre." (Ghulam Murshid)

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in%ıa "grounded in, attentive to"

fs% ib%eb%canA àkA»aBAeb% àkAeD%im%k ÅéõAö Éit%hAsaib%cArain%ıa| "That judgment is strictly academic, i.e., BASED UPON HISTORICAL

CONSIDERATIONS." (Advanced Bengali, p. 240) panA "-ness, of or pertaining to"

hAis%yA kaeh%na fd%bI Zuna fr% bACain%| nA jAen% g&ih%NIpanA ftomAra jananIˇ "Smiling, the goddess said, 'Listen here, my dear one, Your mother knows not what it means TO BE A HOUSEWIFE.'" (Bharatcandra Ray)

paÃI "belonging to a particular school, follower of"

taõAkaiõ%ta bAmapaÃI Öpadael%r ÅnÄatama „aúAn fn%tA haäyA sae—%ä . . . "Despite being one of the main leaders of the so-called LEFTIST faction . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 262)

parAyaNaa "devoted to, attached to"

rAmarAejÄ% floek% Çnai«d%ta sa…ÛTa, puÛTa, úaémaparAyaNa, in%rAmaya, nIfroga àbaM duiéB%•a-BayaZUnÄa haeb%|

"In the 'Ram-rajya' [the perfect kingdom], the people will be happy, satisfied, well-nourished, DEVOTED TO DHARMA, free of sickness, free of disease, and devoid of fear and famine." (Advanced Bengali, p. 303)

pUéNa "full of, possessing"

fd%eb%«‹anAõ Ünaib%MZa ZatAÂIet% bAMlAed%eZ%ra úaémAe«dolaen% guüa‘apUéNa BUim%kA in%ey%iC%el%na| "Debendranath had assumed a SIGNIFICANT [FULL OF SIGNIFICANCE] role

in Bengal's religious movement in the 19th century." (Advanced Bengali, p. 94)

pUébak "doing, making; with"

Note: pUébak in SADHU functions similarly to ka'er% in CALIT Bangla.

Çr fkon` fd%eZ% àûp BISaN gaéjanapUébak [=gaéjan ka'er%] pa€A ä Áaªapu÷a úair%÷I kaiÈp%ta kair%yA cail%yA YAy?

"In what other land does the Padma and Brahmaputra, MAKING this sort of fearsome ROAR, cause the earth to quake as it flows along?"

(Advanced Bengali, p. 118)

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„amuK "etc., with X at the forefront" (See Çid% above.)

Fk%ek%yI balael%n, mahArAj, tuim% fY% Zapaõ k'er% „ait%≥Abaÿa h'el% tA É«‹a„amuK ft%i÷%Z fd%batA Zunun|

"Kaikeyi said, 'Great king, that promise which you have sworn to and are now bound, let the thirty-three [all] gods, FROM INDRA ON DOWN, hear that.'" (Advanced Bengali, p. 306)

i„%ya "loving, devoted to, dear to"

Ñçaraca«‹a ib%dÄAsAgara (1820-1891) bAMlAsAih%etÄ%ra àbaM bAMlAed%eZ%ra janai„%yatama nAm| "Iswarcandra Bidyasagar (1820-1891) is a most BELOVED [DEAR TO

PEOPLE] name in Bengal and Bangla literature." (Advanced Bengali, p. 99)

(ZAi»%i„%ya "peace-loving")

baÿa "bound to, committed to, resolved"

tArA ïAúIn fd%eZ%r mAnuS haet% „ait%≥Abaÿa| "They are RESOLVED to become the people of an independent land." (Advanced Bengali, p. 273)

bara honorific suffix meaning, literally, "best of"

fs% samaey% kaib%bara Ñçaraca«‹a gue‡%ra „AduéBAeb%ra kAla| "That was the time of the emergence into prominence of the esteemed poet

Iswarcandra Gupta." (Advanced Bengali, p. 107) batéI "located, situated; amenable to"

paer% mUlatAen%r pAéçabatéI ca«‹aBAgAr ÅnukaraeN% kaNAraek%ä àk ca«‹aBAgAr s&iÛT% haÉla| "Subsequently, in imitation of Candrabhaga, LOCATED ADJACENT to Multan,

a Candrabhaga was built in Konarak also." (Advanced Bengali, p. 176)

(àkAÕabatéI pair%bAr "a joint family, one that takes its meals together") baZataHa "on account of, because of, due to, due to the force of"

^pAcAil% gAen%r „aeyogarIit%r „aBAbabaZataHa bAMalAed%eZ%r ÅnÄa÷a ÉhA pair%baiét%ta haÉel%ä . . . "DUE TO INFLUENCES from the way in which the pancali songs are put to use,

though it has undergone change elsewhere in Bangladesh . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 207)

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bAja "given to, full of, skilled in"

ig%iÕ%bAej%ra mata naim%tAek% balala, . . . "In a MATRONLY [FULL OF HOUSEWIFELY] manner, he [Nish*th] said to

Namita, . . . " (Jibanananda Das) ( ^PAik%bAja "one who shirks his duties, a goof-off")

bAd "-ism, doctrine, theory"

manuSa nA bAcael% mAéVabAdIed%ra mAéVabAda b&õA, fP%im%in%¯Taed%ra fPim%in%j`m` b&õA, ÖdAraEn%it%ka buiÿ%jIbIed%ra ÖdAranIit% b&õA, gaNataÀa bAk`ïAúInatA sama˙a b&õA|

"If man does not survive, the Marxists' MARXISM is futile, the feminists' feminism is for nought, the liberal intellectuals' liberalism is without purpose; democracy, freedom of speech, all are futile."

(Ketaki Kushari Dyson) bAdI "-istic, of a doctrine; -ist, follower of a doctrine"

mÄAin%eP%s`eToiT%r à paéYa»a Öÿ&ta ÅMaeZ%r fõ%ek% àkaõAÉmaen% haeb% fY% fs%iT% àkaiT% jAtIyatAbAdI gaNatAiÀ%k sAúAraN kaémasUcI|

"From the portions of the manifesto cited up to now, it would seem that this is a standard democratic, NATIONALISTIC agenda."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 260)

(satÄabAdI "truthful") bAn (m.), batI (f.) "possessor of"

. . . ÇmarAÉ bAMalAed%Z cAlanAr bÄApAer% àkamA÷a ÇÉnasaÆata •amatAbAn| ". . . in the matter of administering Bangladesh, we alone are legally

EMPOWERED." (Advanced Bengali, p. 272) bAsI (m.), bAis%nI (f.) "dwelling, residing, inhabiting"

tArapara ib%ŒÄAcael%ra iZ%Kaer% ib%ŒÄAbAis%nI BabAnIra mai«d%er% saŒÄA-pUjAra fGora Ga∆TA fb%ej% Öóata|

"After that, on the crest of the Vindhya mountains, in the temple of the VINDHYA-DWELLING goddess Bhabani, the bells of the evening puja used to resound." (Advanced Bengali, p. 126)

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ib%Sayak "relating to, of the subject of"

rAúAk& a-ib%Sayak saMakIétanaek% sAúAraNaBAeb% k&ˆakIétan balA YAy| "In general, samkirtana songs THAT DEAL WITH RADHA AND KRISHNA

are called Krishnakirtana." (Advanced Bengali, p. 209) bÄApak, bÄApI, bÄA‡a "pervading"

rAma„asAed%r samaey% fd%ZabÄApak ÅrAjakatA| "During Ram Prasad's time, anarchy was COUNTRY-WIDE." (Advanced Bengali, p. 118)

Át (m.), ÁtI (f.) "undertaking a vow, firmly resolved to"

ïégbAsI iptA àk p»IÁt iCeln| "His deceased father was a most DEVOTED [TO HIS WIFE] husband." (Mahasweta Devi)

Bu°a "contained in, included in"

. . . àÉ "bAmapaÃI' ÖpadalaBu°a YubakarAÉ pUébabAXalAy ib%eroúIZai°%ek% saMahata ä sAMagaóain%k ûp dAn kaer%n|

". . . the youths IN THIS Leftist FACTION gave organizational shape to and mobilized the opposition force in East Bengal." (Advanced Bengali, p. 263)

mata (See Lesson 9, III.) may (m.), mayI (f.) "possessing, full of, pervading"

àÉûp ÇmAed%r jAtIya jIbaen%r sab id%kakAr Kabar •u‹apu˙aek%r iB%tar id%yA fd%Zamay „acAr kair%et% haÉeb%|

"In this fashion, information on our national life from all perspectives should be distributed THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY in little booklets." (Advanced Bengali, p. 270)

mA÷a "all, everyone"; "only, as soon as" (See Lesson 5, II for use with verbal nouns.)

taKan „ait%BAZAlI bÄai°% mAe÷%É sAih%tÄa jagaet% ikCu kir%et% É∞Cuka haÉel% Ñçaraca«‹a gue‡%ra iZ%SÄa‘a ïIkAra kair%et%na|

"At that time ALL the talented INDIVIDUALS, if they had aspirations of doing something in the world of literature, used to acknowledge their apprenticeship to Iswarcandra Gupta." (Advanced Bengali, p. 107)

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p&iõ%bIet% ij%in%samA÷aÉ „akAaZaaúaméI naya| "Not EVERYTHING in this world is by nature self-revealing." (Advanced Bengali, p. 112) maúÄaib%–a maúÄabayasI bAXAlImAe÷%ra úArAÉ fY% à rakama fs%TA maen% karA hayaeto ió%ka naya| "It is not correct, perhaps, to think that this is the life-style [úArA] of ALL middle-

class, middle-aged BENGALIS." (Jibanananda Das) it%in% mAis%ka pai÷%%kA saÈpAdaka haÉet% ig%yA àûpa mAis%ka pai÷%kA s&iÛT% kair%el%na, YAhA „akAZamA÷a

bAÆAlIra Gaer% Gaer% êAna pAÉla| "When he became the editor of a monthly magazine, he produced such a journal

that, IMMEDIATELY UPON ITS PUBLICATION, it found a place in one Bengali's home after another." (Advanced Bengali, p. 108)

mAna (m.), matI (f.) "possessing, endowed with"

it%in% . . . buiÿ%mAna rAjanIit%≥ a, bA>I ä Za÷unAZaka "He is . . . INTELLIGENT, politically astute, eloquent, and a destroyer of his

enemies." (Advanced Bengali, p. 303) mAiP%kaa "like, conforming to"

tabu balA YAya fY%, ib%Zapasa kael%ej% Baiét% habAra para „Aya ÇRAÉ baCara ^tAra jIbana úarA-^bAúA paeõ% àbaM üiTnamAiP%ka cael%iC%elo|

"But, it can be said, for about two and a half years following his admission to Bishop's College, his life proceeded along a rigidly fixed path and IN CONFORMITY TO ROUTINE." (Ghulam Murshid)

mUlak "based on, originating from, causing"

fkoeno sarakArI kaémacArIr äpar „ait%eZoúamUlak bÄabaêA fn%äyA haeb% nA| "No REPRISAL measures shall be taken against any civil servants." (Advanced Bengali, p. 273)

Ä makes for an adjective

. . . ègAmÄa kAir%gair% iZ%ÓasamUeh%r „ait%ä ÖpaYu°ad&iÛT% fd%äyA haeb%| ". . . [the government] shall keep suitable watch over RURAL cottage industry

also." (Advanced Bengali, p. 260) Yu°a "possessing, invested with"

ïaéNamay-muiÛT%-Yu°a Ka¬ga i÷%ib%nata úanu àbaMa duÉ tUNIr in%ey% rAm calael%n| "Rama went off carrying his large knife WITH THE GOLDEN HILT, his bow of

three bends, and two quivers." (Advanced Bengali, p. 308)

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fYogÄ "worthy, suitable"

^tAra „aúAna ègaÃaguil%ra maeúÄ% . . . sItAra banabAsa (1860) ib%eZ%Sa ÖeÔ%KaeYogÄa| "Among his prominent publications . . . Sita's Exile (1860) is particularly

NOTEWORTHY." (Advanced Bengali, p. 99) rata "engaged in, devoted to"

Áajegoip%nIed%ra saeÆ% n&tÄarata àkAiú%%ka k&ˆa-mUiétet% fY% lAsÄamaya n&tÄa∞Ca«da PUiT%ey% ftolA haey%eC% tAra tulanA pAäyA kaió%na|

"It is hard to find anything comparable to that amorous tripping rhythm which is lavishly conveyed in many a statue of Krishna ENGAGED IN DANCING with the Gopis." (Advanced Bengali, p. 191)

ûpI "in the form of, having the form of, shaped"

fs%É bAN m&gaûpI mArIec%r ba•a fB%d karael%| "That arrow pierced the chest of Marica, WHO HAD TAKEN THE FORM OF A

STAG." (Advanced Bengali, p. 308) laBÄa "obtainable, attainable"

àbaMa Ö∞ca iZ%•Aek% karA haeb% sa˙A ä sahajalaBÄa| "And furthermore, higher education shall be made affordable and READILY

ATTAINABLE." (Advanced Bengali, p. 260) ZAlI "possessing"

. . . ik%Cu saMaKÄak Zai°%ZAlI fjotadAr . . . ". . . a few POWERFUL landowners . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 262)

ZIl "having the nature of, practicing"

àr Pael% YArA Éit%maeúÄ% musail%m lIeg%r maeúÄ% àes%iC%el%n ^tAed%r ib%pul Åiú%kAMaZaÉ paraba¸tIkAel% rAjanIit%r „agait%ZIl úArA fõ%ek% ib%i∞C%Õa haey% „ait%i£%yAZIl Zai°%samUhaek%É fjoradAr kaer%n|

"As a result of this, those who in the meantime had come into the Muslim League, subsequently in vast numbers became estranged from the politics' PROGRESSIVE stream and put their strength behind the REACTIONARY forces." (Advanced Bengali, p. 263)

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ZUnÄa "devoid of, empty of"

paeR%ra mAeó% fK%eloyARaed%ra CueToCuiT% fdORAedOiR% ÇgAegoRA ÅéõaZUnÄa àbaM Öe◊%ZÄaib%hIna| "The running about on the maidan by the athletes is utterly DEVOID OF

MEANING and purposeless." (Advanced Bengali, p. 122) saÆata "consistent with, conforming to"

. . . cAkuir% CARAr par bARI fõ%ek% TAkA laäyA fboúhay Yui°%saÆata haÉeb% nA| ". . . after quitting my job it would not be ADVISABLE [LOGICAL], perhaps, to

accept money from home." (Advanced Bengali, p. 268) sama "like, similar to"

. . . ÅmarAbatIsama pÄAir%sa . . . ". . . HEAVENLY Paris . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 109)

samudAy/samuday "all, whole"; functions as a plural ending

gaŒaéba rA•as in%ZAcar ä „ANI saem%t àÉ p&iõ%bI äjagaö_g&eh% ib%dÄamAn g&haed%batA, àbaMa ÅnÄAnÄa BUtasamudAy ftomAr kaõA Zunun|

"May this world and universe with all the Gandharvas, Rakshasas, Nishacaras, and other beings—may the household deities present within this house, and ALL THE various and sundry other SPIRITS hear your words." (Advanced Bengali, p. 306)

samUha functions as a plural ending

maÀI| JaRa ÇraÈBa hael% sAgaer%ra taraÆasamUha kaKanaÉ ZA»aBAeb% õAek% nA| "Minister: 'Once the storm begins, the ocean's WAVES never remain calm.'"

(Michael Madhusudan Datta) saem%t "together with, including"; functions as a plural ending

gaŒaéba rA•as in%ZAcar ä „ANI saem%t àÉ p&iõ%bI äjagaö_g&eh% ib%dÄamAn g&haed%batA, àbaMa ÅnÄAnÄa BUtasamudAy ftomAr kaõA Zunun|

"May this world and universe WITH ALL THE Gandharvas, Rakshasas, Nishacaras, and other beings—may the household deities present within this house, and all the various and sundry other spirits hear your words." (Advanced Bengali, p. 306)

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saÈpaÕa "possessing, endowed with"

paic%m pAik%˙Aen%r sAúAraN mAnuS àbaMa p&iõ%bIr ZuBabuiÿ%saÈpaÕa sab mAnueS%raÉ àÉ dAbI| "The general populace of West Pakistan and all people OF SYMPATHETIC

DISPOSITION demand this." (Advanced Bengali, p. 273) saÎata "conforming to, in accord with"

ik%… Çúuin%ka saBÄatAra ib%Sai£%yA Åenka adUra paéYa»a fó%ik%ey% fr%eK%eC% ärA| fY-„aNAlIet% üeK%eC% tA ib%≥AnasaÎata naya; ik%… ib%≥Ana kaata id%en% mAnuSaek% kata fb%iZ% Çra dAna karaet%?

"They have managed to hold at bay to a considerable extent the harmful effects of modern civilization. The method by which they have done this is not IN ACCORD WITH SCIENCE, but for how long and how much more can science contribute to mankind?" (Jibanananda Das)

saha "with"

CuiT% saMa£A»a ÇÉnasaha ÇT Ga∆TA id%n „abaétan karA haeb%| "ALONG WITH A LAW concerning vacation time, the eight-hour day shall be

established." (Advanced Bengali, p. 260) suÿa "inclusive of"

YAÉ bala, bAeG%r mAp kaKanaÉ lÄAj-suÿa haet% pAer%nA| tA h'el% fm%ey%eC%el%ed%r mApaä cul-suÿa haeb% nA fk%na?

"No matter what you might say, the measure of a tiger should never be made WITH ITS TAIL INCLUDED. If such [a ridiculous situation] were the case, then why shouldn't the measure of girls also INCLUDE THEIR HAIR?!" (Advanced Bengali, p. 137)

(sabasuÿa "all told, all together")

sUcaka "introducing; indicating, expressing"

[nA-sUcaka BaiÆ%et mAõA fn%eR%, §A»aBAeb%] [stage directions] "[exhaustedly shaking his head in a manner INDICATING

'NO']" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

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ê "situated in, arrived at"

^àrA úÄAnaêa nA haey% taéka ÇraÈBa karael%na fd%eK% êAbara jaÆama ÇçAsa fp%ey% £amaZa „ak&it%êa hala|

"Seeing that rather than MEDITATING [BECOMING ENGROSSED IN MEDITATION] they [the gods] had begun to bicker, all beings, animate or no, took heart and gradually RETURNED TO NORMAL [ARRIVED AT THEIR NATURAL STATE]."

(Parasuram, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 93) êAyI "lasting, standing, remaining"

. . . ÇmAed%r janasAúAraN dIéGaêAyI mui°%r laRAÉey%r janÄa „a˙ut| ". . . our people are prepared for a PROTRACTED freedom fight." (Advanced Bengali, p. 273)

hArA "lost, losing"

ik% Çja BIla rAjakumAra rAjÄahArA haey% rAeg%-duHeK% buka fP%eT% mArA paRaeto? "Would the Bhil prince, HIS KINGDOM LOST, have died today, his breast rent

by anger and grief?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 129) hIn "devoid of"

. . . fY%na mahAtama sUéYaca«‹ahIn saŒÄAr saiÕ%ih%ta h'la| ". . . as though the darkest, SUN-AND-MOONLESS evening drew nigh." (Advanced Bengali, p. 308)

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LESSON 1313

I. ic%ió%

21-ib%, gaiR%yAhAT froD kalakAtA 29 5É ài„%l

i„%ya i§%∆T, ftomAr saeÆ% ik% ì&it%eZ%Kar ca£abatéIr fYogAeYog ÇeC%? tAhael% fboú hay är kAeC% Zuen%eCo fY% "sa‡aiéS%maƒal'-àr natun saMaKÄA fb%ir%ey%eC%| àKan fõ%ek% Çim% Kub man id%ey% "sa‡aiéS%maƒal' „akAZ karaet% cAÉ| fs%ÉjanÄaÉ àÉ ic%ió%| ÇmAr fs%id%n fK%yAl h'elo fY% jIbanAna«da-ib%Saey% tuim% YaetoTA jAeno tA Çr Kub kam flok jAen%| jIbanAnae«d%r FZ%Zab fk%man pair%eb%eZ% fk%eT%eC%? tAr „aõam kaib%tA, tAr mAnais%k gaRan, tAr paRAZueno, tAr f„%m_tuim% ik% àÉ ÅŒakAer% àkaTu Çelo fP%laeb%? jIbanAnae«d%r jIban ib%Saey% fkoeno fl%KA ÇmAy pAóAeb%? Çim% ÅnubAd k'er% fn%ebo| àrakam fl%KA Çim% fk%na cAÉ tA fto ¯paÛTa; ik%… ftomAr Baib%SÄaö gaeb%SaNAr pae•%ä àTA ÖpakArI haeb%| tuim% kI rakam kAj kaer%eCo tAr namunA fp%el% floek%rA Baib%SÄaet% ftomAek% taõÄa ä pAƒuil%ip%-ÉtÄAid% id%ey% hayaeto sAhAYÄa karaet% Çero Öösuk haeb%| tuim% CARA, bAMalA ä BAratIya fkoeno ib%Saey% Çr kAÖek% kI fl%KA id%et% balA YAy? fk% kI kAj karaeC%n? ì&it%dA ik% bAMalAy ÇmAr jaenÄ% àkaTA "iZ%kAegor ic%ió%' pAóAeb%n? "iZ%kAego ir%iB%Ö'-àr saÈpAdak àKan fk%? sal fb%elo-r saeÆ%% fk%Ö àkaTA É∆TAiéB%Ö in%et% pAer%? mahABAraet%r ÅnubAd kaetodUr? tuim% ÇmAek% àk gAdA Kabaer% óAsA àkaTA ic%ió% dAä, iZ%g`ig%r àed%eZ% ÇsA àKan fto sahaj? kI baelo, taetoid%n fk%bal ic%ió%et%É

ftomAr (saÉ)

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II. INFINITIVE Some linguists identify the verbal form illustrated in (A) and (B) below as the "present participle." Both Intro Bengali and Advanced Bengali call it the "infinitive," thereby making no distinction between a present participle, which looks like an infinitive, and the infinitive. This book likewise makes no distinction between the present participle and the infinitive, calling both infinitives. A. REDUPLICATED INFINITIVES mean "while (verb)+ing"41 (Review Intro Bengali, p. 378.)

àkaTA fC%el% kAeC% Çsaet%-Çsaet% balael%, 'f˘ora kaeto?' "A guy, as he was coming toward [us], asked, 'What's the score?'" (Abdul Mannan Syed) du'im%in%Ta nA fY%et% fY%et% fd%iK% fs%É fC%el% fP%ra dulaet% ÇraÈB kaer%eC%| "In the course of a few minutes [while two minutes are passing by] I see that very

boy once again begin to swing." (Advanced Bengali, p. 116)

fd%Kaet% fd%Kaet% has the idiomatic meaning of "immediately." Literally: "while looking" or "right before one's very eyes."

õAkaet%, meaning "while staying, residing, living, existing," is at times NOT REDUPLICATED:

tA CARA fd%eZ% ig%yA fY% rakam kAj ÇraÈBa kair%ba, tadupaeYogI fl%KApaRA àKAen% õAik%et% karAä saÈBab|

"Moreover, it is also feasible to pursue, WHILE RESIDING here [in England], studies appropriate to the kind of work I'll be doing when I get back home." (Advanced Bengali, p. 268)

41The reduplicated PAP of a number of verbs functions in the same way, meaning "while the action expressed by the verb is continuing": Åen%kaguelo fC%el%y im%el% eK%lA kaer%, baes% baes% ed%iK%| "I sit and watch [WHILE SITTING I watch] many children playing together." (Advanced Bengali, p. 115)

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bair%ZAel% õAkaet% YaKana dujana im%el% KAel% iC%pa fP%el% mACa úarata, . . . "WHILE LIVING in Barisal when the two of them together used to cast their

lines in the canal and catch fish, . . . " (Dilara Hashem) ik%… Çim% f~b%ec% õAkaet% rAja‘a sa˙Ay ib%ekoeb% nA| "But AS LONG AS I'M ALIVE, [she] will not sell the kingdom cheaply."

(Anon.) óAkumA mArA YAna Çim% gaRapAer% õAkaet%-õAket%É| "Gramma died WHILE I WAS LIVING in Garpar." (Satyajit Ray) gaRapAer% õAkaet%%É ÉÖ rAya ÅÄAƒ sa«sa fõ%ek% dAdura fl%KA Åen%ka fCoTaed%ra baÉ fb%ir%ey%

ig%ey%iC%la_ "DURING THE TIME I WAS in Garpar, a lot of children's books written by

Grandfather had been published from U Ray and Sons." (Satyajit Ray)

B. REDUPLICATED INFINITIVES SEPARATED BY nA mean "as the action was barely

beginning" or "before the action could even get started":

fBor haet% nA haet% BaraŸAjaek% balalAm ÇmAr õAémasP`lAe % dujaen%r maeto cA Baer% id%et%| "AS DAWN WAS ABOUT TO BREAK, I told Bharadwaj to fill my thermos

flask with tea enough for two." (Satyajit Ray)

42Review Intro Bengali, pp. 190-91.

The subject of the infinitive need not be the same as the subject of the finite verb.

JUST TO REVIEW, the general rules for agreement of subjects when the sentence has one of the four nonfinite Bangla verbal forms in a dependent clause and a finite verb in the main clause: The subject of the (1) infinitive, (2) conditional conjunctive, or (3) verbal noun need not be the same as the subject of the finite verb; the subject—HUMAN SUBJECT, that is—of the (4) PAP must be the SAME as the subject of the finite verb.42 BUT, IF THERE IS NO HUMAN SUBJECT, then even in the case of the PAP, the subject of the PAP clause may differ from the subject of the main clause. For example: mAGa fZ%Sa haÉyA PAfluna Çis%yA paiR%la| "The month of Magh having ended, Falgun arrived." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

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du'im%in%T nA fY%et% fY%et% fd%iK% fs%É fC%el% fP%r dulaet% ÇraÈBa kaer%eC%| "NOT TWO MINUTES HAD GONE BY TILL I see that that boy has begun to

swing once again." (Advanced Bengali, p. 116)

For variety, the two infinitives may be preceded by the negative rather than divided by it. C. INFINITIVES + SOME PREDICATE-ADJECTIVES: A "predicate-adjective" is an adjective linked to the subject, usually by the verb "to be." For example:

fs% rAjI| "He is WILLING."

Certain predicate-adjectives can be combined with infinitives, in both English and Bangla. For example:

fs% fY%et% rAjI| "He is WILLING TO GO."

In these examples, the parallel between English and Bangla is deceptively obvious.

tuim% kI rakam kAj kaer%eCo tAr namunA fp%el% floek%rA Baib%SÄaet% ftomAek% taõÄa ä pAƒuil%ip%-ÉtÄAid% id%ey% hayaeto sAhAYÄa karaet% Çero Öösuk haeb%|

"If people get a sample of what sort of work you have done, then in the future they will perhaps be more EAGER TO ASSIST by giving you facts and manuscripts." (from section I above)

tArA ïAúIn fd%eZ%r mAnuS haet% „ait%≥Abaÿa| "They are resolutely DETERMINED TO BECOME the people of an independent

land." (Advanced Bengali, p. 272) In some sentences, English may not allow for the infinitive, even where Bangla uses one:

gaü fK%et% ÅnaBÄa˙a| "[I'm] UNACCUSTOMED TO EATING [TO EAT] beef." (Mani Sankar)

The verbs fd%KA ("to see, look, look at") and KAäyA ("to eat") are commonly used with (1) predicate-adjectives and (2) the postposition "like/similar to" to mean "look(s), appear(s)" and "taste(s)" (consult Intro Bengali, p. 265) in the following way:

fs% fd%Kaet% BAla| Literally: "He is GOOD TO LOOK AT." Or: "He is good looking."

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àTA fK%et% BAla| Literally: "It is GOOD TO EAT." More naturally: "This tastes good." fs% fd%Kaet% tAr bAbAr matan| "He looks like his father." mAr rAÕAr mata fK%et%| "[It] tastes like Mom's cooking." ka∞Caep%ra fKoel%ra maeto fd%Kaet% „aõama ¯¡ImalAÉn`Da pAiR% YaKana kalakAtAya àelo, fs%ä ta „Aya

àka Yuga Çeg%| "When the first streamlined automobile, looking like the shell of a turtle, came to

Kolkata, that too is now almost an aeon ago." (Satyajit Ray) ÇmAr pair%bAraek% fd%eK%Ca, ib%ûpA•a? nA, fk%man fd%Kaet%? "Have you seen my wife, Virupaksha?" "No, what does she look like?" (Jibanananda Das) Ba‹aelok in%cayaÉ fb%Za BAeloÉ haeb%na fd%Kaet%| "The gentleman must be very handsome." (Dilara Hashem)

D. balaet% ("called" or "by the name of" or "one could call" or "to speak of")

fmoTAmuiT%BAeb% balA cael% fY% 1936 fõ%ek% 1943 paéYa» musail%m lIeg%r sAúAraN janai„%yatA ik%CuTA b&iÿ%lAB karael%ä „Aed%iZ%k ä fj%lA paéYAey% saMagaóan balaet% tAr ik%CuÉ iC%elo nA|

"In general it can be said that from 1936 up to 1943, even though the general popularity of the Muslim League increased somewhat, on the provincial and district level it had no organization TO SPEAK OF [it had nothing ONE COULD CALL an organization]." (Advanced Bengali, p. 258)

Åib%iZÄ% saMasAr balaet% Çim%, ÇmAr ib%úabA mA, Çr cAkar kAiét%k| "Of course, what I call family is myself, my widowed mother, and Kartik, the

servant." (Satyajit Ray) Such constructions are often found with fboJA/fboJAna ("what one understands as X is" or "what one understands by the term X is" or "what one means when one says X is"):

Post-harvest Song bail%et% fpOS pAébaeN%r gAnaek% buJAÉet% pAer%| "BY 'post-harvest song,' ONE CAN MEAN songs connected with the Paus

[December] festival." (Advanced Bengali, p. 207)

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rAôI àbaMa baer%«‹a ÁAªaN balaet% ÇmarA YAed%r buiJ% àrA iC%la jAit%cÄut ÁAªaN| "THOSE WHOM WE CALL Rarhi and Barendra brahmins were outcaste

brahmins." (Rizia Rahman) sAih%tÄa balaet% ^tAra kAeC% kaib%tA àbaM bAMlA kaib%tA balaet%É it%in% buJaet%na_rabI«‹anAõa| "For him literature MEANT poetry, and BY Bangla poetry HE MEANT—

Tagore." (Dilara Hashem) àbaM fkOyYerr bAbA, „A°an fkOyYr, iZkAr balaet jAenoyAraÉ buJaetn| "Kouar's father, the previous Kouar, MEANT wild animals [not birds] WHEN HE

SAID quarry." (Mahasweta Devi) E. The infinitive is sometimes used in place of the conditional conjunctive, often with the

emphatic meaning "as soon as" or "just as":

gata mAes% CuiT% Zuü haet%É Çim% id%ÔIet% ig%ey%iC%lum| "AS I BEGAN my vacation last month, I went to Delhi." (Intro Bengali, pp. 291, 295) ib%kaÓa Öösa balaet% ÇeK%r kaõAÉ BAbA hae∞C%| "WHEN ONE SPEAKS OF alternate sources, sugar cane comes to mind." (from Lesson 19, I)

Exercises—Translate.

1) kalakAtA Zahaer% saitÄ% kaer% baŒu balaet% ÇmAr ft%man fk%Ö fn%É| (Satyajit Ray)

2) mAey%r kaõA maen% paRaet% Çim% Kub f^k%ed%iC%lum| (Anon.)

3) ik%i˙%-bai«d%et% TAkA in%et% Çim% Åib%iZÄ% rAij% ÇiC%| (Jibanananda Das)

4) pueroeno bAMalA gadÄa balaet% Çim% buiJ%ey%iC% 1800 ˝IÛTAeÂ%r pUébabatéI bAMalA gadÄa|

(Anisuzzaman)

5) fd%Kaet%-nA-fd%Kaet% ÇmAr kaib%-KÄAit% CaiR%ey% paRaelo fs%É fCoeTo Zahaer%r saéba÷a|

(Buddhadeva Bose)

6) frod õAkaet% BUt fb%eroy nA| (Satyajit Ray)

7) tuim% Çr bAlI fd%iK%et% ió%k àkaÉ rakam| (Upendrakishore Raycaudhuri)

8) tAra inıuratAr saeÆ pAÔA idet Çim Å•am| (Mahasweta Devi)

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III. PRONOUNS MADE FROM ADJECTIVES Theoretically any adjective can be made into a pronoun by the addition of a singular or plural "qualifier" suffix (TA, iT%, guelo, guil%, etc.) or by the addition of a plural case ending for humans (-rA, -ed%ra, etc.); an English translation of such pronouns often takes the form "the [adjective] one/ones":

baRaTA ÇmAek% id%n| "Please give me THE BIG ONE." fkonaguelo lAgaeb%? "WHICH ONES would you like?" nATakaTA iZ%i•%taed%r BAlaÉ lAeg%%| "THE EDUCATED enjoy the play very much." ÇmAra àÉ ì&it%kaõAy . . . ÇeC% ik%Cu nAmakarA floek%ra pAeZ%-pAeZ% Åen%ka sAúAraNa

floek%ra kaõA| sAúAraNa-ÅsAúAraeN%ra „aeB%da baRaed%ra maeto kaer% fCoTarA kaer nA; tAÉ tAed%ra fm%lAem%ZAra fkoeno bACaib%cAra õAek% nA

"In these [childhood] memoirs of mine . . . there are many tales of the very ordinary folk side by side with stories of some famous people. THE ADULT SORTS discriminate between the ordinary and the extraordinary, THE YOUNG do not; that is why they have no aversion to mixing freely." (Satyajit Ray)

"fkoõAy YAeb%, BabaetoS_' "kaiP% hAÖes% caelo_' 'fkonaTAy?' "baRaTAy_fcOraÆI f‚%es%_' "Where are you going, Bhabatosh—" "To the coffee house, come on—" "To WHICH ONE?" "To THE MAIN ONE—on Chowringhee Place—" (Jibanananda Das) "ÇmAr bAiR%r BARATA, sutIéõa_' "id%i∞C%| ÇmAraÉ fdoS haey%eC%| ä mAes%raTA fd%äyA hayain% buiJ%|' "My house rent, Sutirtha—" "I'll pay you. It's my fault, granted. THAT MONTH'S hasn't been paid, I

suppose." (Jibanananda Das)

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Çeg% mAnuS kama iC%la| ÇÔA jaen% jaen% Çdara ib%eloet%na| fboúakair% àKanakAra fc%ey% mAnuSaguelo saöä iC%la fb%ZI| ik%… àKana àÉ àta ÅnÄAya Çra dUnéIit%_tAra maeúÄ% àta mAnueS%ra DAka| ÇÔA fb%cArA kAraTA Zunaeb%na?

"Previously there weren't so many people. Allah used to distribute his love from individual to individual. And probably the people were more upright then than now. But now, all this injustice and moral degradation—amidst that, the calls [for help] of so many people. Poor Allah, WHOSE will he hear?" (Dilara Hashem)

Exercises—Answer using a pronoun. Then make up a couple of sentences using comparable pronouns. For example:

Çpain% paer%r bAs fn%eb%n| fkon bAs fn%ebo? Response: paer%raTA| Çeg%raTAy fb%Z iB%Ra iC%l, in%et% pAraet%na nA| paer%raTAy basabAra jAyagA fp%et% pAraeb%na| taeb% ÇjakAlaek%raguil%et% basabAr ÖpAya kama bael% maen% haya|

1) Çim% äÉ sAdA im%iÛT%guelo paCa«da kair% nA|

fkon im%iÛT% ftomAr ÅpaCa«da?

2) baRa fC%el%rA, fd%KaiC%, fCoTa bA∞cAed%r saeÆ% fK%laet% cAy nA|

kArA fK%laet% cAy nA?

3) fs% tAr lAl is%l`ek%r ZAiR% paer% àes%iC%elo PAMaZAen%|

kI ZAiR% paer%iC%elo?

IV. SALUTATIONS & COMPLIMENTARY CLOSINGS Different relationships between the writer and the receiver of letters require different salutations/complimentary closings. All terms listed here, unless marked, can be used with Muslims, Hindus, Christians, and Buddhists alike. SALUTATIONS: A. When the one written to is senior to the letter writer:

èZaÿA¯paed%Su (m.), èZaÿA¯padAsu (f.) "To the respected one" (literally, èZaÿA ["respect"] + ǯpada

["container"] + Sanskrit locative case plural—respectful—ending àSu/Çsu)

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èZaÿABAjaen%Su (m.), èZaÿABAjanAsu (f.) "To the respected one" (BAjana also means "receptacle;

one who is an object of/receptacle of")

èZaeÿ%ya (m.), èZaeÿ%yA (f.) "Respected, Venerable" + the person's name

mAnanIey%Su (m.), mAnanIyAsu (f.) "To the most honorable one" —For formal, impersonal letters (equivalent to "Dear Sir:"):

mahAZay "Sir, Gentlemen"

i„%ya mahAZay "Dear Sir"

mAnanIya "Honorable Sir" (name, etc., may follow—mAnanIya „aúAna Åit%iõ%, "Honorable Chief

Guest"—from Lesson 10)

maehoday "Sir, Gentlemen"

janAb "Sir, Gentlemen" (for Muslims, name may follow)

barAbaer%Su "To:"

also sometimes simply barAbara B. When the one written to is honorific (i.e., the pronoun Çpain% will be used) but not senior to

the letter writer:

„Iit%BAjaen%Su (m.), „Iit%BAjanAsu (f.) "To the object of friendship/affection" C. When the one written to is more familiar to the letter writer (either the pronoun Çpain% or tuim%

could be used):

i„%ya "Dear" + the person's name or the person's name by itself

Even if the one written to is a woman, the feminine form is NOT used here; i„%yA means "darling, beloved" and is NOT to be used as some sort of standard feminine salutation. D. When the one written to is junior and someone to whom you might show parental affection

(either the pronoun tuim% or tuÉ could be used):

kalÄANIey%Su (m.), kalÄANIyAsu (f.) "To one whose well-being is wished for"

fë%hA¯paed%Su (m.), fë%hA¯padAsu (f.) "To the container of my affections"

fë%eh%r "Dear" + the child's/person's name

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The body of a letter may, and often does, end with Éit% ("here ends, thus, all for now"). In all but the most formal of letters, the last line or paragraph often includes the following sort of concluding statement:

ÇmAr ZueB%∞CA fn%eb%n| "Please accept my best wishes." ÇmAr ZueB%∞CA ä BAelobAsA fj%eno| "Know [that I express] my love and best wishes [for you]."

COMPLIMENTARY CLOSINGS: A. Used in conjunction with (A) salutations above:

saèZaÿAy ÇpanAr "With respect, yours"

èZaÿAsaha "With respect"

ib%nata (m.); ib%natA (f.) "Polite [humbly]"

ib%nIta (m.); ib%nItA (f.) "Polite [humbly]"

BabadIya "Yours"

ÇpanAr/ÇpanAed%r "Yours" B. Used with (B) salutations above:

BabadIya "Yours"

ÇpanAr/ÇpanAed%r "Yours" C. Used with (C) salutations above:

ÇpanAr/ÇpanAed%r; ftomAr/ftomAed%r "Yours" D. Used with (D) salutations above:

saeë%eh% ftomAr/ftomAed%r; ftor/ftoed%r "Lovingly, yours"

ÇZIébAdak (m.); ÇZIébAid%kA (f.) "The one who blesses you"

kalÄANAkA¨•I (m.); kalÄANAkAi¨•%NI (f.) "The one who wishes you well"

ZuBAõéI (m.); ZuBAiéõnI (f.) "The one who wishes well"

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There are other salutations and complimentary closings plus latitude to be somewhat inventive, but do keep in mind the nature of your relationship with the person to whom you are writing. Exercise—Translate:

3-4-84 òAkA

i§%∆T cAcA, bAMalA nababaeéS%r ZueB%∞CA jAnaeb%n| ÇZA kair% BAla ÇeC%n| Åen%kaid%n hala ÇpanAr pAóAeno ÖpahAr fp%ey%iC%| ik%… ÇpanAek% ic%ió% il%Kaet% bahu fd%rI kaer% fP%lalAm| àtaid%n paer% úanÄabAd jAnAi∞C% bael% ÇZA kair% ik%Cu maen% karaeb%n nA| ÇpanAr bAMalA caécA fk%man calaeC%? bAMalAed%eZ% ÇbAr kaeb% Çsaeb%n? bAMalAed%eZ%r kaõA, bAMalAed%ZIed%r kaõA ÇpanAr in%cayaÉ Kub maen% paeR%| ÇmarA „AyaÉ ÇpanAr kaõA maen% kair%| Åen%kaek%É ÇpanAr gaÓa kair%| Çpain% kata sahaej% ÅnÄa jAyagAr saeÆ% in%ej%ek% KAp KAÉey% in%et% pAer%n tA ÇÎA Kub bael%| Çim% àKan òAkAy õAik%| òAkA ib%çaib%dÄAlaey% ÅéõanIit%et% ÅnAés paRaiC%| Kuik% §As fT%n-à Çr fKokA fs%eB%n-à paeR%| äed%r fC%eR% õAkaet% Kub man KArAp kaer%| CuiT%et% äKAen% fb%RAet% YAÉ| ÇmAed%r kÄAÈpAes%r àKan Åen%k pair%baétan haey%eC%| Çpain% ÇbAr Çsael% ÇmarA sabAÉ Kub KuZI haba| ÇmarA BAla ÇiC%|

(ïA•ar)

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LESSON 1414

I. rais%katA

maPaHaïael% nATak karaet% fg%eC% òAkAr àk tueKoR ÅiB%en%tA| nATaek%r àk guü‘apUéNa ÅMaeZ% ÅiB%en%tAiT% YaKan camaökAr nATakIyatA PuiT%ey% tuel% saMalAp balaeC%n, "àkaiT% fGoRA! ÇmAr àkaiT% fGoRA cAÉ|43 rAjÄa ib%il%ey% fd%ba| is%MahAsan ib%il%ey% fd%ba tabu àÉ muhUeét% ÇmAr àkaiT% fGoRA cAÉ'_ taKan daéZakaed%r maúÄa fõ%ek% rais%katA kaer% àkajan ~fc%ic%ey% balaelo, "àta rAet% fGoRA pAeb%n kaÉ; àkaiT% gAúA hael% calaeb%?' ÅiB%en%tAiT% taö•aNAö mae¥%r ik%nAer% àes% daéZakaed%r maeúÄ% fY%KAn fõ%ek% kaõATA àes%eC% fs%id%ek% tAik%ey% balael%n, "^hÄA, calaeb%, tAä calaeb%_ iZ%g`ig%r cael% Çsun tAhael%, Åib%laeÍ%!'

ÇyAr kAeC% duÉ Yamaj fm%ey% fmonA Çr il%sAek% fr%eK% äed%r mA ÅiP%es% YAbAr samay bael% fg%el%n, samayamata äed%r fgosal kair%ey% fY%na fK%et% fd%äyA hay| fgosal haey% YAbAr par fK%et% baes% duÉ fbon fh%es% kuiT%kuiT% hae∞C% fd%eK% ÇyA ij%eg%s karael%n, "Çpaen%rA Åta hAsatAeC%n kÄAn`?'44 "hAsaebonA?'_ il%sA balaelo, "tuim% fY% ÇmAek% àkabAraä fgosal nA kair%ey% du'bAraÉ fmonAek% fgosal kair%ey% àen%Ca!'

"saic%÷a saŒAnI,' 5m baéSa 8m saMaKÄA, 23 Fj%Äıa 1389/6 jun '82, p&Ha 68|

43Though spelled the same as the lst-person present tense of the verb cAäyA, here cAÉ is a noun ("desire, want, need"), not a verb at all. 44The Ayah's (maidservant's) dialect for "ÇpanArA Åta hAsaeC%n fk%na?'

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II. INFINITIVE + ANOTHER VERB (1) In many cases, infinitives are used in Bangla in conjunction with other verbs in much the same way as they are used in English. Examples from Intro Bengali include: (balA) rAmaek% bAjAer% fY%et% bael%eCo ik%?

"Have you TOLD Ram TO GO to the market?" (p. 256) (YAäyA) fs% ik% Pal ik%naet% YAy in%?

"Didn't he GO TO BUY fruit?" (p. 256) (fd%äyA) tuim% ib%nuek% kalAguelo fK%et% id%ey%eCo ik%?

"Have you GIVEN Binu the bananas TO EAT?" (p. 258) (cAäyA) Çim% äek% fd%Kaet% cAÉ|

"I WANT TO SEE him." (p. 258) (pArA) tA hael%, fs% Zahaer% fg%el% paRaet% Çsaet% pAraeb% nA|

"In that case, if he goes to the city, he will not BE ABLE TO COME TO STUDY." (p. 268)

Observe, in particular, the meaning and manner in which the following common verbs—fd%KA/fZonA, YAäyA, and jAnA—are used with the infinitive: fd%KA/fZonA "to see/hear someone [in the objective case] doing/do something":

haóAö àÉ ÅŒakAr rAi÷%et% àûp êAen% ÇmAek% àkAkI BUet%r mata ^dARAÉyA õAik%et% fd%iK%el%, . .

"If all of a sudden they were TO SEE ME STANDING alone like a ghost in a place like this on such a dark night, . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 134)

Çim% àkaiT% fkoik%laek% DAkaet% àbaMa ^kAdaet% Zunalum| "I HEARD A CUCKOO CALL [CALLING] OUT and CRY [CRYING]."

(Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay) The verbs "to see" and "to hear," may be construed in the speaker's mind to have the entire dependent clause (actor and action, not just actor) as the object of the verb, in which case the dependent clause has a FINITE VERB with its subject (if expressed) in the nominative case:

Çim% àkA fb%RAi∞C% fd%eK% fs% ÇmAr kAeC% àig%ey% àelo| "Seeing me roaming about alone, she advanced toward me." (Anon.) ÇmAr àKAen% õAkaet% Çr BAla lAgaeC% nA Zuen% tuÉ rAg kaer%iC%s| "You got angry hearing that I no longer enjoy living here." (Anon.)

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Moreover, an action itself may be the object of perception, in which case the verbal noun form of the verb is used:

taKan ftomAr du' hAt tuel% nAc, nakal kAÕA Çr mueK%r kAeC% muK àen% fco*k baRa kaer% tAkAeno fd%eK% kAÕA Buel% Çim% Kub fh%es%iC%lum|

"I forgot my crying and laughed when I saw you staring big-eyed at me and your phony crying and your two arms dancing in the air."

(Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay) YAäyA (a) literally, "to go somewhere to do something" (see example from Intro Bengali above);

and (b) "to set about to do something":

it%ra˘Ar kair%et% ig%yA hAis%yA fP%il%el%n| "As they went [set about] to scold [them], they broke down laughing." (Anon.)

jAnA with a preceding infinitive, means "to know how" (see also Lesson 7, III):

hAt fd%Kaet% fto Çim% jAin% nA| "But I can't read palms." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

Some other verbs (mainly compound verbs: noun + verb) that may take the infinitive: Åsuib%eú%/Åsuib%úA suib%eú%/suib%úA + haäyA/ÇC-

tAek% hAt karaet% fkona Åsuib%úA hayain%| "There was no DIFFICULTY WINNING [TO WIN] him OVER." (Satyajit Ray) fs%BAeb% sAjAet% Åsuib%úA õAkel% mufKoZaguelo fT%ib%el% fZoyAenoä õAkaet% pAer%,

darakAramaeto tuel% fn%äyA haeb%| [stage directions] "If there's A PROBLEM ARRANGING [TO ARRANGE] the

masks that way, then they can be laid flat on the table; they will be picked up as needed." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

ÇrAm + haäyA/ÇC-

àman paeõ% gARI cAil%ey% fY%et% ÇrAm ÇeC%| "There is COMFORT in DRIVING [TO DRIVE] a car over such a road."

(Anon.)

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kaÛTa + haäyA

Çsael% ^ära kaõA balaet% kaÛTa haya| "Actually, it is hard for him [the grandfather who had had a stroke] to talk." (Dilara Hashem)

•ait + haäyA/ÇC-

YAed%r sAmaiy%k balaet% •ait% fn%É| "[Those] whom there is no HARM CALLING [TO CALL] temporary." (Anon.)

fdoS + haäyA/ÇC-

ïAmIr saeÆ% pAlAÉyA YAÉet% fdoS ik%? "What's the CRIME in RUNNING [TO RUN] away with one's husband?"

(Anon.) lAB + haäyA/ÇC-

baRa kaer% il%Kaet% lABa ÇeC% ik%? "Is there a BENEFIT to WRITING [TO WRITE] large?"

The nouns listed above (Åsuib%eú%/suib%eú through lAB) are ALSO used with the VERBAL NOUN + GENITIVE, IN PLACE OF THE INFINITIVE. (See Lesson 6, II, B.) fd%ir%/ib%laÍa + haäyA/karA/ÇC-

basuŒarAr buJaet% fd%ir% haelo nA| "Basundhara was not SLOW TO COMPREHEND." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay) basuŒarA Çsaet% fd%ir% kaer%in%| "Basundhara did not DELAY COMING." (Sailajanada Mukhopadhyay) Çrait% haet% fd%ir% ÇeC%| "IT IS STILL SOME TIME BEFORE the arati ceremony." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay) bÄAir%¯TArI pAZ karaet% ib%laÍa haäyAy it%in% gaBIr hatAZA „akAZ kaer%eC%n| "At being DELAYED in PASSING [TO PASS] the bar, he expressed deep

disappointment." (Anon.)

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bAik% raäyA/ÇeC%/rAKA

fkona KAen%É flok pAóAÉet% bAkI raih%la nA| "Nowhere at all did there REMAIN a person TO SEND." (Upendrakishore Raycaudhuri) p&iõ%bIr bAnar Çr Çis%et% fk%ha bAkI nAÉ| "None of the world's monkeys REMAINED TO COME." Or: "There wasn't a

monkey in the world who hadn't come." (Upendrakishore Raycaudhuri) tAhArA p&iõ%bIr fkona êAn fd%iK%et% bAkI rAiK%la nA| "They LEFT no place in the world TO SEARCH." (Upendrakishore Raycaudhuri)

bAraN karA

fkona-ik%Cu BAbaet% bAraN kaer%eC% YaKan, taKan Çr BAbaebo nA| "Since he FORBADE [me] TO WORRY, I won't worry any more." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

ib%laÍa_see fd%ir% Bay pAäyA

fY% paeõ% it%in% fY%et%n fcor fjoe∞cor fs% paõ mARAet% Baya fp%ta| "Thieves would FEAR TO TREAD the path he walked." (Rabindranath Tagore)

BarasA haäyA

fm%ey% dueToek% bARIr bAr karaet% BarasA hay nA| "[She] didn't have CONFIDENCE enough TO LET the two girls out of the

house." (Anon.) Bul karA

„ait%BAr ÉiÆ%t buJaet% BUl kaer%iC%el%n| "He had FAILED TO GRASP the hint of genius." (Anon.)

fBolA/Buel% YAäyA

YA fp%ta, in%et% Bulata nA| "What he received, he did not FORGET TO TAKE." (Rabindranath Tagore)

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ÅpudAr baRa fBolA man, sab kaõA balaet% Buel% YAy| "Opu is very forgetful; he FORGETS TO TELL everything." (Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay)

la≤A haäyA/ÇeC%/karA

àkajan ïAmIij%r sAmaen% kaõATA balaet% tAr la≤A haey%iC%la| "She had become EMBARRASSED TO SPEAK in front of a swami." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay) ftomAed%r kAeC% balaet% la≤A fn%É| "[I] am not ASHAMED TO TELL you." (Saradindu Bandyopadhyay) iC%iC%, Bay karaet% la≤A kaer% nA? "Shame on you, aren't you ASHAMED TO BE AFRAID?" (Rabindranath Tagore)

sAhas haäyA/pAäyA

rAg karaet% sAhas hay nA| "[He] didn't have the NERVE TO GET ANGRY." (Anon.) saMabAd tAek% jAnAet% fk%Ö sAhas pAy in%| "No one had the COURAGE TO TELL her the news." (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

sAhAYÄa karA

fC%el%eb%lAr kaõATA balael% hayat ÇmAr cair%e÷%r àkaTAid%k buJaet% sAhAYÄa karaeb%| "If I speak of my childhood, it will perhaps HELP [one] TO UNDERSTAND one

side of my personality." (Satyajit Ray) sueYog pAäyA

Çim% fY%na àKAen% iP%er% Çsaet% sueYog pAÉ| "May it be that I GET AN OPPORTUNITY TO RETURN here." (Anon.)

Exercises—Translate:

1) ^àek%É nAÉn`iT%n iP%P`iT%et% ÇsAem%r jaÆael% mÄAg`in%PAÉMa™As hAet% lAiP%ey% lAiP%ey% fb%RAet%

fd%eK%iC%| (Satyajit Ray)

%2) jabAba id%et% àkaTuä fd%ir% karael%na nA suúIrabAbu| (Buddhadeva Bose)

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3) Çim% ÇmAr bAbAek% sAdA ij%en%r pÄA∆T paeR% i£%ek%T fT%in%s fK%laet% fd%eK%iC%|

(Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

4) bAlI Çis%et% Çr ib%laÍa kair%la nA| (Upendrakishore Raycaudhuri)

5) id%en%ra para id%na àÉ sAej% äek% ÅiP%s fY%et% fd%eK%iC% Çim%| (Ashapurna Devi)

6) fr%e˙^orAy ig%ey% ik%Cu fK%ey% ÇsA YAk fB%eb% paek%eT% hAt id%et%É hAtaTA paek%eT%r talAy baes%

fg%la| (Anon.)

III. lAgA Consult a dictionary for the many meanings and applications of lAgA| In Intro Bengali, this verb was introduced in the very first lesson in a common genitive-3rd-person construction:

ÇpanAr iZ%kAego fk%man lAeg%? "How do you like Chicago?" ÇmAr iZ%kAego Kub BAla lAeg%| "I like Chicago very much."

Other GENITIVE 3RD-PERSON constructions with lAgA: A. "to feel" A.1. (with the sensation expressed)

garam lAgA/óAƒA lAgA "to feel warm/to feel cold" ftomAr ik óAƒA lAeg%? "Do you feel cold?" mA ib%CAnA JARaet% JARaet% balael%n, õAka suémA_jAnAlA Kuel% kAja fn%É| ÇwAra hayata

óAƒA lAgaeC%| "While mother was shaking out the bedding, she [her maternal mother] said,

'Wait, Surma—you shouldn't open the window. Father might be feeling cold.'" (Dilara Hashem)

iK%ed% lAgA/ft%ÛTA lAgA "to feel hungry/to feel thirsty"45 ÇmAr Kub iK%ed% flegeC| "I’m really hungry."

45iK%ed% pAäyA/ft%ÛTA pAäyA also means "to feel or be hungry/thirsty," also a genitive-3rd-person.

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A.2. "to feel pain, be hurt" (without any explicit word for pain)

Çy-nA BAÉ, äó-nA BAÉ! [ftora] fl%eg%eC% BAÉ! "Come on, friend, get up! Are you hurt!" (Advanced Bengali, p. 116)

B. "to need, require"

fY% sab ÖpakaraN tAr bÄabahAer% lAeg%, . . . "All those materials [the patuya] requires for his profession, . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 183) ca«dananagar ^fpOCaet%É lAgala fd%R Ga∆TA|46 "It took an hour and a half to reach Candan Nagar." (Satyajit Ray)

Constructions with lAgA that are NOT GENITIVE-3RD-PERSON: C. "to begin or resume or set to," using the infinitive + lAgA (consult Intro Bengali, p. 277)

When lAgA means "to begin, resume, set to," it is INFLECTED FOR PERSONS (subject in the nominative) and is in the SIMPLE PAST tense.

Çim% paRaet% lAgalAm| "I began to read." Fk%ek%yI iB%Õa sakael%É hAhAkAr k'er% ^kAdaet% lAgael%n| "Except for Kaikeyi, everyone began to weep and wail." (Advanced Bengali, p. 307)

D. "to be comparable, to be able to compete with"

Çim% àÉ paeropakArin%rata ^fò%ik%ek% ÇéYÄsaBÄatAra àka ib%eZ%Sa Pala maen% kair%_ÇéYÄsAih%tÄa, ÇéYÄadaéZana ÇmAra maen% ÉhAra kAeC% lAeg% nA_rAmAyaNa, kumArasaÈBaba, pAiN%in%, pata∂ail%, fk%ha úAnaek% cAla kair%et% pAer% nA|

"I consider this altruistic dhenki [rice husking pedal] a major contribution of Aryan civilization—the literature of the Aryans, the philosophies of the Aryans, to my way of thinking, cannot hold a candle to it—the Ramayana, the Kumarasambhava, Panini, Patanjali, not a one of them is able to turn paddy into husked, edible rice." (Bankimcandra Cattopadhyay)

Some other expressions with lAgA: 46Review also Lesson 9, IV, C for measurement of time using lAgA|

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kAej% lAgA "to be useful, of use" kAej% lAgAeno "to engage, make use of"

ÇK fõ%ek% saMag&ahIta Åpair%èZuta fmom fõ%ek% ib%Zuÿa fmomsaMaègaha karAr jaenÄ% kAej% lAgAeno

hay Kain%j tAraip%n ft%l àbaMa ÇÉeso„apAÉl Çlaekohal| "For extracting pure wax out of the unfiltered wax collected from sugar cane,

mineral turpentine and isopropyl alcohol are employed." (from Lesson 19, I)

fp%Caen% lAgA "to hound, tease, harass"

àÉ ib%mAtAiT% àmana ÅúÄabasAey%ra sih%ta tAhAra ip%Caen% lAig%yA õAik%et%na fY%, fs% Åen%ka samaya buiJ%et% pAir%ta nA fY%, tAhAra in%ej%ra ïAúIna sa–A ik%Cu ÇeC% ik% nA|

"This stepmother kept after him with such perseverance that much of the time he was not sure whether he had any independent existence of his own or not." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

fl%eg% õAkA "to stick to, adhere to; to pursue doggedly, continue on"

saéba•aNa muiZé%dAbAda fkolakAtAra gaÓaÉ fl%eg% õAkata ^tAra mueK% àbaMa saba samaya ÇPaesosa karaaet%na BArata duKaƒa haäyAra jaenÄ%|

"Tales of Kolkata and Murshidabad clung to his lips, and he always felt regret because of the partition of India." (Dilara Hashem)

Exercises—Supply the missing clause or phrase, all of which use lAgA| You probably will not be able to reproduce the original text exactly, but compare your rendering with the answer key and note the various uses of this polysemic verb. All of the passages are taken from Mahasweta Devi's novel "•uúA' (kalakAtA: fd'j pAbailiZM, 1396)|

1) ikCuidn úaeraÉ ra° canamana karaeC, @@@@@, fsÉ jaenÄaÉ ik ïa·aTA fdKaeln? (p&: 9) [ÖdAs_indifference, disinterestedness]

"For some days now he was feeling restless; his body seemed indifferent [to the world around him]; was it for that reason that he had the dream?"

2) ïa·aTA mAeJ mAeJ fdeKn fkOyAra, Çr ïae·ra frZ @@@@@, Åenka•aNa @@@@@, . . .(p&: 12) "Kouar had the dream from time to time, and faint remnants of the dream would linger in

his mind, linger a long time, . . . " 3) Gar fõek fberosa nA àkabAraä, @@@@@| (p&: 17) [ipsAb, fp∞CAb, „aîAb - urine, urination] "Don't go outside the house even once, not even if you have to piss."

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4) pUjAtAjA idel fdbaedbatAek KuiZ rAKael @@@@@| (p&: 22) "If you do puja, if you keep the gods happy, there's no need for doctors and medicine." 5) à fk? kaõA balaeC nA? @@@@@| (p&: 27) [BAgen (also BaAignA, BAigeny)_nephew, sister's son] "Who's he? So, why's he not talking?" "He's my nephew." 6) Çim fto jaÆael [gAC] lAgAi∞C Kub| @@@@@, à fõek Paer¯Ta Åenk friBinÖ pAeb| (p&:

122-23) "I am planting quite a few [trees] in the jungle. If they take root, the Forest Office will

realize a lot of revenue from this [project]." 7) jaÆael fmOyA lAgAebn nA? ikCu lAgAlAm| taeb baRa haet @@@@@| (p&: 123) "Aren't you going to plant mohua in the jungle?" "I planted some. But it takes such a long time for them to get big." 8) bÄa˙, Åit bÄa˙ paõ| ¡Ak, mÄATAeDora, sAÉekl, ˘uTAra, haóAö ^GÄAca kaer àkaiT gAiR õAem

äedra sAmaen| äedr mueK @@@@@| (p&: 178) "A busy, very busy road. Trucks, Matadors, bicycles, scooters—all of a sudden a car

screeched to a halt in front of them. Dust flew up into [covered] their faces."

IV. POSTPOSITIONS: OPTIONAL GENITIVE CASE "Postposition" is the name given to a certain class of words that come after ("post"), comparable to what in English grammar one calls a preposition—a class of words that come before ("pre"). Prepositions in English require the objective case on the following pronoun (although one hears "between he and I" more and more these days). In Bangla, postpositions can be grouped into four categories.

1. Those that allow for the optional genitive, or, in other words, allow both for the genitive case and for no case marker at all.

Note: Postpositions in this first category usually, but not always, require the GENITIVE on a preceding HUMAN PRONOUN while allowing the genitive to be optional with all nouns and with nonhuman pronouns.

2. Those that require the genitive case on a preceding noun or pronoun. 3. Those that require no particular case ending on the preceding word.

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4. The two postpositions (id%ey% and in%ey%%) that require the objective case on a preceding human noun or pronoun.

Remember: The objective case is generally not expressed with nonhuman nouns and pronouns, though the objective case is implicit nonetheless.

fõ%ek% "from; for, since [with time expressions]"; haÉet% in SADHU

rAmabAbu, Çpain% ik% àKan nadIr úAr fõ%ek% àel%n? "Ram Babu, have you just come FROM the river bank?" (Intro Bengali, p. 169) kalakAtAr fõ%ek% daZ-paen%ero mAÉl dUer% jAyagAr bÄabaêA k'er% id%et% pAir% suib%eú% daer%| "I could arrange for some land [for you] ten, fifteen miles away FROM Kolkata,

at a convenient price." (Jibanananda Das) jAen%na fto, dai•%Na Çem%ir%kA Çra ÇièP%kA £amaZaH para¯paer%ra fõ%ek% in%HaZaeÂ% dUer% sa'er%

YAe∞C%? "You know, don't you, South America and Africa are gradually moving away

FROM each other, silently?" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) fs%-rAe÷% kael%ja ¯¡ITa fõ%ek% DAlahAÖis%et% f~h%eT% YAäyAra paer% ÇmarA àkaTA kÄAeP%et%

ig%ey%iC%lAm, tAÉ nA, ÅiB%dA? "That evening, after walking FROM College Street to Dalhousie Square, we went

to a cafe, didn't we, Abhi-da?" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

"From" a HUMAN, whether NOUN or PRONOUN, is expressed by kAC fõ%ek% (in%kaT haÉet% in SADHU) with required GENITIVE, not simply fõ%ek% (haÉet% in SADHU); see Intro Bengali, p. 183.

ÇmAra kACa fõ%ek% "from me"

EXCEPT: When fõ%ek% means "than" (when comparing one thing to another)—

GENITIVE REQUIRED (see Lesson 15, IV):

BAÉey%ed%ra fõ%ek% tAra f„oiT%na-„Ai‡% kama| "Her [girls, generally] protein intake is less THAN her brothers'." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

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AND: When the human is considered more a position or a type: . . . taKana fm%ejobaÖ fõ%ek% maA haey% basatuma| . . . then, FROM [being just] the second wife in the household, I would

have become a 'mother.'" (Rabindranath Tagore) fYogI«‹anAõa basu fõ%ek% ÇraÈBa kaer% suer%Zaca«‹a Fm%÷a paéYa»a ^YArA àra Çeg% kaib%ra

jIbanI il%eK%eC%na, . . . "Those who have written biographies of the poet previously, beginning

FROM Yogindranath up through Sureshcandra Maitra, . . . " (Ghulam Murshid)

FURTHERMORE, note the following, where, for some speakers, the

grammatical difference between human and nonhuman is obscured:

ÇmAra sahAnuBUit% darakAra_àbaM Çim% tA Çra kAra fõ%ek% fp%et% paAir%? "I need sympathy—and FROM whom else can I get that?" (Ghulam Murshid) kalakAtAra pair%jana fõ%ek% dUer% mA‹Aes% ig%ey% „ait%ıA lAeB%ra jaenÄ% fgoRAet% ^tAek%

rIit%maeto saMègAma karaet% haey%eC%| "Having gone FROM his close Kolkata friends to faraway Madras, he had

at the very outset to struggle seriously to establish himself." (Ghulam Murshid)

ŸArA "by, by means of" A. with human pronouns AND human nouns, the GENITIVE is REQUIRED:

^tAhAra ŸArA ÉhakAel%ra suKasaeÈBoeg%ra fkona ÇZAÉ nAÉ, Åõaca fs%É hAes%na ÇpanAra „AõéI| "There is no hope of his enjoying [enjoyment BY him] a life of luxury in this

world, yet still that Hasan is your suitor." (Mir Mosharraf Hosain) cali∞c÷iZeÓ Çpin ik kAero ŸArA Ånu„AiNt bA „BAibt? "In the art of filmmaking, were you [Ritwik Ghatak] influenced or inspired BY

anyone?" (Prabir Sen) iD%eroij%äek% Åen%ek% balaet%na ÉÖer%ZIya bAyarana, Yaid%ä ÅnÄa „aúAna fromÄAi∆T%ka

kaib%ed%ra_ aTa, mUra, bAénasa_ŸArAä it%in% „BAibta haey%iC%el%na| "Many used to call Derozio the Eurasian Byron, even though he had been

influenced also BY other prominent romantic poets—Scott, Moore, Burns." (Ghulam Murshid)

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¯kulTA ïAmIjIedr ŸArA pircAilt| "The school is run BY the [Ramakrishna Mission] swamis." (Abdul Mannan Syed)

B. otherwise, the GENITIVE is OPTIONAL:

ÇmarA ÛTImAer%r Öpair%BAg haÉet% dUrabI•aN ŸArA fd%iK%tAm äpAer% hair%N cair%et%eC%, . . . "From the upper deck of the steamer, we used to watch, BY MEANS OF a

telescope, deer grazing on the far shore, . . . " (from Lesson 1, I) ^tAed%r ÅMaZaègahaeN%r ŸArA ÇmAed%r à saeÎ%lan sAPalÄamaiƒ%ta haeb%| "BY their participation, this conference of ours will be a success." (from Lesson 10, I) „aeyojaen%ra saÍaŒaek% ÇmarA h&daey%ra saÍaŒa ŸArA fZoúana kair%yA laÉyA taeb%É bÄabahAra kair%et%

pAir%| "We purify 'relationships of necessity' BY MEANS OF 'relationships of the heart,'

and then, and only then, are we able to engage them [i.e., function within those relationships]." (For example, a relationship of master-to-servant becomes transformed, Tagore argues, into a fictive relationship of householder-to-relative.) (Rabindranath Tagore)

Åtaàba ~YAhAek% ÇmarA samAejra saeébo∞ca saÎAen%ra ŸArA baraNa kair%ba, ^tAhAek% àka id%en%ra janÄaä

ÇmarA suKaïa∞Ca«datAra ÇZA id%et% pAir%ba nA| "Consequently, he whom we shall ceremonially elect BY MEANS OF [i.e., by

bestowing upon him] society's highest respect, to that one we shall not be able to give hope of happiness and personal freedom for even one single day." (Rabindranath Tagore)

üiD%| ih%«dI is%ir%yAlaTAra ŸArA ÇmarA àKanaä Ç£A»a haÉ in%, ÅúÄApaka_ iZ%KA| taeb% sae«d%ha fn%É, ib%-ib%-is% fn%paeõÄ% fn%egoiZ%ey%Ta karaeC%_ "Rudy: 'We have not as yet been SUBJECTED TO [i.e., ATTACKED BY] the

Hindi serial [of the Mahabharata], Professor—' Shikha: 'But there's no doubt, the BBC is negotiating behind the scenes—'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) üiD%| [haóAö àkaTA ÇÉiDyA ŸArA Ç£A» haey%] ik… iZ%KA, fn%T`l`guelo fto maer% in%|

fhoyAÉ naTa fn%t`l`-iT%? "Rudy: [suddenly STRUCK BY (i.e., ATTACKED BY) an idea] 'But Shikha, the

nettles haven't died off yet. Why not nettle tea?'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

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For the remaining postpositions in this section,

GENITIVE required with human PRONOUN but optional otherwise.

„asaeÆ% "pertaining to, in the context of, with respect to, concerning"

^tAra àÉ ÇkAéSaNa baCara fd%eR%ek%ra maeúÄ% kaeto „abala haey% Öeó%iC%elo, ^tAra ib%Zapasa kael%ej% Baiét%ra „asaeÆ% ÇmarA tA la•Äa karaebo|

"Just how strong this attraction of his had become within a year and a half or so we shall observe IN THE CONTEXT OF his admission to Bishop's College." (Ghulam Murshid)

fY%mana, cAélasa fn%ip%yAer%ra samAelocanA „asaeÆ% à pai÷%kAra saeÆ% ^tAra bacasA haya| "For instance, he quarreled with the journal CONCERNING Charles Napier's

criticism." (Ghulam Murshid) bAbada/bAbaed% "on account of, due to"

1848 fõ%ek% 1852 sAla paéYa»a àsaba hAet%ra Ft%ir% kAej%ra bAbaed% ÅÄAsAÉlAma baCaer% ^pAca fZo ÅõabA tAra fc%ey% fb%iZ% kaer% TAkA fp%eto_bAiéS%ka ir%epoeéT% tA fd%KA YAe∞C%|

"From 1848 to 1852, DUE TO all of this manual training [i.e., furniture building and shoe making], the Asylum [i.e., the Male Orphan Asylum and Free Day School for Boys] used to receive five hundred or more rupees a year—as can be seen from the annual report." (Ghulam Murshid)

. . . Çra dAdAbAbura fd%eZ% ÇsAr Çna«da bAbad (ib%gail%taBAeb% fh%es%) ÇmAra cA-jalaKAbAra

KAäyAra àkaTA Karaca . . . ". . . and ON ACCOUNT OF the master's delight upon returning home (giggling

unctuously), there is a slight expenditure for [i.e., I, a servant, must charge you for] my tea and refreshments . . . " (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

ib%Saey%% "about, concerning, on the matter of, with respect to"

Çem%ir%kAra ib%Saey% ba°&tA id%et% ik%%? "To give speeches ABOUT America?" (Intro Bengali, p. 317) fboJA fg%elo, bAMlAed%Za ib%Saey% ^tAra Çègaha ÇeC% Yaeõ%ÛTa| "It was evident he had considerable interest WITH RESPECT TO Bangladesh."

(Abdul Mannan Syed) jIbanAnae«d%r jIban ib%Saey% fkoeno fl%KA ÇmAy pAóAeb%? "Please send me a piece [some writing] about Jibanananda's life." (from Lesson 13, I)

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sAih%tÄa, saÆIt àbaMa lail%takalA ib%Saey%ä ^tAr ÇkaéSaN samaBAeb% iC%la| "Even CONCERNING literature, music and the fine arts, he [Satyendranath

Bose] was equally attracted to them." (from Lesson 16, I) fs% samaey%ra YaeZohara nagaer%ra ib%Saey% à ûpa Zuin%yAiC% fY, . . . "WITH RESPECT TO the city of Jessore in those days, I have heard the

following, . . . " (Ghulam Murshid) mAraPat/mAraPaö/mAraPaet% "by means of, through, per, via"

paTuyA ïakIya ÖpakaraeN% Åiú%katara Ö∫laBAeb %mAnueS%r maen% ^àek% id%et% sa•am haey%iC%la tAr Caib%r mAraPat|

"The patuya, in his own medium, became able to paint even more vividly on peoples' minds [the folk themes], THROUGH his pictures."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 184)

„it%eYoigtAy ^YArA jayI haebn ^tAedr nAm ůkAerr rAetÉ ÅnuıAn mAraPaö fGoSaNA karA haeb nAnA òeXr nATakIyatA ker, ÉyAiék óA¿A nAc-gAenr maeúÄ|

"Those who are going to be victorious in the competition will have their names announced on Oscar night itself as part of [VIA] the ceremonies, with a lot of pretentious drama and amidst song and dance and light-hearted gaiety." (Dilip Basu)

rAjanAyAyaNa da–a àbaM jAæabI fd%bI à samaey% fgOradAes%ra mAraPata pu÷aek% fboJAet% fc%ey%eC%na| "Raj Narain Datta and Jahnabi Debi at this time, with Gourdas's help [VIA

Gourdas, using Gourdas as an intermediary], sought to make their son come to his senses." (Ghulam Murshid)

cAkair% fC%eR% fd%äyAra para laéDa ÖÉil%yama fb%i«Te¨k%ra mAraPaet%É ÇlApa hala àkajana ÉMer%ja

bÄabasAyIra saeÆ%| nAma ÖÉil%yama kAra| "After giving up his job, he [Dwarkanath Tagore] met THROUGH Lord William

Bentinck himself an English businessman by the name of William Carr." (Purnendu Patri)

saÈpaeék% "about, concerning, in relation to, with respect to"

à YAbaö ^tAra eY%-saba jIbanI „akAiZ%ta haey%eC%, tAet% ^tAra jIbaen%ra fkoeno fkoeno ÅúÄAya saÈpaeék% Yaeõ%ÛTa ÅõabA ÅËA»a taõÄa K~uej% pAäyA YAya nA| àra kAraNa, ^tAra sa»Ana àbaM baŒurA ^tAra saÈpaeék% sAmAnÄaÉ jAnaet%na|

"There is not sufficient or unflawed factual information CONCERNING certain stages of his life in all the biographies of him [of Michael Madhusudan Datta] published to date. The reason for this is that his son and friends knew very little ABOUT him." (Ghulam Murshid)

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fh%nair%ey%TA saÈpaeék% t&tIya janaèZuit%_it%in% ParAis%| "The third rumor WITH RESPECT TO Henrietta—she was French." (Ghulam Murshid) à baÉ fl%KA haya „aúAnata rAmaemohana rAey%ra satIdAha saÈpaiék%ta „aõama ègaeÃ% maih%lAed%ra saÈpaeék%

sAúAraNaBAeb% fY%-ma»abÄa karA haey%eC%, tAra äpara iB%i–% kaer%| "This book was written mainly in response to the general opinions

CONCERNING women expressed in the first of Rammohan Ray's monographs related to sati daha [widow burning]." (Ghulam Murshid)

saÍaeŒ%% "about, concerning, in relation to, with respect to"

Ç’Iya| maúura saÍaeŒ% fY% saba kaõA Zuin%_tAet% la≤Aya mAõA kATA YAy! äek% ÇpanAra àkaTu sAbaúAna karA darakAra|

rAjanArayaNa| ik% fZona tAra saÍaeŒ%? "A relative: 'All that stuff I hear ABOUT Madhu—I'm so ashamed by it! You

need to caution him a bit.' Raj Narain: 'What do you hear ABOUT him?'" (Banaphul) àkaid%n kaõA„asaeÆ% rabI«‹anAaõaek% ij%≥AsA kaer%iC%lAm, bai≠ %maca«‹a, maúusUdan, ib%hArIlAl „aB&it%

saÍaeŒ%% il%Kael%ä fh%maca«‹a, nabInaca«‹a saÍaeŒ% it%in% nIrab fk%na? "One day in the course of our conversation I asked Rabindranath why, though he

had written ABOUT Bankimcandra, Madhusudan, Biharilal, etc., he was silent CONCERNING Hemcandra and Nabincandra?"

(Pramathanath Bishi) tAhael% dIen%Zaek% fs% saÍaeŒ% ik%Cu ij%e≥ %s karaet% fg%el %fto fs% ib%ip%nabAbuek% pAgal

óAärAeb%| "In that case, if he [Bipin] were to go to ask Dinesh something ABOUT it, then he

[Dinesh] would consider Bipin Babu crazy." (Satyajit Ray) àÉ saba sAúued%ra saÍaeŒ% kata gaÓaÉ nA Zuen%iC% fCoTakAkAra kAeC%| "Ah, I heard so many stories from my uncle ABOUT all these holy men." (Satyajit Ray)

haÉet% "from" in SADHU; see fõ%ek%

Çim% Åmain% fboTa haÉet% DAÆAya Öió%yA paiR%lAma| "I then and there got out FROM the boat and onto the shore." (Advanced Bengali, p. 184)

Remember: haÉet% LOOKS EXACTLY LIKE the SADHU INFINITIVE of the verb "to be," haäyA

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LESSON 1515

I. ib%≥Apan

fgol`eD%n sÄAƒAl`ÖD

sugaŒa

ëAnIya sAbAn ib%Zuÿa hair%ca«danasAr sahaeYoeg% Öök&ÛTa ÖpAdAen% „a˙uta|

in%tÄa bÄabahAer% fd%ha ië%Ø ä ZItal hay

maen% t&i‡% ä „aPuÔatA Çes% caémaerog in%bAir%ta hay|

fb%Æal fk%im%kÄAl, kail%kAtA, fboÍAÉ

"kaib%tA,' Çiç%n 1353, p&Ha 2|

saéba „akAr duébalatA dUrIkaraeN%r janÄa

Çl`aPAl`aPA fgol`D Tain%k– bal, bIéYa ä Zai°%r janÄa fhoim%ä iB%TAim%n

àKAen% mAnais%k frog, àÄAjamA, kÄAn`sAr, gÄAi¯¡k, mU÷apAõarI, ip%–apAõarI, ÅÌaZUl, ip%–aZUl, il%Öek%ir%yA „aB&it% froeg%r

ic%ik%ösA Åit% Yae”%r saih%t karA hay|

DAHa à,ib%,àm, kAib%l Çh`em%d àm,à, àl,àl,ib%, àm,ib%,àÉc,ÇÉ (kalakAtaA) 737, dai•%N ZAhajAhAn pur (ÇmatalA) òAkA, fPonaHa 400871

sA•Aet%r samay: sakAl 8-10TA ib%kAl 5-9TA

"Fd%in%k Ée–%PAk,' 10É Çiç%n, 1388, p&Ha 1|

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II. INFINITIVE + ANOTHER VERB (2) A. CONTINUOUS ACTION, infinitive + õAkA = "to continue doing/to do something":1

fK%lA fC%eR% àkabAr dUer% ig%ey% ic%ö haey% fZoy, ÇbAr úarA id%ey% fh%es% fh%es% fmoha fdolAy dulaet% õAek%!

"At one point he quit the game, moved far away, and lay on his back; then again letting himself be held, laughing, he swung [continued to swing] on that swing of infatuation." (Advanced Bengali, p. 116)

àÉ paT YaKan Çe˙% Çe˙% fKolA hay taKan Caib%TA àkasaeÆ% nA fb%ir%ey% àkaTu àkaTu kaer%

„akAZ fp%et% õAek%| "When this pat [scroll painting] is opened slowly, the picture, rather than coming

out all at once, is [continues to be revealed] a little at a time." (Advanced Bengali, p. 185) àkaTAnA gIit%-„abAeh%r Fb%ic%÷aÄhIn paeõ% ÉhAr kAaih%nI Åègasar haÉet% õAek%| "Continuously, its tale advances on the unvarying path of the song's current."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 211) B. PERMISSION, infinitive + pArA and fd%äyA

B.1. "May," as in "may I do something" or "you may do something" is expressed by the infinitive + pArA:

tARAtAiR% fK%lA fZ%S hael% ÇmarA Zahaer% YAebo| Çim%ä ik% ftomAed%r saeÆ% Çsaet% pAir%? ^hÄA, tuim% Çsaet% pAero| "If the game is over soon, we shall go to the city." "May I come with you?" "Yes, you may come." (Intro Bengali, p. 270)

B.2. "Let/allow," as in "let [me, you, him/her/it] do something" is expressed by the

infinitive + fd%äyA:

ftomAed%r saeÆ% ik% ÇmAek% fY%et% fd%eb%? "Will you let me go with you?"

The one being allowed to act is in the OBJECTIVE CASE, in both English and Bangla. fY%et% fd%ebo nA fk%na? "Why wouldn't we let you?"

1The PAP + õAkA may also mean, depending on what verb is used, "to continue to do/doing something" as well as "to do something repeatedly"; review Lesson 10, II, C.

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fkna jIbanAn«d àÉ saen%Tacae£%ra kaõA GuNA•aer%ä kAÖek% jAnaet% fd%nain%| "Why didn't Jibanananda let anyone know anything whatsoever about this sonnet

cycle?" (Jyotirmoy Datta) hAH, fY%et% fd%ä [dAä], fY%et% fd%ä, àkaTA ¡AÉP`lIM kaõA in%ey% im%eC% JakaRA [JagaRA] fk%na? "Aha, forget it! Let it be! Why this meaningless quarrel over a trifling matter?" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

C. ABILITY, infinitive + pArA and pAäyA

The primary dictionary definition of pArA is "to be able," of pAäyA, "to get, obtain." In most cases, infinitive + pArA in Bangla corresponds to "to be able" + infinitive in English. However, both the infinitive + pArA and the infinitive + pAäyA may translate as "to be able to do something." With pAäyA, the ability is, in certain respects, EXTERNALLY DETERMINED, "to get the opportunity to do something." With pArA, the ability is, in a way, INTERNALLY DETERMINED.

b&i–% nA fp%el% Çim% à baCar% òAkAy fY%et% pAebo nA| "If I don't get a fellowship, I'll not be able to go to Dhaka this year." TAkA fp%el%ä Çim% à baCar òAkAy fY%et% pAraba nA| "Even if I get the money, I won't be able to go to Dhaka this year."

In the first sentence, whether the "I" gets to go is determined by whether she gets a fellowship. In the second sentence, though we are not told why, the "I" has determined for herself that she can't, for whatever reason, go. In many situations, it is impossible or impractical to determine whether the factors that make a person able or unable to do something are internal or external. And in most cases, a determination of those factors is irrelevant. THE IDEA OF "to be able" IS GENERALLY RENDERED IN BENGALI BY pArA| But, for verbs of sense perception (particularly common among those are the verb fd%KA ["to see"] and the verb fZonA ["to hear"]), the distinction between EXTERNAL and INTERNAL ABILITY can be significant. With these verbs in their infinitive form, whether pArA or pAäyA is used can make a difference, particularly in the negative:

fd%Kaet% pArA may mean "to tolerate, stand," (literally, "to be able to bring oneself [internal ability] to look at someone or something")

fd%Kaet% pAäyA means "to get to see, be able to see, have the opportunity [external

ability] to see"

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Internal:

ä flokaTA Kub badamAs| Çim% tAek% fd%Kaet% pAir% nA| "That fellow is a scoundrel. I can't stand him." bAmapaÃIrA DAnapaÃIed%r kaõA Zunaet% pAer% nA| "Leftists can't tolerate hearing what Right-wingers have to say." kAero KAäyA fdKel tuim fGÕA pAä fto? Åenek pAy| YAH! fY fKet pAer fs KAeb nA fkn? fGÕAr kI? ÇmAr bAsAy fto baRa pairbAr| fsKAen Åenek ÇeC YArA ÇmAr KAäYA fdKet pAer nA| Çim pAraebo| Bay fnÉ| "Are you disgusted by watching someone eat? Many people are." "Nonsense! Why shouldn't a person with a good appetite eat well? What's to be

disgusted by?" "There are a lot of family members at our house. Many of them CAN'T STAND

to see me eat." "I'll be able to. Nothing to worry about." (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

External:

fs% gAeC%r fp%Caen% luik%ey% ÇeC%| Çim% tAek% fd%Kaet% pAi∞C% nA| "He is hiding behind a tree. I am unable to see him." Kub haÉhueÔoR hae∞C%| tAÉ ÇmarA DAnapaÃI ba°Ar kaõA Zunaet% pAi∞C% nA| "There is a great commotion. That's why we cannot hear what the Rightist

speaker is saying." . . . ÅŒakAer% BAla fd%iK%et% pAÉet%iC% nA| ". . . in the dark, I cannot see well." (Advanced Bengali, p. 97)

TO REVIEW: infinitive + pArA can mean: 1. permission (see section B.1 above): Çim% ik% iB%taer% Çsaet% pAir%? "May I come in?" 2. possibility: Çim% kAlaek% Çsaet% pAir%| "I might come by tomorrow." 3. ability (internal) Çim% iB%taer% Çsaet% pAir% nA! "I cannot bear going in!" infinitive + pAäyA can mean: 1. ability (external) Çim% kAlaek% Çsaet% pAb| "I'll be able to come tomorrow."

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HOWEVER, the internal/external distinction is not always maintained, and fd%Kaet% pArA and fd%Kaet% pAäyA come to be used interchangeably by some. The following examples all are by one author, Syed Hamidul Husain, from his novel a"Zakuna' (òAkA: fm%eh%üeÕ%sA ÇlI, 1989):

Çim% jAin% tuim% i„%yanAeõ%ra fm%ey%, àÉ fY% fd%Kaet% pAraiC% ftomAra fco*ka ftomAra bAbAra mata,

àÉ fY% fd%Kaet% pAraiC% tuim% saŒÄA| "I know you are Priyanath's daughter, I CAN SEE your eyes are like your

father's, I CAN SEE you're Sandhya." YAek% pAZA maen%ra fco*ka id%ey% fd%Kaet% pAy, Åõaca àÉ du'eco*ka id%ey% naya| "[It was she] whom Pasha CAN SEE with his mind's eye, yet not with these two

eyes." ma∆Tu ÇyanAya pAZAek% fd%Kaet% pAya| "Montu CAN SEE Pasha in the mirror." ÇmAek% ik%Cu balaC, BAÉyA| nA| ik% tAhael%, kAra saeÆ% kaõA balaCa| kAero saeÆ% nA| â fY% ik% fY%na balaCa| nAh`, àmain%| àmin% fkoõAya Çim% ¯paÛTa fd%Kaet%% pAi∞C, Zunaet% pAraiC% ik% fY%na balaCa kAÖek%| "Are you saying something to me, brother?" "No." "What is it then, who are you talking to?" "No one." "But you were saying something or other just now." "No, it was nothing." "What do you mean 'nothing.' I CAN SEE you clearly, I CAN HEAR you saying

something to somebody." â fY% fd%Kuna, BAelo kaer% fco*ka Kuel% fd%Kuna, fd%Kaaet% pAraeC%na nA â fY% Çero àkaTA CAyA

pAZAek% jaiR%ey% f~p%ic%ey% úaer%eC%| "Look there, open your eyes and have a good look, CAN'T YOU SEE, there,

another shadow has grabbed Pasha and enveloped him."

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D. OBLIGATION, infinitive + fn%É/ÇeC% is comparable to the construction of verbal noun +

Öic%t nay/Öic%t

iB%taer% is%gAer%T fK%et% fn%É| iB%taer% is%gAer%T KAäyA Öic%t nay| "One should not smoke inside." "One should not smoke inside." (úUmapAn karA in%eS%úa|)

Zuúu hAet% iP%er% fY%et% fn%É| "One must not return empty-handed." (Parashuram) iZ%eb%r dalabal sae«d%eb%lA2 ^äed%r nAm karaet% fn%É| "Siva's bunch, at evening time you should not mention their names." (Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay) rAjA| rAjalaßI àKanaä ta à rAjag&eh% ÇeC%na, ik%… àra para õAka%eb%n ik% nA, tA balA duÛkar| tapaiï%nI| mahArAja, Åmana kaõA% ik% bala%et% ÇeC%? "Raja: 'The Goddess of Royal Fortune is still present in this palace; but it's hard to

say whether she will remain after this.' Tapasvini: 'Maharaj, should you be saying such a thing?'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta) fgoib%«d%lAla: taeb% Çim% froih%NIek% BAlabAis%| Ëamar: im%eC% kaõA_tuim% ÇmAek%% BAlabAsa_Çra kAek%ä3 ftomAra BaAlabAsaet% nAÉ_fk%na

froih%NIek% BAbaiC%el% bala nA? fgoib%«d%lAla: ib%úabAek% mACa KAÉet% ÇeC%? Ëamar: anA| fgoib%«d%lAla: ib%úabAek mACa %KAÉet% nAÉ, tabu tAir%NIra mA mACa KAya fk%na? Ëamar: atAr fpoRAra muKa, YA karaet% nAÉ, tAÉ kaer%| fgoib%«d%lAla: ÇmAraä fpoRAra muKa, YA karaet% nAÉ, tAÉ kair%| froih%NIek%% BAlabAis%| "Govindalal: 'Still then, I love Rohini.' Bhramar: 'It's a lie—you love me—you shouldn't love anyone else—why are you

thinking of Rohini, tell me?' Govindalal: 'Should widows eat fish?' Bhramar: 'No.' Govindalal: 'Widows ought not eat fish, so why does Tarini's mother eat fish?' Bhramar: 'She is shameless. She does exactly what she shouldn't do.' Govindalal: 'I too am shameless. I do what I shouldn't. I love Rohini.'" (Bankimcandra Cattopadhyay)

2Note spelling: Some dialects in West Bengal do not express aspiration in consonants. 3Spelled kAÖek% in modern Bangla.

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Exercises—Supply the missing clause or phrase, all of which contain an infinitive. As with a similar exercise in the previous lesson, all of the passages are taken from Mahasweta Devi's novel "•uúA' (kalakAtA: fd'j pAbailiZM, 1396)|

1) sArA baCar jaÆal ^tAra àkAra| mahuyAra átuet sabAÉ @@@@@| (p&: 10) [kuRAeno_to gather, collect] "The jungle is his alone the entire year. [But] during the mohua season, everyone may

come and gather mohua [blossoms]." 2) sarakArI Çips àlAkAy òuek fgel hAäyA badael YAy| Çim õAkaet @@@@@| (p&: 37) "Once they penetrate the government office area, the whole situation [the 'air'] changes.

While I'm around, I'll not let that happen." 3) @@@@@ Zuúu ftt`ir ^BUÉn| (p&: 72) "Only Tetri Bhuin knows the way and is able to come." 4) ÇmAr fdokAn fCeR YAä bApu, @@@@@| (p&: 86) "Leave my shop, Sir, let me conduct my business." 5) @@@@@, fkOyAr ÅnÄ jagaetr mAnuS| (p&: 174) "He keeps saying to himself, Kouar is a being from another world." 6) fkoõAä Bula karael fkoeno fmeyr @@@@@| (p&: 176) [É≤at_honor, chastity, prestige] "If you slip up at all, some of the women might get molested [their honor might leave]." 7) haóAö GÄAca kaer àkaiT gAiR õAem äedra sAmaen| . . . fkoislA iCTaek äeó, @@@@@? cApA

fdeb nAik? ik fBeb . . . (p&: 178) "A car suddenly screeches to a halt in front of them. . . . Kosila explodes, 'Can't you see?

Were you going to run over us or what? What were you thinking . . . '" 8) ftt`ir inemeS muK baŒ kaer ä @@@@@| (p&: 179) "Tetri instantly shut her mouth and just kept running and running."

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III. "WHAT'S-ITS-NAME" (Éey%) & "SO AND SO" (Åmuk) Éey% is essentially a pronoun used in spoken Bangla when the speaker cannot immediately recall a

name or some other word. It can be inflected for case and combined with a verb to form a compound verb:

Éey%r saeÆ% fd%KA haey%eC% Çj| "I ran into what's-'is-name today." kAl Éey%et% fY%et% haeb%| "Tomorrow I have to go to what's-it-called." tuim% Éey% paeR%Ca? "Have you read what's-it-called?" tuim% ik% Éey% kaer%Ca? "Have you what'cha-m'called it?" ÇmAek% Éey%guelo fd%yA haey%eC%| "I was given those what'cha-m'call-its."

ib%çAsa ^Juek% balala_Çpain% ÇmAra Éey% fboeJ%na| Çim% Çero it%eT% fkoÈpAin% cAlAÉ

bÄAnaiéj%| fs%guelo Åen%ka fb%iZ% ir%i %| "Biswas leaned closer and said, 'You understand my . . . er, ah [position?

situation? dilemma? problem? whatever]. I run three other companies, Banerjee. And they are even more risky." (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

"hÄAelo sueK%na' "ä sueK%na'_fY%na sueK%na CARA „ANa ^bAec% nA| sueK%na ftomAed%ra pIir%et%ra

Éey%| ió%ka samaey% ib%eyoel%% sueK%en%ra fõ%ek% baRa fC%el% ftomAed%ra hata, fs% fK%yAla fn%É|

"'Hello, Sukhen,' 'O, Sukhen'—as if without your Sukhen you couldn't survive. Sukhen is the what'cha-m'call-it [object? receptacle? whatever] of your affection [of you older married women's affection]. If you had had a child at the conventional time in life, your sons would have been older than Sukhen. But that doesn't seem to dawn on you." (Samaresh Basu)

Åmuk is both an adjective ("a certain") and a pronoun ("so and so"); as a pronoun, it is used in

much the same way as Éey%, to refer to a person whose name is not specified:

Çj Åmuk àes%eC%n| "So and so came by today." Åmuek%r bAiR%et% fY%et% haeb%| "I have to go to a certain person's home."

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fd%Ka, Yaid% Åmuk iZ%eromaiN%, ik% Åmuk nÄAyAla≠Ar Çis%yA ftomAr duúaTuku KAÉyA YAÉet%n,

taeb% tuim% ik% ^tAhAek% fó%ÆA laÉyA mAir%et% Çis%et%? "See here, had Mr. So and So Blueblood or some Herr Doktor Professor dropped

by and drunk your milk, would you have come after him with a stick?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 104)

fr%is%eD%i«s%ra Ba©a˙Uep%ra fd%yAel% kAmAen%ra fgolAra gaeét% is%pAhI ib%e‹oeh%ra fc%hArATA fY%na ¯paÛTa

fd%Kaet% fp%tAma| mAeéb%el%ra Palaka balaeC%_àÉ Gaer% Åmuka id%na Åmuka sameya kAmAen%ra fgolAya sÄAra fh%nair% laer%e«s%ra m&tÄu haya|

"Through the hole made by the cannonball in the crumbling walls of the Residency, it was as if I could clearly see the outlines of the Sepoy Revolt. A marble slab says—In this room on such and such a day, at such and such a time, by cannon fire Sir Henry Lawrence died." (Satyajit Ray)

Exercises—

1) Think of a tale about somebody going somewhere and doing something. Now write out that tale without specifying who that somebody is or exactly where she/he goes or precisely what is accomplished there. You will want to use both Éey% and Åmuk liberally, but still make some sense. See just how obfuscating you can be and yet communicate something of the tale. 2) Next, rewrite the initial passage in Lesson II or Lesson III, conveniently "forgetting" the proper Bangla for as many, or as few, of the nouns and verbs as you like, while still making a somewhat coherent statement corresponding to that which is actually communicated in those passages. Again, you will want to use both Éey% and Åmuk liberally. 3) If you are with someone, have a "meaningful" conversation with that person using Éey% and Åmuk as though you presume your conversation partner understands perfectly what you are saying. From time to time, ask for "clarification" of what the other person is saying, which, of course, will be given with more Éey% and Åmuk in new and different contexts.

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IV. POSTPOSITIONS: REQUIRED GENITIVE CASE Ånuûp "like, similar to, as" (like mata)

ÉhAet%ä ^pAcAil% gAen%r Ånuûp àkajan baya a gAey%n õAek%n satÄa, ik%… . . . "In this, too, AS WITH the pancali song, there is an elderly singer, it is true,

however . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 207) Çeg% "before, in front of, previous to" (adverb also)

Many POSTPOSITIONS are ALSO ADVERBS, which do not require any particular case ending on the preceding word. As an adverb, Çeg% means "ago, previously, early, before, ahead, in front." Note the difference in meaning between the adverb and the postposition in expressions of length of time: (adverb) àk sa‡Aha Çeg% fs% fPon karal%| "She phoned a week AGO." (postposition) àk sa‡Aeh%r Çeg% Çim% tAek% fPon karaba| "I'll call her in a week." (BEFORE a week is out, I'll call.)

The postposition Çeg% is also used in the sense of "ago": kaeto ZAla haeb% fs%TA_1959-àra id%ek%É fboúa haya, baCar it%ir%eZ%ra Çeg%_ "What year would that have been—around 1950 perhaps, thirty years AGO—"

(Abdul Mannan Syed) mAÉek%la maúusUdana da–a mArA YAna àka fZo kuiR% baCaer%raä Çeg%|a "Michael Madhusudan Datta died more than one hundred twenty years AGO."

(Ghulam Murshid) Öpaer%/Öpar (See äpaer below%.) Öe◊%eZ "toward, in the direction of, for the purpose of"

ÇmarA nAZatA PAZatA fK%ey% raänaA halAma ÅeZAka Ba¡AcAéYa mahAZaey%ra bAiR%ra Öe◊%eZ%%a| "We had breakfast and then set off TOWARD Ashok Bhattacarya's house."

(Abdul Mannan Syed)

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Öe◊%eZÄ "aimed at, for the purpose of, with the intention of, in order to"

maen% haya, baŒuek% Çk&ÛT karAra Öe◊%eZÄ% it%in% àÉ KAbAer%ra nAma ÖeÔ%Ka kaer%iC%el%na| "It seems to me, he mentioned the name of this food [mutton] IN ORDER TO

entice his friend." (Ghulam Murshid) äpaer%/äpar/Öpaer%/Öpar "on, on top of, above" (adverb also)

bAbA-mAr äpar KuZI iC%lAm nA| "I was not happy WITH Mom and Dad." (Anon.)

Note: One is happy or angry "on" someone else in Bangla. äpar/Öpar id%ey% "[via the top of] on, on top of, above" (adverb also)

. . . muSalaúAer% b&iÛT% kacur pAtAr Öpar id%ey% gaiR%ey% YAe∞c%| ". . . the torrents of rain are pouring off the kochu squash leaves." (literally: are

pouring off VIA THE TOP SURFACE OF the leaves) (Advanced Bengali, p. 110)

kaõA "about, concerning" (See also Lesson 6, III.)

. . . tataid%n bAMalAed%eZ%r „ait%in%iú%rA jAtIya pair%Saed%r Åiú%eb%Zaen% fYog fd%bAr kaõA BAbaeb% nA|

". . . as long as [that is going on] the Bangladesh representatives will not consider [think ABOUT] participating in a session of the National Assembly." (Advanced Bengali, p. 273)

kAC fõ%ek% "from" (a human), in%kaT haÉet% in SADHU

fboen%ra kACa fõ%ek% TAkA úAra kaer% òAkA Guer% Çes% fs%| "He borrowed money FROM his sister, took a trip to Dhaka, and returned." (Syed Shamsul Haq, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 132)

kAeC% "near" (adverb also), in%kaT%/in%kaeT% in SADHU

Note: kAeC% can also be translated "with" (I have it with [near] me); "to" (come to [near] me); "from" (I heard it from [near] him)

àra kAeC% Å»ata Baya fn%É| "At least WITH him, there was nothing to be afraid of." (Syed Shamsul Haq, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 132)

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fs%ÉjanÄa suúIrabAbu Çeg%É cara pAió%ey%eC%na tAra kAeC%_ "For that reason, Sudhir babu had earlier sent a secret emissary TO him—"

(Buddhadeva Bose, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 116) sama˙a id%na úair%yA ib%Zajaen%ra kAeC% äÉ àka kaõA Zuin%lAma| "For the entire day I heard that same thing FROM the public at large."

(Rabindranath Tagore, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 23) KAit%er% "for the sake of, in the interest of"

tabu sakel% ÇmarA fd%eZ%ra âkÄa bajAya rAKAra KAit%er% Öéduek% fm%en% in%ey%iC%| "This then we all, IN THE INTEREST OF maintaining the integrity of the

country, accepted Urdu." (Anwar Pasha) cAÉet%%% "than, from, compared with" (also see fc%ey%%% and fõ%ek%), Åep%•A% in SADHU

ÇyanAy maen% h'elo nA mAlatIek% ÅnÄa id%en%ra cAÉet% ik%Cu ÇlAdA fd%KAe∞C%| "When she looked in the mirror, it didn't seem to her that she, Maloti, looked any

different FROM [compared to] any other day." (Buddhadeva Bose)

(saba cAÉet, sabacAÉet% means "most" or the suffix "-est," the superlative degree, and is used as an adjective/adverb: e.g., asabacAÉet BAelo, "best")

fc%ey%% "than, from, compared with" (also see cAÉet% and fõ%ek%), Åep%•A% in SADHU

YA, YA, tAr fc%ey% baraMa gaür KaR kuecoeg% YA| "Go away, get out of here. RATHER THAN THAT [i.e., "better," in comparison

to that (the reference is to writing literature)], go chop up fodder for cows, now get." (Ashapurna Devi)

kalakAtAra fc%ey% maPaïael%ra „ak&it%eloka fò%ra BAla lAeg% tAra| "He liked the natural folks of the mofussil far BETTER THAN those of Kolkata."

(Jibanananda Das) kusum . . . bail%la, "Çim% ja… naÉ| ÇmAra fs% buiÿ% ÇeC%|' b&«dAbna kaih%la, "fs%ä jAin%, ÇbAra buiÿ%ra fc%ey% rAga ftomAra fòra fb%ZI tAä jAin%| "Kusum . . . said, 'I'm not an animal. I have that much sense.' Brindaban responded, 'I know that, and, furthermore, I know also that you have

far more anger THAN sense.'" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

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(saba fc%ey, sabaec%ey means "most" or the suffix "-est," the superlative degree, and is used as an adjective/adverb: e.g., asabaec%ey BAelo, "best")

saba fc%ey% óAƒA fC%el% bael% tAra àka úaraen%ra KÄAit% iC%la| "He had a kind of fame as the most reserved of guys." (Syed Shamsul Haq, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 128)

jaenÄ%/janÄa "for" (Review Lesson 2, III.) taer% "for" in SADHU

Pula Çin%bAra taer% DAka id%yA basuŒaer% kueb%ra id%el%na Ånumait%ˇ4 "FOR to bring the flowers Summoning Basundhar Kubera gave [him] permission." (Bharatcandra Ray) CaRAey%iC% KaÉ úAna bahuid%na ÖóAen%ra ZAil%eK%ra taer%%% . . . "I have scattered puffed rice and paddy many a day FOR the shalik birds of the

courtyard . . . " (Jibanananda Das) tael% "beneath, at the base of"

pAey%ra tael% il%kail%ek% ¡ÄAem%ra lAÉna,_mAõAra äpaer% ÅsaMKÄa jaiT%la tAer%ra jAl . . . "Beneath my feet the slender tram track—above my head a mesh of tangled wires . . . " (Jibanananda Das)

tulÄa "like, comparable to, equal to"

baπ ain%nAed%r tulÄa ZaeÂ% úanu fB%eÆ% fg%la| "With a noise LIKE that of a thunder clap, the bow broke." (Advanced Bengali, p. 306)

fõ%ek%%% "than, compared with, compared to" (also see fc%ey%%% and cAÉet), Åep%•A% in SADHU

Note: When fõ%ek%%% means "from a place [e.g., from Dhaka]" or "from a time [e.g., from last year]," the genitive case is optional and not often used (review Lesson 14, IV); fõ%ek as a COMPARATIVE always REQUIRES the GENITIVE on the preceding word:

BAÉey%ed%ra fõ%ek% tAra f„oiT%na-„Ai‡% kama| "Her [girls, generally] protein intake is less THAN her brothers'." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

4Note "tripadi" (three-foot) poetic form.

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id%iÔ% buiJ% kalakAtAra fõ%ek% BAelo jAyagA? "Delhi, I guess, is a better place THAN Kolkata?" (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

(saba fõ%ek%%%, sabafõ%ek%%%% means "most" or the suffix "-est," the superlative degree, and is used as

an adjective/adverb: e.g., asabafõ%ek%%%% BAelo, "best")

ÇmAra ik%… saba fõ%ek BAelo lAeg% . . . "What I like BEST, however, is . . . " (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

daün "for, because of, owing to, due to; for the sake of"

àtaTA baRa haäyAr daün paTaguil%r duÉ mAõA duÉ TukarA laÍA kAió%r saeÆ% lAig%ey% àguil%ek% jaiR%ey% rAKA hay|

"DUE TO them being so large, the two ends of the scroll paintings are attached to two long sticks and [the scrolls] are kept rolled up."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 185) in%kaT haÉet% "from" (a human) in SADHU; see kAC fõ%ek%

guüparaÈparAya BagabAn` k&ZAeç%ra in%kaTa samAgata haÉel, rAjaiéS ib%çAim%÷a ^tAhAra in%kaTa haÉet% â sama˙a mahA a pAÉyAiC%el%na|

"When they [the wondrous weapons] came—by succession from one master to another—to lord Krishashva, it was then that the Rajarshi Visvamitra received all those grand weapons FROM him [FROM Krishashva]." (Advanced Bengali, p. 99)

in%kaT/in%kaeT% "near," etc., in SADHU; see kAeC%

guüparaÈparAya BagabAn` k&ZAeç%ra in%kaTa samAgata haÉel, rAjaiéS ib%çAim%÷a ^tAhAra in%kaTa haÉet% â sama˙a mahA a pAÉyAiC%el%na|

"When they [the wondrous weapons] came—by succession from one master to another—TO lord Krishashva, it was then that the Rajarshi Visvamitra received all those grand weapons from him [from Krishashva]."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 99) in%ec% "below, underneath" (adverb also)

pAhAeR%ra in%ec%_tAhAed%ra kAü-kAü maiN%baeŒ% GaiR% samaey%ra ^kATA hayaeto bA úIer%-úIer% GurAet%eC%; . . . "Below a mountain—wristwatches on some of them Whose hands of time perhaps yet slowly circle; . . . " (Jibanananda Das)

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in%im%–/in%ime%–a "for, on account of, due to, in order to, because of"

fs%É pu˙aek% kaMaeèg%es%r policy buJAna haÉeb% àbaMa ik% ik% kAraeN%r in%im%–a kaMaeèg%es%r àÉûp policy haÉyAeC% tAhAä fl%KA õAik%eb%|

"In that volume the policy of the Congress would be explained; and FOR what reasons the Congress's policy is thus, that too would be included." (Advanced Bengali, p. 268)

àKAin% àkabAra ÇpanAek% fd%KAbAra in%ime%–aaÉ Çim% àKAen% Çnael%ma| "It was IN ORDER TO show you this very thing [a portrait of a princess] that I

brought it here." (Michael Madhusudan Datta) nÄAy "like, as, similar to" (like mata)

sAúu-BASAr nÄAy cail%t-BASAä ÇjakAl sAih%etÄ% Kub bÄabah&ta haÉet%eC%| "LIKE SADHU Bangla, CALIT Bangla is used extensively in literature these

days." (Advanced Bengali, p. 230) pae•% "for" (Review Lesson 2, III.) pair%baeét% "instead of, in place of" (See badael% below.)

ÅiB%eS%ek%r fY% Çeyojan haey%eC% tAet% rAem%r pair%baeét% Baraet%r ÅiB%eS%k h'k| At the enthronement ceremony which has been arranged for, let Bharata IN

PLACE OF Rama be so enthroned." (Advanced Bengali, p. 306) paer%/par "after, later, subsequent to" (adverb also)

Like Çeg%, paer%/par is both an adverb and a postposition. However, unlike Çeg%, the difference between the adverb and the postposition is minimal in expressions of length of time. For instance: (adverb) àk sa‡aAha paer% pa¥adaZ pAó Zuü karA hala| "A week later, the fifteenth lesson was begun." (postposition) àk sa‡Aaeh%r paer% pa¥adaZ pAó Zuü karA hala| "After a week, the fifteenth lesson was begun."

pcAet% "behind, in back of" in SADHU (See fp%Caen%/ip%Caen% below.)

àkaid%n „aBAtakAel% rAm fgodAbarIet% ëAn karaet% fg%el%n, ^tAr pacAet% sItA àbaMa kalas hae˙% laßaN calael%n|

"One day in the early morn, Rama went to the Godavari river to bathe; BEHIND him came Sita and, with pitcher in hand, Laksmana."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 307)

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pAen% "to, towards, at"

mAé≤Ara maen% maen% hAis%yA ÇmAra pAen% cAih%yA BAib%et%iC%la, . . . "The cat smiled to himself and gazing IN MY DIRECTION was thinking, . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 103) frO‹ta‡a ïa∞Ca ÇkAeZ%ra pAen% ˙aÊa haÉyA cAih%yA raih%la| "He remained motionless, gazing AT the clear, hot sky." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

pAeZ% "beside, alongside, next to" (adverb also)

àkajana maiN%mAlAra pAeZ%ä baes%eC%| "Someone even sat down next to Manimala." (Advanced Bengali, p. 146)

pAZ id%ey% "by" (as in "to pass by") (adverb also)

ÉkabAla hala fp%C%en% fP%el%, sail%muÔAh` hal-jagaÕAõa hael%ra pAZa id%ey% ig%ey%iC%el%na ZahIda im%nAra paéYa»a|

"Having left Iqbal Hall behind, he had PASSED BY Sahidullah Hall and Jagannath Hall and gone as far as the monument to the martyrs [Shahid Minar]." (Anwar Pasha)

fp%Caen%/ip%Caen%/ip%eC% "behind, back" (adverb also)

àra fp%Caen% Yui°% YAÉ õAkuka nA fk%na, . . . "Behind this, whatever justification there may be, . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 183)

„ait% "to, towards"

fh% ib%úAtaH, tuim% ik% in%im%– à rAj-baMeZ%ra „ait% àta „ait%kUla hael%! "Oh Lord, for what reason have you become so hostile TOWARD this royal

house!" (Michael Madhusudan Datta) badael% "instead of, in place of"

. . . rAjaEn%it%k saMaGaeéS%r badael% sAmair%k saMaGaéSa . . . ". . . military confrontation IN PLACE OF political confrontation . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 272)

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bAÉer% "outside, beyond, away" (adverb also)

maiN%mAlA f¯T%ej%ra bAÉer% KAin%kaTA taPAet% àkaiT% in%%ir%ib%il% jAyagAya àes% ^dARAlaa| "Manimala came and stood in a secluded spot a little separated, AWAY FROM

the stage proper." (Advanced Bengali, p. 145) ib%pae•% "against, in opposition to, on the opposing side of"

„abala fîota ÇmAed%ra ib%pae•%, . . . Çe˙% Çe˙%, cil%et% lAig%lAma| "The strong current was AGAINST us, . . . and we began to move slowly."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 96) ib%üeÿ% "against, in opposition to"

Çim% ik%…, ib%ib%, àÉ ÉMfr%jI "PAƒAem%«TAil%j`m`' ZaÂaTAraÉ ib%üeÿ%| äTA àkaTA ÉÖj`el%s` ZaÂa|

"I, however, Bibi, am OPPOSED TO this English word 'fundamentalism.' It's a useless word." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

fB%taer%/iB%taer% "inside, within; between, among" (adverb also)

ïae·%ra iB%taer% buiJ%_PAfluen%ra fjÄoöaëAra iB%taer% "I suppose it was IN a dream—IN the moonlight of Falgun" (Jibanananda Das)

fB%tar id%ey%/iB%tar id%ey% "through" (adverb also)

bAdaZA tAra badael% bAjAer%ra fB%tara id%ey% àeloem%elo ^hAeT%| "Instead, Badsha walked aimlessly THROUGH the bazaar." (Syed Shamsul Haq, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 131)

mata/matana "like, as, similar to" (Review Lesson 9, III.) maeúÄ%/mAeJ% "between, among, in the midst of"

ëAna fZ%Sa kair%yA iP%ir%bAra samaya tAhAra ZAZuRI ä ïAmIek% iB%eR%ra maeúÄ% fd%iK%et% pAÉla nA| "When she was returning, after having bathed, she lost sight of her mother-in-law

and husband AMIDST the crowd." (Begum Rokeya, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 50) (maeúÄ% maeúÄ%/mAeJ% mAeJ% = "from time to time, once in a while")

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maúÄa id%ey%/mAJ id%ey% "through" (adverb also)

YaKan fb%lA „Aya ÅbasAna, taKana Çim% fm%eG%ra maúÄa id%yA •INa„aBa sUéYÄaek% àkabAra fd%iK%et% pAÉlAma|

"When the morning was about over, I could at one point see a pallid sun THROUGH the clouds." (Advanced Bengali, p. 97)

saeÆ%/sAeõ% "with, in the company of" (adverb also), saih%ta in SADHU

paic%ma fd%eZ%ra àka ih%«du baúU tAhAra ZAZuRI ä ïAmIra saih%ta gaÆaAëAen% ig%yAiC%la| "A newly wed Hindu wife from the western regions had gone WITH her mother-

in-law and her husband to the Ganges." (Begum Rokeya, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 50)

saeÆ%/sAeõ (kaer)% fnäyA, "to take someone (in the objective case, due to fnäyA) along" "Yaid% YAÉet%É hay, taeb% ÇmAek% saeÆ% kair%yA laä|' Çim% ^tAhAek% saeÆ% laÉlAma| "'If you must go, then take me along with you.' I took her [my wife] along with."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 95) (saeÆ% saeÆ%/sAeõ% sAeõ% = "then and there, immediately")

As with jaenÄ%, where fs%janÄ/fs%ÉjanÄ is grammatical, so with saeÆ%/sAeõ, i.e., with the nonhuman demonstrative pronoun, the genitive is not used.

Çja tArA, bAXAlIrA, paeõ% fb%ir%ey% Öédu bael%| Å»ataH balaet% fc%ÛTA kaer%| ik%… fs%É sAeõ% G&NAä kaer%_ib%jAtIya G&NA| àek%bAer%É paCa«da naya àmana fm%ey%ra sAeõ%ä mAnueS%ra ib%ey% hay| ÅnÄa fd%eZ% haya ik% nA jAnA fn%É_ÇmAAed%ra fd%eZ% fto haya|

"These days they, the Bengalis, speak Urdu once they step outside their homes. At least they try to speak it. But ALONG WITH THAT, they also loathe it—with a deep-seated loathing. Does a marriage take place even WITH a girl one utterly detests? Whether it happens in other countries or not, I don't know—it happens in ours." (Anwar Pasha)

sAmaen% "in front of, before, ahead" (adverb also)

pAZA pAyacAir% kaer% Gaer%, tArapara ÇyanAra sAmaen% ig%ey% ~dARAy| "Pasha paced around the room, then went and stood IN FRONT OF the mirror."

(Syed Hamidul Husain) sAmaen% id%ey% "[via] in front of, before, ahead" (adverb also)

fs%É samaya kAelo fGoRAya caeR% duÉjana rAjaputa BIlarAej%ra sAmaen id%ey% cael% fg%la| "At that time, two Rajputs riding black steeds passed by in front of the Bhil raja."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 129)

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haey% "for" (also see Lesson 2, III)

it%in% ÇpanAr haey% fs%É baÉ maiN%r kAeC% f~pOeC% id%ey% fg%eC%n| "She delivered that book to Moni FOR you." (in place of you) fY% fkoeno bAXAlI CA÷a ÇpanAr haey% ÇpanAr ba°&tA paeR% fZonAet% pAer%| "Any Bengali student could read out your lecture FOR you." (on your behalf)

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LESSON 1616

I. cair%t

saetÄ%«‹anAõ basu (1.1.1894-4.2.1974) kail%kAtA| suer%«‹anAõ| ib%çabaer%NÄa ib%≥AnasAúak, fkoyA∆TAm ¯aTÄAiT%s`iT%eV%r Ö⁄Abak, padAéõata—aib%d` ä mAt&BASAy ib%≥AnacaécAr ÅnÄatama „aba°A| 1909 ˝I. àn`¡Ans parI•Ay pa¥am ä 1911 ˝I. ÇÉ. às-is%. „aõam haey% Ö–IéNa han| 1913 ˝I. gaiN%et% ÅnAés in%ey% ib. às-is. àbaMa 1915 ˝I. àm. às-is% pAZ kaer% ib%çaib%dÄAlaey%r nabagaió%ta ib%≥An kael%ej% im%èZagaiN%et% ä padAéõaib%dÄAy paóan-pAóan ä gaeb%SaNAy Ç’ain%eyog kaer%n| àÉ samaey% it%in% D. fm%GanAd sAhAr sAhacaéYa lAB kaer%n| 1921 ˝I. naba„ait%iı%ta òAkA ib%çaib%dÄAlaey% padAéõaib%dÄAr rIDAr ih%sAeb% fYog fd%n| àKAen% it%in% 24 baCar àkain%ıaBAeb% padAéõaib%dÄAr gaeb%SaNAy in%Yu°a õAek%n| . . . 1924 ˝I. tAr "‚A≠asU÷a ä fkoyA∆TAm „akaÓa' nAem% gaeb%SaNAmUlak àkaiT% „abaŒa pAó kaer% ib%çaib%KÄAta Fb%≥Ain%k ÇÉna¯TAÉn camaök&ta han àbaMa ÇÉna¯TAÉn in%ej% jAémAn BASAy fs%iT% ÅnubAd kaer% ib%KÄAta ib%≥An pai÷%kAy „akAZ kaer%n| „abaŒaiT% „akAiZ%ta haäyAr paer%É ib%≥Anajagaet% ÇeloRan paeR% YAy àbaMa àÉ Fb%≥Ain%k paÿait%iT% "ebos-ÇÉna¯TAÉn saMa≥A' nAem% sArA ib%eç% samAd&ta hay| . . . maen% „AeN% it%in% iC%el%n KAiT% bAXAlI ä fd%Zae„%im%k| sAih%tÄa, saÆIt àbaMa lail%takalA ib%Saey%ä tAr ÇkaéSaN samaBAeb% iC%la| "sabujapa÷a' ä "pair%cay' sAih%tÄa-fgoıIr ÅnÄatama iC%el%n| fb%hAlA ä àsarAj BAla bAjAet% pAraet%n| fd%eZ%r mui°%kAmI ib%‚abIed%r saeÆ% tAr Gain%ıa fYogAeYog iC%la| it%in% nAnABAeb% tAed%r sAhAYÄaä karaet%n|

"saMasad bAXAlI cair%tAiB%úAn,' sueboúaca«‹a fs%nagu‡a ä Å∂ail% basu, saÈpAdak

(kalakAtA: sAih%tÄa saMasad, 1976)

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II. INFINITIVE/VERBAL NOUN + ANOTHER VERB There are a number of verbs that may be PRECEDED BY/COMBINED WITH the infinitive and/or the verbal noun. (A) A fair number of verbs combine with either the VERBAL NOUN (NO CASE MARKER) or the INFINITIVE (the infinitive, however, is usually preferred); (B) a few verbs allow for the VERBAL NOUN ONLY (NO CASE MARKER); and (C) a few verbs take either the VERBAL NOUN (GENITIVE CASE) or the INFINITIVE. A. VERBAL NOUN (NO CASE MARKER) or the INFINITIVE: Consider the following, from Intro Bengali, p. 206:

fs%KAen% YAäyA paCa«da kair%| "I like to go [going] there." Çim% bAMalA paRA paCa«da kair%| "I like to read [reading] Bangla." Çim% ftomAek% bAMalA paRA fZ%KAba| "I shall teach you to read [reading] Bangla." Çpain% ik% tAek% tabalA bAjAeno fZ%KAeb%n? "Will you teach him to play [playing] the tabla?"

In all of the above examples, the infinitive could replace the verbal noun:

fs%KAen% fY%et% paCa«da kair%| "I like to go there." Çim% ftomAek% bAMalA paRaet% fZ%KAba| "I shall teach you to read Bangla."

Other verbs that take either the verbal noun or the infinitive: BAla lAgA "to like" (can take either but shows a tendency to prefer the infinitive)

àkaTu duHaeK%r maeúÄ%É mAnuSaek% fd%Kaet% fboú hay ÇmAr BAla lAeg%| "I perhaps like to see [enjoy seeing] people experiencing a little sorrow." (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

Zuü/ÇraÈBa karA "to begin"

rAmAyaN Çb&i–% karabAra Zuü karael%na| rAmAyaN Çb&i–% karaet% Zuü karael%na| "He began to recite the Ramayana."

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B. VERBAL NOUN (NO CASE MARKER) ONLY: fZ%S karA "to stop, cease, finish, complete"

rAmAyaN Çb&i–% karA fZS karael%na| "He stopped/finished reciting the Ramayana."

"STOP DOING" fZ%S karA (transitive verb, i.e., can take a direct object) behaves like the verb "to stop [in the sense of 'to complete']" in English in that it takes only the verbal noun, never the infinitive, when the intended meaning is to STOP/COMPLETE AN ACTIVITY: "One stops/completes DOING an action."

itin cA KAäyA fZS karaeln| "She finished [stopped] drinking [her] tea."

In such a sentence, frequently the verbal noun is omitted: cA fZS karaeln| "She finished [her] tea."

"STOP TO DO"

When the intended meaning is to STOP IN ORDER TO DO AN ACTIVITY, e.g., "One stops TO DO an action," then õAmA (intransitive verb) is used with the infinitive:

itin cA fKet õAmaeln| "She stopped to drink [have] tea."

"STOP FROM DOING"

When the intended meaning is to STOP/PREVENT THE DOING OF AN ACTIVITY ON A REGULAR BASIS, e.g., "One stops [not in the sense of 'completing,' however] DOING some action or stops someone else from DOING some action," then baŒa karA (transitive verb) is used with the verbal noun (no case marker):

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itin (^tAr) cA KAäyA baŒa karaeln%| "She stopped [gave up] drinking tea."

tArA ^tAr cA KAäyA baŒa karaelo| "They stopped her from drinking tea." ("They put an end to her tea drinking ways.")

baŒa karA "to stop, put a stop to, prevent, block, shut, close"

ÇpanAraA Yaid% rA˙Aet% ^SAeR%r calA baŒa karaet%n tAhael% ZaharaTA àkaTu Ba‹a haeto| "If you would prevent the wandering of bulls about the streets, the city would

become a little civilized." (Intro Bengali, p. 333) Çim% är bAbued%r bARI YAäyA baŒa kaer% fd%ebo| "I shall stop her from going to the Babu's house." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay) maúusUdaenr kAeCä mahAedb TAkA pAóAeno baŒ kaeriCeln| "Mahadeb [Cattopadhyay] had stopped sending money to Madhusudan [Datta]

also." (Ksetra Gupta) ió%k/iê%r karA "to decide"

ÅbaeZ%eS% it%in% pu÷a-kAmanAy Åçaem%úa Ya≥ a karA iê%r karael%n| "Finally, out of a yearning for his son, he [Dasharatha] decided to perform the

horse sacrifice." (Advanced Bengali, p. 305)

These days, one hears the infinitive used with ió%k karA: kAja karaet% ió%k karael%n| C. VERBAL NOUN + GENITIVE or the INFINITIVE: fc%ÛTA karA ("to try, attempt")

ÅÛTam ÅúÄAey% ^tAed%r pair%cay fd%bAr fc%ÛTA kaer%iC%| "In the eighth chapter I have TRIED TO INTRODUCE them [those particular

writers]." (Anisuzzaman) bAbAra bAraNa õAkael%ä luik%ey% in%ej%ek% ^Çkaet% fc%ÛTA kaer% fd%eK%eC% suémA, in%ej%ra fc%hArATA

in%ej%ra ik%Cuet%É maen% õAek% nA| ÇyanAya baes%ä ^Çkaet% fc%ÛTA kaer% fd%eK%eC%| ió%kamata haya nA|

"Despite her father's admonitions, Surma surreptitiously attempted to paint herself, but found that she could not at all keep her own appearance in mind. She tried sitting in front of a mirror but saw that it just didn't turn out right." (Dilara Hashem)

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É∞CA/Ée∞C%

Ée∞C% ("wish, desire") may take the verbal noun + genitive (the human subject is in the genitive):

. . . äed%ra ÇmAed%ra saaeÆ% im%ZabAra Ée∞C% fn%É| ". . . they don't want to associate with us." (Dilara Hashem)

Ée∞C% haäyA/karA ("to wish, want") may take the infinitive and be a genitive-3rd-

person construction:

ftomAr ik% ÇmAek% fd%Kaet% Ée∞C% kaer% nA? "Don't you want to see me?" (Saradindu Bandyopadhyay)

Ée∞C% karA ("to wish, want") may take the infinitive but need NOT be a genitive-

3rd-person construction:

gIt Zuin%et% É∞CA kair% nA| "I do not wish to hear a song." (Iswarcandra Gupta)

Exercises—Bearing in mind that there is more than one way to render almost any given passage, translate the following once, twice, maybe three times, then compare your renditions with that given in the answer key:

(a phone conversation between teenagers, overheard from one side only) Hello. What are you doing? (pause to listen) I’ve decided to go see a movie this afternoon. I really want to see Aparna Sen’s new film. Keshto has just now gone and will try to purchase two tickets. You understand, I really, really like watching movies. You do too, I know. Since Mom’s not home, she won’t be able to stop us from going to the Bijali this time. (pause to listen) OK, OK, I understand, but quickly finish up writing all that poetry stuff; we’ve got something else to do today. Come on over. Durga is starting to cook up a little something for us, I see. If there’s time, we may even stop to have tea on the way. OK? Come on over, right away. OK, bye.

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III. ONOMATOPOEIC WORDS Onomatopoeia implies a word whose SOUND (1) IMITATES a natural SOUND or (2) SUGGESTS the SENSE5 of the word. In Bangla, onomatopoeic words are REDUPLICATED, either with no change at all (fG%ÖfG%Ö "the woof woof or arf arf of a dog") and (iJ%n`iJ%n "the sensation of pins and needles, as when one's foot is asleep") or with a slight change ( TApur-Tupur "a pitter-pattering noise, as of rain falling"). Onomatopoeic words are frequently combined with the verb karA to make a verb:

kukuraTA fG%ÖfG%Ö karaeC%| "The dog is barking." ÇmAr pA iJ%n`iJ%n karaeC%| "My foot tingles."

Or, with kaer%, the PAP of karA, to make an adverb:

b&iÛT% TApur-Tupur kaer% paRaeC%| "The rain is falling pitter-patter." Some onomatopoeic words have become verbs in their own right and are conjugated as causatives—though noncausative in meaning (review Lesson 11, II):

han`han expressing "walking rapidly" han`hanAna v. "to walk rapidly"

Other onomatopoeic words are made into modifiers—adjectives and adverbs—by the addition of the suffix à:

Tan`Tan expressing "severe pain caused by tension or strain" Tan`Taen% adj. "very sharp, sensitive, keenly alive" Tan`Taen% buiÿ% "a keen, sensitive intellect"

Still other onomatopoetic words are adjectives, and even nouns, in their own right:

gad`gad n. "a voice made indistinct with excessive emotion"; adj. "overwhelmed with emotion" rAm ÅèZupUéNaelocaen% gad`gad bacaen% bail%et% lAig%el%n| "Rama, eyes suffused with tears, began to speak in a voice heavy with emotion."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 100) 5 Because these words do not always refer to sound, some linguists prefer not to use the term onomatopoeia at all but instead designate this class of lexical items in other ways—calling them "expressives" (G. Diffloth), for instance. bAÆAlA BASAr ÅiB%úAn, in one of its appendices ('G 2"), lists a great many of the onomatopoeic (ÅnukArA’ak) pairs of words, some encountered infrequently, if ever, but others rather common. For a further discussion of onomatopoeic words in Bangla, see Edward C. Dimock, Jr., "Symbolic Forms in Bengali," in The Sound of Silent Guns (Delhi, et al.: Oxford University Press, 1989), pp. 52-61.

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A number of onomatopoeic words have "weaker" or "more intimate" forms, usually the "stronger" form with different vowels, often one of the "high" vowels, É or Ö:

lak`lak` expressing "lolling [as of the tongue]; flashing [as of a flame]" il%k`il%ak` expressing a milder form of lak`lak`; but also, and MORE COMMONLY,

expressing "great slenderness or thinness" mac`mac` expressing "crispness, a snapping sound" muc`muc` expressing a milder form of mac`mac`, "a less crisp snapping sound" kac`kac` expressing "the sound of munching or crunching" ik%c`ik%c` expressing "a slight grating noise, as if from chewing grit," and also, "the

tweeting or chirping of birds or some comparable prattling" k~ÄAc`k~ÄAc` expressing "a harsh, creaking noise, as made by a rusty door hinge or

wooden stairs" However, kuc`kuc`, though it APPEARS TO BE a part of this same set, IS NOT; it

conveys, instead, "the shine or brightness of the color black." (See sample sentence immediately below.)

Below are listed a few of the many onomatopoeic words, with sample sentences: kuc`akuec% adj. "bright, shining [black]"; kuc akuc` expressing "the shine or brightness of black"

fb%Z h&ÛTapuÛTa CAgal| kucakuec% kAelo naúar fd%ha . . . "A plump and contented goat. Its body, well-proportioned and LUSTROUS black

. . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 135) KaT`aKaTa`, KaTAKaT`a expressing "the sound made by striking on something hard"

fs%É fY% Åen%k rAet% pAÈpasur KaT KaT ZaÂa kaer %mAhutaTulIr gail% fp%üet%n it%in%? "[You mean] the one who late at night used to pass through the side streets of

Mahut Tuli, his pumps TAPPING the pavement?" (from Lesson 3, I) Cal`aCal` expressing "the sound of running water; tearfulness"

it%in% CalaCal fcoeK% mAey%r id%ek% fc%ey% balael%n| "With TEARY eyes she gazed toward his mother and spoke." (Advanced Bengali, p. 126)

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Jak`Jak` expressing "sparkling, glittering"

àkaiT% f^PoTA ra°a fjÄoöëAr maeto pair%ÛkAr fs%É üepor cAdaer% rAXA àk Tukaero maiN%r maeto JakaJak karaeC%|

"A single drop of blood GLISTENS like a red jewel on that moonlight-like silver shawl." (Advanced Bengali, p. 126)

Jar`Jar` expressing "the sound of rapidly falling water"

JaraJar kaer% kamalAbatIr fco*k id%ey% jal paRaet% lAgala| "Tears began to GUSH from Kamalabati's eyes." (Advanced Bengali, p. 127)

Jal`mal` expressing "sparkling, glitter, coruscation"

àk-àkaiT% duélaB mAnuS àÉûp ¯PaiT%ek%r maeto ÅkAraN Jal`mal kair%et% pAer%| "There are rare individuals who, like this sort of crystal, are able to SPARKLE

spontaneously." (Advanced Bengali, p. 112) Jum aJuim% n. "a child's rattle"

kAebÄ%r Jum`Juim%, ib%≥Aen%r cuiS%kAió%, daéZaen%r fb%lun, rAjanIit%r rAXAlAió%, Éit%hAes%r nÄAkaRAr putul, nIit%r iT%en%r f^B%pu àbaMa úaeém%r jayaòAk_àÉsab ij%in%es% sAih%etÄ%r bAjAr fC%ey% fg%eC%|

"The RATTLE of poetry, the pacifier of science, the balloons of philosophy, the bright red sticks of politics, the rag doll of history, the tin horn of morality, and the victory drum of religion—the marketplace of creative literature is full of all these things." (Advanced Bengali, p. 123)

DubuDubu adj. "almost sunk or drowned "

fnOkA DubuDubu haÉyA paiR%la| "The boat was ON THE VERGE OF SINKING." (Advanced Bengali, p. 97)

òuluòulu adj. "heavy with drowsiness or intoxication"; òul n. "drowsy stupor, drowsiness"

. . . Åpar átuet% pa€Ar ZuËaejÄoöëApulaik%ta YAim%nI f„%mAeb%eZ% òuluòulu fcoeK% cAih%yA daÈpait%-h&daey% Çna«da òAil%yA id%et%eC%n|

". . . and in another season, Night, thrilled by bright moonlight on the Ganges, gazing through eyes HEAVY with emotion, fills the heart of husband and wife with joy." (Advanced Bengali, p. 118)

dar`adar` expressing "continuous and rapid flowing"

daradar kair%yA ra°a paiR%et% lAig%la| "The blood began to flow FREELY." (Advanced Bengali, p. 96)

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úuúu expressing "burning or flaming; emptiness; vastness"

puÛpabatIr fcoeK% àk f^PoTA jal paRala nA, ^tAr mueK% àkaiT%ä kaõA sarala nA; fk%bal ^tAr buek%r iB%taraTA saÎueK%r fs%É maüBUim%r maeto úu-úu karaet% lAgala|

"Not one tear fell from Puspabati's eyes, not a single word escaped her lips; it was just the inside of her chest which began to BURN, like that desert in front of her." (Advanced Bengali, p. 127)

Pur`aPur% expressing "a gentle blowing of the wind"; a milder form of Par`Par expressing "the

sound of a thin object fluttering in the air; restlessness"; Pur`aPuer% adj. "fluttering, gently blowing"

puÛpaabatI tARAtAiR% in%émala jael% fsÉ rae°%ra dAga úUey% fP%alaet% fc%ÛTA karael%na, jael%ra iC%eT%

fp%ey% fsÉ àkaib%«du ra°a £amaZa-£amaZa baRa haey%, àkaTuKAin% Puel%r gaŒa fY%man sama˙a hAäyAek% gaŒamay kaer%, ft%main% pAtalA PuraPuer% cAdaraKAin% ra°amay kaer% fP%lael%|

"Hurriedly Puspabati tried to wash away that spot of blood with clean water, that blood drop having become gradually larger when in contact with the drops of water—just as a little scent from a blossom makes fragrant the air all about, so too [that drop of blood], from the light FLUTTERING, spread blood throughout the shawl." (Advanced Bengali, p. 126)

im%T`aim%T` expressing "dim flickering, blinking"

àkaTu im%Taim%T kair%yA •u‹a Çelo ∏ ail%et%eC%| "A small light was burning, DIMLY FLICKERING." (Advanced Bengali, p. 103)

laT`apaeT% adj. "floppy"; laTapaT expressing "the state of flapping loosely"

. . . baRa baRa laTapaeT% kAen%r Öpar kaic% paeToel%r maeto duiT %iZ%Ma bAih%r haÉyAeC%| ". . . above the big FLOPPY ears emerged two horns, like baby zucchinis [potol,

actually]." (Advanced Bengali, p. 135) han`han` expressing "walking rapidly" (See also Lesson 11, II.)

maiN%mAlA han han kaer% sArakulAr froeD%r id%ek% calala| "Manimala WALKED BRISKLY in the direction of Circular Road." (Advanced Bengali, p. 146)

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huR`muR` expressing "movement of a crowd, the shoving of one another; also, the sudden crumbling of a large and heavy object"

fgoTA duey%k ¯Taep%ej%r paraÉ àek%bAer% huR-muR kaer% mAJAir%egoeC%r àkaiT% dal_ÅbaZÄa

fb%TAeC%el%r dal_Öeó% paeR% sama˙a Çsanaguil% Baiét% kaer% fP%lael%| "After a couple of stops, a medium-sized group, PUSHING AND SQUEEZING

its way on—a group of boys, it goes without saying—boarded and proceeded to occupy all the seats." (Advanced Bengali, p. 146)

Note the spellings, which may vary from writer to writer. When consulting a dictionary, look for the word AS THOUGH IT WERE SPELLED with a hasanta ( ` ) between the first syllable (if it ends in a consonant) and the second. If not found there, look for the word as though spelled without the hasanta.

IV. POSTPOSITIONS: NO PARTICULAR CASE ÅnuYAyI "according to, depending upon"

BASA ib%eÚ%SaeN%r rIit% ib%iB%Õa ÅúÄAey% bÄAKÄAt haey%eC% àbaMa „aeyojan ÅnuYAyI tAed%r „aeyog karA haey%eC%|

"In various chapters, modes of linguistic analysis are explained, and, AS needed, they are pressed into service." (Advanced Bengali, p. 246)

Åen%k samay payasA Karac kaer%ä cAih%dA ÅnuYAyI fmom saMaègaha karA saÈBab hay nA| "Many times, though the money is spent, it is impossible to obtain paraffin IN

KEEPING WITH demand." (from Lesson 19, I) ÅnusAer% "according to, consequent upon, in imitation of"

jana„abAd ÅnusAer% tAhArA guü ÁaªacArI nAem% fkona àk sAúur Çed%eZ% ÉhA kaer%| "ACCORDING TO popular legend, they did this [i.e., moved a column from

Konarak to Puri's Jagannath Temple] on the orders of a holy man by the name of Guru Brahmachari." (Advanced Bengali, p. 177)

Though not common these days, one may encounter the genitive in older texts: k& aca∆‹a ÇmAra %Ç≥Ara ÅnusAer%| rAya guNAkara nAma id%eb%ka tAhAer%ˇ "Krishnacandra, ACCORDING TO my [the goddess's] command, Shall bestow upon him [Bharatcandra Ray] the title of Ray Gunakara ['Mine of

Virtues']." (Bharatcandra Ray)

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Żara/Żaer% "within, at the heart of; [with expressions of time] after an interval of [if the

number is one], every [for higher numbers]"

fY% B&tÄa saeÆ% fg%la, pue÷%ra Öpara Ånu•aNa sataéka d&iÛT% rAiK%bAra janÄa bAraÍAra Öpaed%Za kair%la àbaM „atÄaha nAehok` àkaid%na Å»aer%ä saÍAda jAnAÉyA YAÉbAra janÄa Çed%Z id%la|

"The servant who accompanied him [i.e., who accompanied the little boy in the story], he [i.e., a character by the name of Brindaban] again and again admonished that servant to keep an attentive eye constantly on the boy, and also ordered that servant to report, if not daily at least EVERY OTHER DAY [AT AN INTERVAL OF one day]." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

àra para ŸArakAnAõa „aetÄ%ka it%na baCara Å»ara du hAjAra kaer% TAkA pura˘Ara fGoSaNA karael%na

CA÷aed%ra jaenÄ%| "After that, Dwarkanath Tagore announced a two thousand rupee prize for

students, EVERY THREE YEARS." (Purnendu Patri) tArapara fõ%ek% dumAsa Å»ara Å»ara in%yaim%taBAeb% „akAZa haey% ÇsaeC% parabAsa|6 "Thereafter, 'Parabaas' appeared regularly EVERY TWO MONTHS." (Ankur Saha)

Åep%•A% "than, compared with" (This is the SADHU equivalent of the CALIT %fcey%, cAÉet%, anda

fõ%ek; all three of these CALIT words are used in comparative constructions, and in such constructions all three REQUIRE the GENITIVE on the preceding word; even fõ%ek REQUIRES the GENITIVE in the comparative. With Åep%•A% the genitive case is required only when the preceding word is a human pronoun; the genitive is optional otherwise.)

paiƒ%ta bA mAnÄa bail%yA ik% ÇmAra Åep%•A ^tAhAed%ra •uúA fb%ZI? "Just because they are pundits or respected persons, is their hunger any greater

THAN mine?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 104) bael%«‹ais%Maha| tuim%, mA, Çra ä sab kaõA kaÉä nA| tuim% ÇmAed%ra jIbanasaéwaïa! ftomAraa

Åep%•A% ik% à rAjapada i„%yatara? "Balendra Simha: 'Don't speak all that nonsense [i.e., about suicide], little

mother! You are our everything! Is this throne more dear to us THAN you are?'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

6 The webzine "Parabaas" appeared six times a year, once in every season of the Bangla year. Consequently, dumAsa Żara Żara without a doubt means "every two months." This postposition, and the postposition bAed%, may in some cases be ambiguous, meaning either "every" or "after an interval of," as in "every two months" or "after an interval of two months," suggesting every third month.

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rAjA| mAna Åep%•A% ik% úana nA jIbana i„%yatara? iC%! "King: 'Is either wealth or life itself more dear THAN honor? For shame!'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta) k& alIlAra kAih%nIra Åep%•A maÆalakAebÄ%ra kAih%nI Åiú%katara mAnaib%ka guNa-sam&ÿa| "COMPARED TO the Krishna-lila tale, the tales from the mangal-kavyas have

more of the humanistic qualities." (Advanced Bengali, p. 211) padÄa-sAih%etÄ% Kuba ib%Zuaÿa sAúu-BASA Åep%•A ib%Zuÿa cail%ta-BASA ÅõabA im%èZa sAúu ä

cail%ta-BASAraÉ „acalana fb%ZI| "In poetic literature, pure CALIT or mixed SADHU and CALIT is more prevalent

THAN the ultra pure SADHU idiom." (Advanced Bengali, p. 230)

The word Åep%•A is also a noun meaning "waiting" or "expectation" and is used with karA to form the verb "to wait"; Åep%•A%k&ta is an adverb meaning "comparatively, relatively," in both SADHU and CALIT.

Åbaiú%/ÅaiÂ% "until, up to; since, from; even" (Also see paéYa»a below and Lesson 5, III.)

Å»ata ik%Cuid%n Çeg% Åbaiú% iC%la| "At least it was there UP TO a few days ago." (Satyajit Ray)

Öpalae•% "on account of, for the purpose of, on the pretext of"

àÉ Caib%guil%et% úanapait% saädAgaer%r bAiN%jÄa Öpalae• %is%Mahal YA÷A| "In these pictures is merchant Dhanapati's voyage to Sri Lanka FOR THE

PURPOSE OF engaging in commerce." (Advanced Bengali, p. 184)

Though less expected these days, one may encounter the genitive: kAeéY%ra Öpalae•% "ON ACCOUNT OF the task" (example from the Samsad dictionary)

kaét&k "by"

Çna«da pAbail%ZAés „AÉeB%T il%im%eT%eD%r pae•% Pain%BUSaN fd%b kaét&k 45 fb%in%yAeTolA fl%n kail%kAtA 700009 fõ%ek% „akAiZ%ta . . .

"Published for Ananda Publishers Private Limited BY Phanibhushan Deb from 45 Beniatola Lane, Kolkata 700009 . . . "

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EVEN WITH PRONOUNS, as in the next two examples, the case is omitted. Çim% ÅdÄa YAhA bail%et%iC%, ÇmAra sama˙a fd%Za ÇmAek% tAhA balAÉet% ÖdÄata kair%yAeC%| tAhA

ÇmAra kaõA naeh%, tAhA ÇmAra s&iÛT% naeh%; tAhA ÇmAkaét&ka Ö∞cAir%ta mA÷a| "What I am saying today, this entire country of mine has readied me to put that

into words. These are not my words, this [statement] is not my creation; it is merely being articulated BY me." (Rabindranath Tagore)

ftomA kaét&k ik%CuÉ haÉeb% nA| "You're worthless." Or: "BY you, nothing will materialize." (Anon.)

CARA "without, except for, except, but for, but" (See also Å»ara, baÉ, bAed%, bÄatIta, iB%Õ|)

tAek% ïIkAr kaer% fn%äyA CARA ÖpAy fn%É| "There is nothing to do EXCEPT to acknowledge him." (Anon.) ik%…a fÁ%is%yAra CARA rIit%matana Åïai˙% lAgaeC% tAra| rAe÷% ib%CAnAet% CARA Çra saba samaya

fÁ%is%yAraa paer% õAkA Åen%kaid%en%ra ÅeBÄ%sa| "But she feels genuinely ill at ease WITHOUT her brassiere. EXCEPT FOR in

bed at night, her longstanding habit is to wear a brassiere at all times." (Sunil Gangopadhyay) Çim% CARA Çr fk% ÇeC% ftomAr, ÇmAek% CARA Çr ik%es% ftomAr „aeyojan? "BUT FOR me, whom else do you have; BUT FOR me, what else do you need?"

(Buddhadeva Bose) Çim% is nominative in the above sentence because it corresponds to fk%, a nominative pronoun; ÇmAek% corresponds to ik%es%, an objective pronoun (nonhuman, so the -fk% ending is not expressed). The noninterrogative counterpart to the above sentence, without CARA, would be: ftomAr Çim% ÇiC%, ftomAr ÇmAek% „aeyojan| "You have me; you need me." (The verb "to have" will be reviewed in Lesson 17, III.) It should be pointed out, however, that though the cases of the pronouns make sense, given what they correspond to in the sentence above, not all writers maintain that correspondence. In contemporary Bangla, the nominative pronoun often appears with CARA, irrespective of the case of the corresponding pronoun. For example, in the following, tuim, a nominative, corresponds with kAÖek, an objective-case pronoun: tuim% CARA, bAMalA ä BAratIya fkoeno ib%Saey% Çr kAÖek% kI fl%KA id%et% balA YAy? "BESIDES YOU, can anyone else be asked to send an article on some Bangla or

Indian topic?" (from Lesson 13, I)

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Remember: CARA is not just a postposition but also: 1. a verb, meaning "to leave, quit, release; to change [clothes, residences]" Ç∞CA| ik%… ÇmAra fd%Za CARAra Çeg% tuim% ÇmAra bARIet% àes% àkaid%na fK%ä,

fk%mana? "All right. But before I leave the country, come to my house and eat one

day. How about it?" (Intro Bengali, p. 343) 2. a suffix, meaning "devoid of, lacking" laßICARA "unfortunate [literally: 'devoid of Laksmi, goddess of fortune']" 3. a noun, meaning "release, exemption," used with the verb pAäyA, "to be

released, gain release" BAigÄ%s Çim%ä Çjaaek%É hAsapAtAla fõ%ek% CARA fp%ey% fg%lAma| "Luckily I was released from the hospital this very day, also." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

úaer% "for [with expressions of time]; by, by means of, taking [with streets]"

hAjAr baCar úaer% ^sAätAel%rA àKAen% bAs karaeC%| "Santals have been living here FOR a thousand years." (Intro Bengali, p. 232) gata k-mAs úaer% kAej%r cAep% dam baŒa habAr Öpa£am haey%iC%la| "FOR the last several months, [I] was about to lose my breath [was on the verge

of being suffocated] due to the pressures of work." (Satyajit Ray) à id%ek% rAsaib%hArI àiB%in%Ö_bAil%ga∂a fÛTZana YAdabapura_ÇbAra iP%er% àes% sAdAéna

àiB%in%Ö_àÉ paõa úa'er% ÇbAra Guer% TAil%gae∂%r id%ek%_ "Over here, Rashbihari Avenue—Ballygunj Station, Jadavpur—again

backtracking, there was Southern Avenue—and, TAKING that route, once more headed in the direction of Tallygunj—" (Jibanananda Das)

nAgAd/nAgAt "about, nearly, around; by [a certain time]; until, up to"

ib%ek%la nAgAda sArA ÇkAZ fC%ey% fg%la Gana kAelo fm%eG%| "It was SOMETIME IN THE afternoon when the entire sky became covered with

thick black clouds." (Syed Shamsul Haq) rAi–%ra n-TA nAgAd jaya»a àelo, . . . "AROUND nine o'clock Jayanta arrived, . . . " (Buddhadeva Bose)

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„Ay, which also means"about, nearly, around," is a PREPOSITION (i.e., precedes the word it modifies), not a postposition: „Ay n'aTA bAej%| "It's about nine o'clock." paéYa»a "since, from; until, up to; even" (Also see Åbaiú% above and Lesson 5, III.)

it%in%ä fto àkadA jAtIya saMahait%ra KAit%er% rabI«‹anAõaek% paéYa»a ib%saéjana id%et% „a˙uta iC%el%na| "At one point he was also prepared to dispense with EVEN Tagore, for the sake

of national unity." (Anwar Pasha) àka samaya ÇmarA Çem%ir%kAet% hAit% cAlAana id%ey%iC% paéYÄa»a| "At one time we EVEN exported elephants to America." (Sunil Gangopadhyay) fs% bAih%er% CuTACuiT% kair%et% pAy nA, pAóaZAlA baŒa, saÆI-sAõIed%ra muKa fd%iK%et% paéYÄa»a pAy

nA| "He wasn't able to get out in public; the school was closed [due to an outbreak of

cholera]; he didn't EVEN SO MUCH AS get to look upon the faces of his friends and associates." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

äflo, ä fY%mana ka'er% bAra haet% jAen%, tA fd%Kael% ÇmAedr% bueRo mAgIed%ra paéYÄa»a la≤A haya| "My dear, the way in which she [Kusum] goes out in public, EVEN our old

biddies [there's a double entendre here; mAgI can mean prostitute] are scandalized when they see that." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

Note: The genitive case on the word preceding paéYÄa»a is there because of the third-person-genitive construction, mAgIed%raa la≤A haya (the old ladies are embarrassed), not because of paéYÄa», which REQUIRES NO PARTICULAR CASE on the preceding word and can be preceded by words in any case and even, as in the first example, by something other than a noun.

baÉ "without, except, other than" (See also Å»ara, CARA, bAed%, bÄatIta, iB%Õaa|)

ÇH àÉ fb%TArAÉ ÇmAek% fd%K`iC% Dubuel%| fk%bala dAä! dAä! dAä! b aÉ Çra kaõA nAÉ| "Aha! The rascals, I see, would ruin me. Only 'gimme! gimme! gimme!' and

nothing else." (Michael Madhusudan Datta) Zuen%iC%, f~pcAguelo BUtueR% pAKI| tA haet% pAer%| ä maúura ïara BUet%ra kAen% baÉ Çra

kAra kAen% BAla lAgaeb%| dUra! dUra! "I've heard that owls are ghost birds. And that may be. To whose ears BUT a

ghost's would that honeyed voice seem pleasing? Out! out! go away!" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

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bael% "as, called, by the name of" (See also Lesson 3, III, C.)

Çj YAek% lAladIiG% bael% ic%in%, taKan fs%TA iC%la ZuúuÉ àkaTA dIiG%| "That which we know today AS [by the name of] Lal Dighi was then just a dighi

[excavated pond]." (from Lesson 2, I) bAed% "without, except for, excluding, after" (See also Å»ara, CARA, baÉ, bÄatIta, iB%Õaa|)

sunayanI bAed% bAkI fm%ey%ed%r fs% fc%en% nA| "EXCEPT FOR Sunayani, he didn't know any of the other girls." (Advanced Bengali, p. 144) frojaÉ ∏ ara haya| duid%na bAed%É àka iZ%iZ% im%kacAr KAäyaAÉ ik… ik%Cuet%É ik%Cu hae∞C% nA

fC%el%ra| "He has a fever daily. EVERY two days [literally, EXCLUDING two days] I

give him a dose of the mixture, but the boy just doesn't respond at all!" (Jibanananda Das)

Åen%kaid%na bAed% fkOyAer%ra ÇbAra iZ%kAra karabAra „AcIna É∞CA jAègata hala| "AFTER a long time, that ancient urge to hunt once again awakened in Kouar."

(Mahasweta Devi) ib%nA/ib%en% "without"

saiK%, k&ˆ ib%en% à fpoRA „ANa Çra ~bAec% nA| "O companion, WITHOUT Krishna, this wretched heart of mine lives no longer!"

(Michael Madhusudan Datta)

ib%nA/ib%en% ("without") is NO LONGER USED AS A POSTPOSITION. In modern Bangla it is a PREPOSITION, not a postposition, and takes a following noun in the LOCATIVE:

ÅéõAö fkoÈpAin% ib%nA mUlaúaen% lAeB%r bÄabasA cAlAÉta| "In other words, the Company used to conduct a profitable business

WITHOUT investment capital." (Advanced Bengali, p. 252) Zuúu tAÉ nay, it%in% saetÄ%«‹anAõa da–aek%ä Ånueroúa karael%na ib%nA Cae«d% il%Kaet%,

it%in% ÅbaZÄa pAer%nain%| "Not only that, he [Rabindranath] encouraged even Satyendranath Datta to

write [poetry] SANS metre, but of course he could not." (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

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bÄatIta "except, without, other than, but, save, excluding" (See also Å»ara, CARA, baÉ, bAed, iB%Õ|a)

pUéba ä Ö–ar bAMalAr „aúAnataHa kAiét%k Áata bA kAiét%k pUjAr gAn àk fèZ%NIr k&iS%-saÆIt bÄatIta Çr ik%CuÉ naeh%|

"In the main, the autumnal songs of worship in east and north Bengal are nothing OTHER THAN one category of agricultural songs."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 207) FZ%Zaeb% ^tAhAek% bÄatIta Çim%ä Çra kAhAek% jAin%tAma nA| "During childhood, I, moreover, knew no one BUT her [my grandmother]."

(Debendranath Tagore, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 8) ( ^tAhAek%% is objective because it corresponds to kAhAek%, an objective pronoun.)

iB%Õa "except, without, other than" (See also Å»ara, CARA, baÉ, bAed, bÄatIt|a)

ib%çAim%÷a janak àbaMa rAma-laßaN iB%Õa sakael%É mUiéC%ta haey% paeR% fg%la| "EXCEPT FOR Visvamitra, Janaka, Rama, and Laksmana, everyone fainted on

the spot." (Advanced Bengali, p. 306) YAbaö "from, since; until; during, for"

tuim% fto àkGa∆TA YAbaö fdotalAya BÄAin%Z` ka'er% fg%el%| "You vanished upstairs FOR an hour." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) àÉ kAgajapae÷%ra mAúÄaem%É ib%Zapasa kael%ej%ra Çmael% kaib%ra à YAbaö Å≥Ata jIbaen%ra àbaM

K&¯Taúaeém%ra „ait% ^tAra Ç»air%k Çègaeh%ra kaõA jAnA saÈBaba haey%eC%| "Through these papers it became possible to learn of the UNTIL now unknown

life of the poet during the Bishop's College period and of his sincere enthusiasm for the Christian religion." (Ghulam Murshid)

saMa£A»a "pertaining to, as regards, concerning, in connection with"

ÇmAr maen% haÉet%eC% fY% kaMaeèg%s saMa£A»a ib%pul kAj ÇmAed%r saÎueK% paiR%yA ÇeC%| "It seems to me that much work IN CONNECTION WITH the Congress is ahead

of us." (Advanced Bengali, p. 268) sae—%ä "in spite of, despite, notwithstanding"

. . . ÉhAed%r maeúÄ% nAiTÄ%k ÖpAdAn õAkA sae—%ä ÉhA YaõAéõa nATakaûep% pair%Nait% lAB kair%et% pAer% nAÉ|

". . . DESPITE the presence of dramatic material in them [the sources], that could not be transformed into a genuine drama." (Advanced Bengali, p. 211)

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hala, hay "since, ago, for, it has been [with length of time]"

tAhAr fY% àKan pa”Ir saeÆ% kalaha cail%et%eC%| Çj ^pAcaid%n haÉla kaõA baŒa| "There is a quarrel going on between him and his wife at present. They have not

spoken to each other FOR the past five days." (Advanced Bengali, 136) fl%KA-fT%KA sutIéõa Åen%kaid%n hay fC%eR% id%ey%eC%| "Sutirtha gave up writing some time AGO." (Jibanananda Das)

heay (1) "as" (see Lesson 10, III); (2) "via, by way of"

1. Çim% ftomAr baŒu haey% fs% kaõA ftomAek% balaiC%| "I am telling you that AS your friend."

2. àKAna fõ%ek% tAra bARI duid%ka id%ey%É YAäyA YAy, sArakulAra froDa haey%ä, ÇbAra kaénaäyAil%sa

¯¡ITa haey%ä| "From here, there are two ways to her house, VIA Circular Road, and also BY

WAY OF Cornwallis Street." (Advanced Bengali, p. 146) iDesÍerr t&tIy sa‡Aeh idiÔ hey itn sa‡Aehr janÄ kalakAtAy YAbAr ftoRejoR Zuü

kaeriC| "During the third week in December I began making arrangements for going for

three weeks to Kolkata, VIA Delhi." (Dilip Basu)

For heay meaning "for, in place of," requiring the genitive, see Lesson 15, IV. ih%es%eb%/ih%sAeb% "as, in the capacity of" (See Lesson 10, III.)

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LESSON 1717

I. saMêAra ib%baraN

BAratIya BASA pair%Sad

êApanA_2rA Åk`eTobar 1974 saMaêA Öd`GATan_9É mAéc 1975 Öd`GATanakaétA_èZI f„%em%«‹a im%÷a Baban-Öd`GATan_4óA ài„%l 1979

Öe◊ %ZÄa_BAratIya BASAguil%r maeúÄ% para¯par saMaeYog, ib%iZ%ÛTa ib%Saey% BAratIya ib%ŸAn bÄai°%ed%r ba°&tA àbaMa tAr „akAZan, BAratIya BASAy fmOil%k àbaMa ÅnUid%ta ègaeÃ%r „akAZan, BAratIya BASA taõA Å»arAÛ¡Iya maha‘apUéNa ègaeÃ%r ÅnubAd| Baban: 36à, fs%VapIyar saraiN%, kail%kAtA-27_pair%Saed%r in%jaïa cAratalA Babaen% kAéYAlay, ègaÃAlay, pAóAgAr, saBAgAr, saBAka•a, sAih%tÄa sUcanA fk%«‹a àbaMa Åit%iõ%-ÇbAs raey%eC%| ègaÃAlay-pAóAgAr_ib%iB%Õa BAratIya BASAr „Ay ÇT hAjAr ègaÃa pAóAgAer% ÇeC%| 12iT% BASAy sA‡Aih%k, mAis%k, iŸ%mAis%k, F÷%mAis%k àbaMa SA∆mAis%k 58iT% pa÷a-pai÷%kA rAKA hae∞C%| saBAgAr_ma¥a, Çelo, ›ain%„asAraeN%r Çúuin%k ÖpakaraeN% susai≤ %ta àbaMa 200iT% Çsan saÍail%ta| saBAka•a_fgoıI ÉtÄAid%r janÄa ÖpaYu°a i÷%ZaiT% Çsan saÍail%ta| saBAgAr, saBAka•a, ÖBay f•%e÷%É in%éúAir%ta Zul`ek%r ib%in%maey% sAih%itÄ%k ä sAMa˘&it%k kAéY£am Öpalae•% fd%äyA haey% õAek%| Åit%iõ%-ÇbAs_sAih%itÄ%k àbaMa gaeb%Sakaek% ïaÓakAlIn ÇbAes%r janÄa ka•a fd%äyA haey% õAek%| . . . .

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II. "OBJECTS" OF COMPOUND VERBS (NOUN + VERB TYPE): GENITIVE vs. OBJECTIVE CASE

Consider the verb "to search," which may be expressed as either a simple or a compound verb: (simple verb) ftomAek% ^Kuej%iC%| "I searched/have searched for you." (compound verb) ftomAr fKoj kaer%iC%| "I searched for you." (or, less commonly, ftomAek% f^Koj kaer%iC%| "I searched for you.") Some other compound verbs that take an OBJECT in the GENITIVE case: ÅnukaraN karA "to imitate, copy"

taékara”a mueK% àka „akAra ZaÂa kair%yA gaPuer%ra bÄAkula-kae∆ó%ra ÅnukaraNa kair%yA kaih%el%na, ^PAik% fd%ba nA!

"Tarkaratna, producing some sort of sound in his mouth, mocking Gafur's anxiety-filled voice, said, 'I won't cheat you!'" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

(also, without the genitive) gaPur muKa BÄAXAÉyA ka∆óaïara ÅnukaraNa kair%A kaih%la, rAi–%er% fY% bael%iC%luma! "Gafur, making a face, mocked [his daughter's] speaking voice and said, 'But I had told

you last night!'" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) Öd`GATan karA "to solve, uncover, discover"

it%in% àÉ rahaesÄ%r Öd`GATan karaet% pAer%n nA| "He was unable to solve this mystery." (Satyajit Ray)

Öe‹%k karA "to incite, excite, rouse"

mahAed%b ic%rakAlaÉ ^tAr Ba°a samAej %èZaÿAim%ièZ%ta Baey%r Öe‹%k kaer% àes%eC%n| "Mahadeva has always roused fear mixed with respect in his devotees." (Advanced Bengali, p. 183)

ÖpakAr karA "to do a favor for, benefit"

paiõ%ka ÉhA Zuin%yA Ö–ara kair%la, "Çim% ftomAra ÖpakAra kair%yAiC%, Åtaàba sahasA ÇmAek% naÛTa nA kair%yA àkajana maúÄaêa kara|'

"The wayfarer, upon hearing this, replied, 'I did you a favor. Hence, do not act rashly and destroy me, but rather engage an arbiter.'" (Advanced Bengali, p. 164)

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ÖeÔ%K karA "to mention, cite, call attention to"

ik%… it%in% la≤AbaZataH Üiém%lAra ÖeÔ%Ka kair%el%na nA! "But he, out of shyness, did not refer to Urmila." (Advanced Bengali, p. 99) fs% tAr cAkair%r ÖeÔ%K nA kaer% fb%ir%ey% fg%la| "Without mentioning his job, he went out." (Satyajit Ray) (also, without the genitive) sama˙a ic%ió%pae÷% ègAhak naÍar ÖeÔ%K karA ÇbaiZÄ%k| "In all correspondence, mention of one's 'subscriber number' is compulsory." (from Lesson 18, I)

fc%ÛTA karA "to try, attempt, make an effort"

bAp-mA tAr ib%ey%r fkonaä fc%ÛTAÉ karaeC% nA| "Her parents are making no effort whatsoever to get her married [literally, 'no effort

whatsoever of her marriage']." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay) fd%ir% ÇeC%/karA/haäyA "there is time yet [before something occurs]; to delay; to be delayed, late"

ib%bAeh%r Çr fd%ir% fn%É| "The wedding is not far off." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

in%«dA karA "to criticize, speak ill of, vilify"

ftomAr ïAmIraä ik%Cu in%«dA kair%yAeC%n| "She even criticized your husband a bit." (Bankimcandra Cattopadhyay)

pair%cay karA "to make the acquaintance of"

tAr bAbAra pair%cay fd%bAra% Çeg%É . . . "Before introducing her father . . . " (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

„ait%bAd karA "to contradict, protest"

guüed%eb%r kaõAr „ait%bAd karaet% cAy nA| "He does not want to contradict the words of his teachers." (Anon.)

„aZaMasA karA "to praise, compliment"

fs% sItAr Kubaa „aZaMasA% karata| "He used to compliment Sita a lot." (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

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bÄabaêA karA "to make arrangements for, arrange"

ik%… àkaTA fmoTar gARIr bÄabaêA karael% Çim% ftomAed%r saeÆ% fY%et% pAir%| "But if you make arrangements for a car, I can go with you." (Intro Bengali, p. 281)

sa¥Ar karA "to incite, infuse, instill"

saral ÅnARaÍar ègAmÄaBASAy fl%KA gAn ä CaRAguil% fY in%ra•ar ègAmabAsIed%r maen% Yaeõ%ÛTa Çeb%eg%r sa¥ar karata à ib%Saey% fkona sae«d%ha nAÉ|

"There is no doubt that the simple songs and rhymes composed in an unpretentious rustic diction would stimulate considerable excitement in the hearts of illiterate villagers." (Advanced Bengali, p. 186)

saŒAn pAäyA "to find, discover, come across" (Also see f^Koj above.)

BAla àkaiT% pAe÷%r saŒAn fp%ey%iC%| "I've located an excellent bridegroom." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

samAúAna karA "to solve, resolve"

suémA samasÄAra samAúAna karala| "Surma resolved the problem." (Dilara Hashem)

fs%bA karA "to wait upon, attend to, serve; to nurse; to worship"

bAbAr fs%bA kair%| "I take care of Father." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

Exercises—Translate the following, using compound verbs that include the italicized words. Then rewrite the paragraph saying essentially the same thing, without using those compound verbs, just to prove to yourself that there is always more than one way to say almost anything.

If you would do me a favor next time when you go to Dhaka, I’d appreciate it. Could you make some sort of arrangements for giving our students instruction in Bangla? If you get a chance to mention our department, without praising the students too highly, please say that they would be greatly benefitted by living in Bangladesh for some time. I made the acquaintance of Dr. Islam when he was here. Search him out. If you have the opportunity to meet with him, I'm sure he can help you. So that no one criticizes us in the future, we should make an effort to arrange for the best Bangla instruction now.

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III. GENITIVE-3RD-PERSON ("DATIVE") CONSTRUCTIONS Common constructions in Bangla, introduced in the first lesson of Intro Bengali, p. 58:

ÇpanAr iZ%kAego fk%man lAeg%? ÇmAr iZ%kAego Kub BAla lAeg%| "How do you like Chicago?" "I like Chicago very much."

In the above sentences, the EFFECTIVE SUBJECT (that is, the person performing the action) is in the GENITIVE; the VERB is always 3RD-PERSON ORDINARY and can be inflected for any tense. Verbs of this construction may take an object; if so, the object is in the objective case. In the above examples, "Chicago" is the object of the verb. No objective case ending is shown because nonhuman nouns generally do not show objective case endings. Had the object been human, the case ending would have been displayed:

ÇpanAr fs%É ba°Aek% fk%man lAeg%? ÇmAr ^tAek% Kub BAla lAeg%| "How do you like that speaker?" "I like her very much." ÇmAr saba fc%ey% fb%iZ% kaer% maen% paRaeC% mAek%| "I remember most mother." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay) inej%%ek% Kuba àkA maen% haet% lAgaelo tAra| "She began to feel herself quite alone." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

Besides the "adjective + lAgA" constructions cited above, other genitive-3rd-person constructions found in Intro Bengali were the following: ÅsuK karA "to get sick" pp. 212, 341

Note the difference between the past and present tenses with this verb: ÇmAr ÅsuK karala| "I got sick [am sick NOW]." ÇmAr ÅsuK kaer%| "I get sick [REGULARLY]."

iK%ed% pAäyA "to get hungry" p. 239 (ft%ÛTA/ip%pAsA pAäyA "to get thirsty")

ÇmAr iK%ed% pAe∞C nA| "I'm not hungry." darakAr ÇC- "to need, require" pp. 198-203

ÇmAr àKuin% bARI YAbAra darakAra ÇeC%| "I have to go home right away."

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paCa«da "liking" p. 369 â ZARITA ära saba fc%ey% paCa«da| "She likes that sari best of all."

maen% haäyA "to think, feel; it seems to [me/you/et al.]" pp. 143, 234-35

ÇmAr maen% hay fY% . . . "It seems to me that . . . " haäyA in certain contexts, can mean: "to happen to someone" p. 215

agItAra ik% haelo? "What happened to Gita?" Some verbs can be used in both genitive-3rd-person constructions as well as ordinary nominative constructions where the verb is inflected for all persons.7 jAnA "to know"

ÇmAr jAnA ÇeC%| "I know [that]." Çim% jAin%| "I know [that]."

maen% paRA/ÇC-/rAKA

maen% paRA "to recall, remember" (only genitive-3rd-person)

ÇmAr maen% paeR%% nA| "I don't recall [that]." maen% ÇC- "to remember" (only genitive-3rd-person)

ÇmAr maen% fn%É| "I don't remember [that]." maen% rAKA "to keep in mind, remember" (NOT a genitive-3rd-person construction)

Çim% maen% rAKab| "I'll remember [that]."

maen% haäyA/karA "to think, feel; consider"

ÇmAr maen% hay . . . "It seems to me [that] . . . " Çim% maen% kair% . . . "I think [that] . . . "

la≤A karA "to feel embarrassed, shy; to feel ashamed"

ftomAr la≤A kaer% nA? "Have you no shame?" Or: "Aren't you ashamed of yourself?" (Sunil Gangopadhyay) tuim% la≤A kara nA? "Have you no shame?"

7One study of this genitive-3rd-person construction suggests that the difference between it and a sentence with the same verb but inflected to agree with a nominative case subject is to be found in "volitionality" or "self-controllability." For further discussion of this topic and for a list of a number of genitive-3rd-person constructions, see M. H. Klaiman, Volitionality and Subject in Bengali: A Study of Semantic Parameters in Grammatical Processes (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Linguistics Club, l981), pp. 11-45.

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saäyA "to tolerate, endure, stand"

ftomAed%r tA saÉla nA| "You couldn't stand it." (Parashuram) ftomarA tA saÉet% pAraa nA? "You can't stand it?"

sahÄa haäyA/karA "to tolerate, endure, stand"

[ÇmAr] bAbAr ÅtÄAcAr Çr sahÄa hay nA| "I can't take Father's tyranny any longer." Çim% àmana ÅtÄAcAr Çr sahÄa karaet% pAir% nA| "I can't take such tyranny any longer."

The verb "TO HAVE": The verb "to have" appears to be similar to the genitive-3rd-person constructions above but differs in one significant way.8 In "to have" constructions, the THING or PERSON POSSESSED is the GRAMMATICAL SUBJECT. The VERB AGREES WITH the THING or PERSON POSSESSED and therefore is not always in the 3rd-person ordinary.

ftomAr mA-bAbA ÇeC%n? "Are your parents alive?" Or: "Do you have your parents?"

ib%lAsabatI| mahArAja buiJ% Çsec%n? madain%kA| Çr mahArAja! mahArAja ik% Çr ftomAra ÇeC%na fY% Çseb%n? "Vilasavati [the queen]: 'I suppose my Maharaja is on his way?' Madanika [attendant]: 'Your Maharaja indeed! Do you in fact have a Maharaja any

longer, who could be on his way?'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta) In this example, one's parents are honorific and require, if decorum is to be maintained, the honorific ending on the 3rd-person verb. And, since the thing or person possessed (mA-bAbA) is the grammatical subject, it/they are in the nominative, not objective, case.

8 For further discussion of the verb "to have" made from the existential verb "to be," review Lesson 11, III.

The verb ÇC- is "defective," having only a present (ÇC-) and a simple past (iC%l-) tense. For all nonfinite verbal forms (i.e., the verbal noun, PAP, infinitive, and conditional conjunctive) and for any tense other than the present and simple past, some form of õAkA or, in certain cases, haäyA must be used in place of ÇC-|

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Exercise—Write a dialog between you and your friend without using any (or very few) first-person or second-person nominative pronouns or first- or second-person endings on the verbs. Talk about yourself, and address your friend directly. In other words, try to use as many genitive-3rd-person constructions as possible, or any other grammatical constructions that avoid the first- and second-person nominative pronouns and the first- and second-person verbal endings. fk%man? Kuba majAa haeb% nA? ftomAr ik% maen% haya?

IV. POSTPOSITIONS: OBJECTIVE CASE (id%ey% and in%ey%)

In general in Bangla, the OBJECTIVE CASE is expressed with human nouns and pronouns and is OFTEN NOT EXPRESSED on nonhuman nouns and pronouns. The same pertains to the situation with the postpositions id%ey% and in%ey%, which take the objective case, though the case marker is often (but not always) not expressed on nonhuman nouns and pronouns.

id%ey%/id%yA "by, by means of, with, involving; via, through, across"

Öpaed%eZ%r kaõA fY% rA˙A id%yA cael%, manur Çmal haÉet% tAhA bAúA| "From Manu's time on, the path is set through which precepts travel." (Advanced Bengali, p. 112) madÄamAMasa id%ey% úaémapUjAr bÄabaêA| naramuƒa in%ey% úaeém%r gAjaen% nAc hay| "Preparations for the Dharma puja involve liquor and meat. Dancing at the gajan for

Dharma involves the use of human skulls." (Advanced Bengali, p. 196) ÅbanI«‹nAõa óAkuraek% id%ey% il%iK%ey%eC%na kaey%kaTA, tArapara in%ej%É il%Kaet% Zuü karael%na| "He [Rabindranath] got Abanindranath Tagore to write a few [prose poems]; then he

himself began to write [prose poetry]." (Sunil Gangopadhyay) in%ey%/in%yA/laÉyA "with, concerning, about"

mai«d%r in%émAeN%r ió%k tAir%K laÉyA ib%bAd ÇeC%| "There is controversy concerning the precise date of the temple's construction." (Advanced Bengali, p. 176) mAek% in%ey% ik% muZaik%el% fY% paeR%iC%, tA Çr ftoek% ic%ió %il%eK% ik% jAnAebo| "What a fix I'm in with Mom [she's giving me fits], should I write you and keep you

informed more about that!" (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

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ÇmAed%ra ZA akArarA fm%ey%ed%ra jarAyura ra°aek% in%ey% ÅsaÈBaba mAõA GAmAeno sae—%ä â ra°apAet%ra ÅbasAnaek% àkaTA nAma paéYa»a fd%bAra Åbasar pAna in%|

"Despite the fact that the writers of our ancient treatises were terribly concerned about women's uterine blood, they didn't find the time to give even so much as a name to the cessation of that blood flow." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

Note these other postpositions, with id%ey, that take the genitive case, because of the word that precedes id%ey% (see also Lesson 15, IV, "Postpositions: Required Genitive Case"):

Öpar/äpar id%ey% "[via] above, on top of" in%c id%ey% "[via] below, underneath" pAZ id%ey% "[via] one side, alongside" fp%Can/ip%Can id%ey% "[via] the back, behind" fB%tar/iB%tar id%ey% "[via] within, inside" maúÄa id%ey% "[via] the middle, through" sAmaen% id%ey% "[via] the front, in front"

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LESSON 1818

I. ib%≥ai‡%

kaib%tA

F÷%mAis%k pa÷a| baéSAraÈBa Çiç%en%| Çiç%n, fpOS, Fc%÷a ä ÇSAeô% „akAiZ%ta| bAiéS%k cAr TAkA, baémAy cAr TAkA cAr ÇnA, „ait% saMaKÄA àk TAkA|_"kaib%tA'r ègAhak h'et% hay Çiç%n fõ%ek%_main%-ÅéDaer% bAiéS%k cAdA pAió%ey% ik%MabA iB%.ip%.et%| SA∆mAis%k ègAhak karA hay nA| sama˙a ic%ió%pae÷% ègAhak naÍar ÖeÔ%K karA ÇbaiZÄ%k|_„akAeZ%r janÄa fl%KA pAóAet% h'el% ió%kAnA-fl%KA iT%ik%T-lAgAeno KAm saeÆ%É fd%eb%n_nayaeto paer% Çr saÈpAdaek%r is%ÿA»a jAnAeno saÈBab nay| in%ej%r kAeC% f„%ir%ta racanAr Ånuil%ip% rAKA sab samay bAµanIya|_susaMa˘&ta ib%–aZAlI bAXAlI ä CA÷a samAej% „acAer%r pae•% "kaib%tA' àkaiT% Öök&ÛTa ib%≥Apan-bAhan| ib%≥Apaen%r mUlÄa-pa∂I ic%ió% il%Kael% pAóAeno hay|_"kaib%tA'É àkamA÷a pai÷%kA, YAet% kaib%tABabaen%r sama˙ abaÉ, pai÷%kA ä pui˙%kAr ib%≥Apan in%yaim%ta „akAiZ%ta hay, Åtaàb kaib%tABabaen%r saeÆ% Å•u⋲ a fYogAeYog rAKaet% h'el% "kaib%tA'r ègAhak haäyAÉ fèZ%ıa ÖpAy|

kaib%tABaban 202 rAsaib%hArI àiB%in%Ö

kalakAtA 29

"kaib%tA,' Çiç%n 1353, p&Ha 8

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II. CONDITIONAL CLAUSES WITH Yaid% (if; when, since) (See Intro Bengali, pp. 279ff.) A. tA hael%/tAhael% (tAÉel%),9 taeb%, fto As mentioned in Intro Bengali, "when jodi is used in the conditional clause, the main clause is usually introduced by ta hole" (p. 283):

duégA pUejor samay Çim% Yaid% ègAem%r bARIet% YAÉ tAhael% tuim% ik% ÇmAr saeÆ% fY%et% pAraeb%? "If I go to my village house for Durga-puja, will you be able to go with me?" (Intro Bengali, p. 279)

Either taeb% or fto may be used in place of tA hael% to introduce the main clause:

tuim% Yaid% kAl Çeso fto BAla hay| "If you will come tomorrow, that will be good." (Intro Bengali, p. 348)

The Yaid% in some sentences may be implied, not expressed:

tA kaero fto ftomAr saeÆ% kaõA balaebo nA Çr| "You do that and I'll not speak to you again." Or: "If you do that, I'll not speak to you

again." (Anon.) B. TENSES in the Yaid% clause

9 tAÉel% is heard but considered nonstandard Bangla.

+ = 3 Of the 10 tenses in Bangla (see Appendix 1), ONLY 3 are used regularly in

the PRESENT-DAY LANGUAGE in Yaid% clauses: 1. PRESENT 2. PAST CONDITIONAL/HABITUAL and 3. FUTURE

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PRESENT— An action that might take place NOW or IN THE FUTURE is expressed in the Yaid% clause

with the PRESENT TENSE: tuim% Yaid% ÇmAr jaenÄ% àKuin% tA kara, tAhael% Çim% ftomAek% 2 TAkA fd%ba| "If you do that for me right now, I'll pay you 2 takas." tuim% Yaid% ÇmAr jaenÄ% ÇgAmI mAes% tA kara, fto ftomAek% 2 TAkA fd%ba| "If you will [or: would] do that for me next month, I'll pay you Rs. 2." Note in the two examples from Intro Bengali cited above in section A., the action in the

Yaid% clause takes place in the future and the Bangla verb is in the present: "If I go to my village house for Durga-puja, . . . (i.e., "if I go in the future") "If you will come tomorrow, . . . "

A sentence indicating compulsion, using the rather common construction of infinitive + haeb %(FUTURE TENSE), such as ÇmAek% Çip%es% fY%et% haeb%| "I have to go to the office." becomes in a Yaid% clause the infinitive + hay (PRESENT TENSE): ÇmAek% Yaid% Çip%es% fY%et% hay ftA% Çim% fK%ey% YAba| "If I have to go to the office, I'll eat and then go."

CONTRAFACTUAL vs. FACTUAL in the past conditional

Definitions: An action that, according to the speaker of the sentence, might have taken place in the past but in fact did not is referred to as CONTRAFACTUAL. An action that, according to the speaker of the sentence, might actually have taken place in the past is referred to as FACTUAL.

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PAST CONDITIONAL— A CONTRAFACTUAL action in the past is expressed in the Yaid% clause with the PAST

CONDITIONAL/HABITUAL TENSE: tuim% Yaid% ÇmAr jaenÄ% tA karaet%, tAhael% Çim% ftomAek% 2 TAkA id%tAma| "If you would have done that for me, I would have paid you Rs. 2." (implication: But you didn't do it, so . . . ) iì%õ sAeh%b, Çpain% Yaid% paen%ra baCar Çeg% kalakAtAy Çsaet%n tAhael% àman kaõA balaet%n nA| "Mr. Smith, if you had come to Kolkata fifteen years ago, you would not have said such

things." (Intro Bengali, p. 329)

In CONTRAFACTUAL PAST CONDITIONAL sentences, the tense for the verbs in BOTH CLAUSES is the PAST CONDITIONAL. In other words, in the two sentences immediately above, both the Yaid% clause and the independent clause MUST use the PAST CONDITIONAL (karaet%/id%tAma, Çsaet%n/balaet%n).

Yaid% clauses with the past conditional/habitual tense but without the following

independent clause express wishful thinking, "If only . . . " Çpain% Yaid% paen%ra baCar Çeg% Çsaet%n| "If only you had come fifteen years ago."

A FACTUAL action in the past is expressed in the Yaid% clause with the PAP of the "meaningful" verb + the PRESENT TENSE of õAkA:

tuim% Yaid% Çeg% tA kaer% õAka fto% ftomAek% 2 TAkA ÇmAr àKuin% fd%äyA Öic%t| "If you have already done that, then I ought to give you your 2 takas immediately." musalamAen%rA Yaid% satÄaÉ fkon id%n purIr mai«d%er% „aeb%Z kair%yA àÉ kAéYa kair%yA õAek% tAhA haÉel%ä

tAhArA Çr sama˙a mUiét% bAd id%yA É«‹aed%eb%r Öpaer%É fk%na ^Juik%yA paiR%la tAhA buJA YAy nA| "Even if the Muslims did in fact at some time enter the temple at Puri and do this deed,

still it is incomprehensible why they would have spared all the other idols, falling upon Indra only." (Advanced Bengali, p. 178)

^tAr àta fB%taer%r KabaraÉ Yaid% flokaTA in%éBul fj%en% õAek%, taeb% ^rAic%r bÄApAraTAy fs% àta Bul karala

kI kaer%? "If the fellow correctly knew so much personal information about him, then how did he

make such a mistake concerning the Ranchi matter?" (Satyajit Ray) [iZ%KA Yaid% àra Çeg% sAjaet% iB%taer% ca'el% ig%ey% õAek% tA hael% àKana mae¥% iP%er% Çsaeb%] [stage directions] "[If before this point Shikha has gone inside (i.e., off stage) to get

dressed, then she will return to the stage now.]" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

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ÇmAr natun "kaib%tA saMaègaha' Yaid% nA fp%ey% õAek%n, . . . àk kaip% fn%bAr bÄabaêA karaeb%n| "If you have not received my new Poetry Anthology, . . . please make arrangements to get

a copy." (Anon.)

FUTURE — An action that expresses WILLFULNESS or is somehow contrary to the better judgment

of the speaker is expressed in the Yaid% clause with the FUTURE TENSE:

àkA»a Yaid% YAeb% ta àKain% YAä| "Since you want to go so badly [if you must go], go right now." (Samsad dictionary) kaéNa bael bara Yaid% id%eb% maGabAn`| àkaGAtI Å a fd%ba fmoer% fd%ha dAnaˇ "Karna said, 'If you would [wish to, want to] give a boon, Maghavan [Indra], Bestow on me, O god, the "single-slayer" weapon.'" (Kasidasi Mahabharata) àÉ BbndI tireb fh Yid teb fkn Bul hy| peõr sÍl jAineb fkbl fsÉ dIn dayAmayˇ10 "If you would [are determined to] cross the river of this mundane world, then why are you confused— That one who shows compassion to the poor, only he will know your needs along the way." (Rasasundari Devi) fd%Ka! fP%ra Yaid% fT%eko mAõA balaib% fto ^hueko id%ey% àka bAiR% fm%er% ftora fÚ%Ta PAiT%ey% fd%ba| "See here! You [willfully choose to] mention 'bald head' one more time, and I'll smash

your slate with a blow from this hookah." (Sukumar Ray) pa•IrAja Yaid% haeb% , tA hael% nÄAja fn%É fk%na? "If it's [you want it to be, contrary to my saner judgment] a winged horse, then why no

tail?" (Sukumar Ray) BAig%nA bail%la, 'mahArAja, satÄa kaõA Yaid% Zuin%eb%na taeb% DAkuna sÄAkarAed%ra, paiƒ%t%edra, il%ip%karaed%ra|' "His nephew said, 'Oh King, if you want to hear the truth [if you're not satisfied with

what I say and are determined to hear more], then summon the goldsmiths, the pundits, the scribes.'" (Rabindranath Tagore, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 14)

10"Tripadi" (three-foot) poetic form.

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hAy, fkoõA YAeb%! YAeb% Yaid%, YAä YAä, ÅèZu taba mueC% YAä, . . . "Alas, where will you go! If you would [must, willfully choose to] go, then go, go, wipe your tears and go, . . . "

(Rabindranath Tagore, addressed to Kadambari Devi following her death) ib%cAra Yaid% karaeb% fk%na rahamAna nAma in%el%| "If you would [feel you must] judge [me], why did you take the name of Rahman

['Merciful']?" (Kazi Nazrul Islam) caRubAbAjI fY% àkaTA Baƒaa saÕÄAsI tAet% Çra sae«d%ha raÉla nA| Yaid% saitÄ%kAra sAúuÉ% haeb% teb% fs%

fP%la karael% fk%na? "There was no doubt that Caru-babaji was a quack sannyasi. If he is [you would like to

think of him as, against my better judgment] a genuine holy man, then why did he [the boy who relied on the sannyasi] fail his exam?" (Saradindu Bandyopadhyay)

Çim% ib%çAsa kir% nA| tAÉ Yaid% haeb% tAhael% kI sAhaes% àKAen% àel%na| "I don't believe it. If that is true [I don't believe it, but if you insist, against my better

judgment], then how did you have the nerve to come here?" (Protiva Bose)

àKana àÉ fto ÅbaêA| Gaer%ra ij%in%sa ib%i£% nA kaer% Çra ÖpAya fn%É| tA Gaer%ra ij%in%saÉ Yaid% ibi%£% karaba sÄAra, fto Gaer%ra mAnueS%ra kAeC%É ibi%£% karaba|

"Now the situation is such. I see no other way but to sell off personal things. However, if I am going to sell [willfully but against my better judgment] personal things, sir, I shall sell them to family members only." (Syed Shamsul Haq)

In Intro Bengali (p. 95), you learned that the Bangla future tense has two uses, (a) indicating an action that will take place in the future, and (b) expressing the equivalent of the English "would you like to . . . " or "do you want to . . . ," as in: tuim% ik% rabI«‹anAeõ%ra gAna Zunaeb%? "Would you like to hear a song by Rabindranath?" ^hÄA, Çim% ^tAra gAna Zunaebo| "Yes, I should like to hear a song by him." (Intro Bengali, p. 91) The use of the future tense in the Yaid% clause is related to the (b) meaning of the future tense already learned, not the (a) meaning. The (a) meaning, i.e., indicating an action that may conditionally take place in the future, is expressed by the present tense in the Yaid% clause, not the future tense.

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C. haäyA and ÇC- in the Yaid% clause

Although the COPULA VERB "to be," in the present tense and not negative, is normally not expressed, it MUST BE EXPRESSED in Yaid% clauses:

ÇpanArA tAr baŒu| "You are his friends." ÇpanArA Yaid% tAr baŒu han, tAhael% . . . "If you are his friends, then . . . " àÉ ZAiR% Kub sa˙A| "This sari is very reasonable." Yaid% àÉ ZAiR% Kub sa˙A hay, taeb% . . . "If this sari is very reasonable, then . . . "

Ç∞CA| tuim% Yaid% Çeg% Ft%rI haä tAhael% ÇmAek% DAkaeb %ik%? "All right. If you are ready before [then], will you call me?" (Intro Bengali, p. 283) ik%… Yaid% ^rAic% YAäyAr bÄApAraTA im%eõÄ%É hay, tA hael% . . . "But if the business about going to Ranchi is in fact a lie, then . . . " (Satyajit Ray) bai≠ %mcae«‹%r kamalAkA»a cair%÷a Yaid% sabaec%ey %janai„%ya hay, taeb% tAr k&ˆakAe»%r ÖÉlaek% sabaec%ey% janai„%ya

ÖpanÄAs balA fY%et% pAer%| "If Bankimcandra's Kamalakanta is his most well-liked character, his Krishnakanta's Will

can be called his most popular novel." (Anon.)

The existential verb ÇC- is replaced by õAkA in Yaid% clauses:

ÇmAr baÉ ÇeC%| "I have a book." ftomAr baÉ Yaid% õAek% fto ÇmAek% tARAtAiR% dAä| "If you have a book, please give it to me right away."

If the conditional conjunctive is used instead of Yaid%, then:

ftomAr baÉ õAkael% ÇmAek% tARAtAiR% dAä| "If you have a book, please give it to me right away."

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If the action of the verb "to have" might actually have taken place in the past, i.e., the FACTUAL PAST CONDITIONAL (see section B.2.b. above), then:

ftomAr baÉ Yaid% fõ%ek% õAek% fto ÇmAek% dAäin% fk%na? Or: ftomAr baÉ fõ%ek% õAkael% ÇmAek% dAäin% fk%na? "If you had a book, why didn't you give it to me?" ÇpanAr kAeC% Yaid% 2 TAkA nA fõ%ek% õAek% taeb% ÇmAek %à•uiN% TAkA fd%eb%n bael%eC%n fk%na? Or: ÇpanAr kAeC% 2 TAkA fõ%ek% nA õAkael% ÇmAek% à•uiN %TAkA fd%eb%n bael%eC%n fk%na? "If you didn't have 2 takas on you, why did you say you would pay me right now?"

The material presented above in sections B and C indicates what is "grammatical" by present-day standards. For those learning Bangla, the statements concerning conditional clauses given above should be applied to one's own spoken and written Bangla. However, that which is and has been deemed grammatical, with respect to clauses with Yaid%, has evolved over the past two centuries and still is evolving. To put it another way, we find in literature, and very good literature, examples of conditional clauses that do not conform to B and C above.

For instance, in a premodern text such as Kasiramadasa's Mahabharata, i.e., the Bangla

Mahabharata, we find the verb ÇeC% in a clause with Yaid%:

fh%na Å a ÇeC% Yaid% ftomAra sadaen%| taeb% ic%»A kara tuim% ik%es%ra kaAraeN%ˇ "If such a weapon exists in your presence, Then think about the reason why it is there." (Kasidasi Mahabharata) In the writings of Bankimcandra Cattopadhyay (1838-1894), we note that ÇeC% is present

in Yaid% clauses, past tenses are used, and the verb may be missing altogether. iZ%SÄa| ik%… Yaid% parakAla õAek%, taeb% ÉhA úéÎabÄAKÄAra Åit% „aúAna ÖpAdAna

haäyAÉ Öic%ta| . . . iZ%SÄa| Yaid% paraeloek%ra „amANa ÇeC%, Yaid% Çpain% in%ej% parakAel% ib%çAsI (),

taeb% ÇmAek% tAhA mAin%et% Öpaed%Za id%et%eC%na nA fk%na?| "The student: 'If, however, the afterlife exists, then it should be a primary

ingredient of any interpretation of dharma.' . . . The student: 'If there is proof of the other world, if you yourself are a believer in

the afterlife, then why are you not directing me to believe in it?'" (Bankimcandra Cattopadhyay)

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kumuid%nI, kumuid%nI! Yaid% Çis%yACa_t Çra ÇmAya tÄAga kair%ä nA| "Kumudini, Kumudini! If [indeed] you have come—then please don't leave me

ever again." (Bankimcandra Cattopadhyay)

Yaid% fk%ha ftomAed%r fsohAeg%r ib%RAl haÉet% pAir%la . . . taeb%É tAhAr puiÛT%|

"If someone were able to become your doted-upon kitty cat . . . only then would he get fattened up." (Bankimcandra Cattopadhyay, in Advanced Bengali, p. 105)

Mir Mosharraf Hosain (1848-1912), Bankim's contemporary and a novelist, too, uses past

tenses in the Yaid% clause:

Yaid% ÉhAÉ jAin%yAiC%el%, Yaid% sAiK%nAra Åd&ÛTail%ip%ra maéÎa buiJ%et%

pAir%yAiC%el%, taeb% kAes%em%ra saeÆ% sAiK%nAra ib%bAeh%ra Öpaed%Za fk%na id%yAiC%el% BAÉ?

"If you knew this, if you were able to comprehend the essence of Sakhina's fate, then why, Brother, did you order the marriage of Sakhina with Kasem?"

(Mir Mosharraf Hosain) Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (1836-86), the well-known Bengali saint of the 19th century,

is recorded as having said (note again the absence of a verb in the Yaid% clause):

floek% bael% %Éin% Yaid% àta sAúu (), . . . taeb% froga haya fk%na? "People say, 'If he's so holy, . . . then why did he get sick?'" (Ramakrishna Paramahamsa) Saratcandra Cattopadhyay (1876-1938), slightly younger than Tagore and one of the most

popular prose fiction writers of the 20th century, has his characters use no verb at all in the Yaid% clause:

"satÄaÉ Yaid% Çim% ib%úabA (), tAÉ bA in%HsaMZaey% jAin%et% pAÉ nA fk%na? "If truly I am a widow, why didn't I come to know that for sure?" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) Within the works of living writers, tenses other than the present, past conditional, and

future are found in the Yaid% clause, as well as, in the case of a comic book, the negative of ÇeC:

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KabaradAr| üiT% kAbAb Yaid% nA àen%Ca fto Gaer% Çr óAÉ pAeb% nA bael% rAKaiC%| "I'm warning you. If you don't bring back bread and kabobs, you'll not be

welcome in this house again, mark my words." (Rizia Rahman)

"cael% fY%et%É Yaid% balaeC%na, fto ÇmAek% in%ey% àta Baya ik%es%r sAeh%ba?'| "When you are telling [me] to leave, then what's all this concern about my

welfare, mister?" (Syed Shamsul Haq)

tuim%É Yaid% fn%É, tAhael% f~b%ec% fõ%ek% kI lABa! [Drona, thinking his son dead, says,] "If you are gone, then what's the point of

[my] living!" (Anon., "Drona," Åmara ic%÷a kaõA, naM 57) D. Yaid%ä (YadÄaip% and, less commonly, Yiad%ca) and Yaid% bA (often hyphenated Yaid%-bA): Yaid%ä "even though, although" and Yaid% bA "even if, even though, despite the fact that" are grammatically UNLIKE Yaid% in that the above-mentioned (1) tense restrictions, (2) peculiarities with the verbs "to be" and "to have," and (3) the placement of the negative DO NOT PERTAIN:

fs% Yaid%ä YAy in% Çim% ig%ey%iC%lum| "Even though he didn't go, I went." (Intro Bengali, p. 296)

Note the position of the negative in the above sentence.

ûpakaõAr maeúÄ% Yaid%ä tAr êAn tabu . . . "Even though its place is in fairytales, still then . . . " (Anon.)

Note further that the copula verb "to be" in the present tense is not required in the Yaid%ä clause.

Yaid%ä ftomAed%r samay jueR% ÇiC% tabuä ba˙uta Çim% ftomAed%r samasAmaiy%k naÉ| "Although I am a part of your era, I am in fact not your contemporary." (Rabindranath Tagore)

Note still further that the verb ÇC- is allowed in the Yaid%ä clause.

ïayaMa BagabAn` bael%eC%n, Yaid%ca ^tAr fkoenoÉ ÅBAb fn%É, tabuä it%in% àÉ ib%ça s&jan kaer%eC%n, ÅéõAö s&iÛT% ^tAr lIlA mA÷a|

"God himself has said that even though He lacks nothing, still then He created this universe, i.e., creation is simply His divine play." (Advanced Bengali, p. 122)

ib%jaey%r Yaid%bA àkaTA ib%úabA mA iC%la, basae»%r ÇbAr tAä iC%la nA| "Even though Vijay had only a widowed mother, Basanta didn't even have that."

(Basanta lived with his uncle.) (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

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Both Yaid%ä and Yaid%bA + inflected verb may be replaced by the conditional conjunctive + ä or bA:

ûpakaõAr maeúÄ% tAr êAn hael%ä . . . "Even though its place is in fairytales, still then . . . "

The conditional conjunctive + bA is often followed by a rhetorical question:

tuim% fg%el% bA ik% karaeb%? "Even if you went, what would you do, after all?"

If the negative is used, the nA precedes the conditional conjunctive, as it does with any conditional conjunctive:

fs% nA fg%el%ä Çim% ig%ey%iC%lum| "Even though he didn't go, I went." tuim% nA fg%el% bA ik% karaeb%? "Even if you don't go, what will you do, after all?"

Exercises—Translate :

1) ftomAr saeÆ% Yaid% nA YAÉ tuim% ik%Cu maen% kaira%eb%?

2) ègaÃakAragaN fY% Öe◊%eZ% ÇmAid%gaek% ègaÃaguil% ÖpahAr id%yAeC%n, Yaid% tAhA is%ÿa nA kair%lAm, taeb% â

sakal ègaeÃ%r mUlÄa f„%raN ÇmAid%eg%r kaé–abÄa|

(Bankimcandra Cattopadhyay—note tense of verb)

3) fs% Yaid% jal nA pAlaeT%eC% fto dÄAeKo hayata maer%É fg%eC%|

(Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay—note tense of verb)

4) Yaid% musalamAen%r ŸArA tAhA haÉyA õAek% taeb% àûp TATakA Kabar fk%na fY% àta „aeyojanIya ib%baraeN%r

maeúÄ% êAn pAÉla nA tAhA BAib%bAr kaõA| (Advanced Bengali, p. 178)

5) ftomAr TAkA Yaid% fõ%ek% nA õAek% tuim% kI kaer% TÄAiV% kaer% Çsaet% pArael%|

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III. CONDITIONAL CONJUNCTIVE PARTICIPLE (a.k.a. the conditional, the conditional conjunctive, the conditional participle) A. tA hael%/tAhael%, taeb%, fto As demonstrated nicely in Lesson 15 of Intro Bengali, the conditional conjunctive is

interchangeable with Yaid% + the finite verb; when the conditional conjunctive is present, the independent clause generally does not use the conjunctions tAhael%, taeb%, or fto:

Çim% Yaid% ègAem%r bAiR%et% YAÉ tA hael% tuim% ik% Çsaeb%? Or: Çim% ègAem%r bAiR%et% fg%el% tuim% ik% Çsaeb%? "If I go to my village home, will you come?"

B. CONDITIONAL CONJUNCTIVE + 3RD PERSON OF haäyA Such constructions carry the meaning "it would be good to [verb]" or "it would do to [verb]" or

"why not [verb]":

rais%d pAió%ey% fd%ba, ik%… puero du mAes%r ih%sAb id%et% pAraba nA| paen%ero TAkA bAik%; Ç∞CA, àk mAes%r rais%d id%el%É haeb%| "I'll send you a receipt, but I won't be able to make it for a full two months." "Fifteen rupees shy; all right, a receipt for one month WILL DO JUST FINE." (Jibanananda Das) tAhael% dIen%Zaek% ij%e≥ %s karael%É fto hay| "In that case, WHY NOT ASK Dinesh." (Satyajit Ray) kAeó%%ra ib%RAla fhOka nA fk%na, ^Édur úaaraet% pAelÄ%É (pArael%É) hay| "So let it be a cat made of wood; if it can catch mice, THAT'S GOOD ENOUGH." (Michael Madhusudan Datta) àkabAr caT kaer% fs%É GaraTA fd%eK% àel% hata nA? "IT WOULD HAVE BEEN GOOD TO HAVE TAKEN A LOOK quickly at that room,

now wouldn't it have?" (Satyajit Ray) àkaTA fbÄomaek%eZ%r rahasÄa-kAih%nI nA il%iK%el%É nay| "IT WOULD NOT DO NOT TO WRITE DOWN one of the fantastic tales of

Byomkesh." (Anon.) àKAen% DAyair%ra Çer%kaTA ij%in%es%ra kaõA nA bala%el%É nay| "I JUST CANNOT HELP BUT RELATE here something else about the diary."

(Satyajit Ray)

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C. CONDITIONAL CONJUNCTIVE + 3RD PERSON OF calA Such constructions carry almost an identical meaning to the (B) constructions above but with an added nuance of possibility: "it would be possible to [verb]" or "one could [verb]":

. . . ÇmAek% ik%Cu jaim% ik%en% dAä ib%ûpA•a, bAil%gae∂ %nAehok òAkuir%yA, in%tA»a nA pAäyA fg%el% fb%hAlA YAdabapur hael%ä calaeb%|

". . . buy me some land, Virupaksha, if not in Ballygunj then Dhakuria—or if absolutely nothing is available, then Behala or Jadavpur WILL DO." (Jibanananda Das)

„Ay fc%nA YAy nA balael%É cael%| "IT COULD BE SAID that [you] almost weren't recognizable." (Satyajit Ray) à-fm%ey%r Çr ib%ey% nA id%el% cael% nA| "IT WOULD NOT DO TO DELAY further this girl's marriage." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

D. CONDITIONAL CONJUNCTIVE + THE PAST CONDITIONAL OF pArA INFLECTED

FOR ALL PERSONS Such constructions also carry almost the same meaning as the (B) constructions above but with an added nuance of sarcasm:

fl%KAr caécATA rAKael% pAraet% tuim%, sutIéõa; kaib%tA nay, gaÓa il%Kael% ma«da hata nA| "YOU SHOULD HAVE CONTINUED your literary pursuits, Sutirtha; not poetry, but it

wouldn't have been a bad thing to have written short stories." (Jibanananda Das) tuÉ ÇmAed%r balael%É pArait%s| "You could have at least told us." (Anon.) à-kAej%r BAraTA mAsImA ÇmAr äpar nA id%el%É pAraet%n| "IT WOULD HAVE BEEN NICE IF Auntie HADN'T GIVEN me this responsibility."

Or: "Auntie could have spared me this responsibility." (Anon.) E. CONDITIONAL CONJUNCTIVE + bAcA ("to live, survive")—expresses a sense of hope

figuratively, not with actual life-and-death concerns, and can be translated "if only" or "it would be great if":

^pAcaTAr maeúÄ% ^fpOCael% ~bAic%| "IF ONLY I get there by 5 o'clock!" Or: "IT'LL BE GREAT IF I make it by five." Or:

"I'M SAVED, SO TO SPEAK, IF I arrive by five."

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àKaen% mael%É ^bAic%| (Spoken by the Muslim peasant Hanif Gazi in bangal11 dialect. The standard colloquial

Bangla rendering of this utterance would be: àKana marael%É ^bAic%|) "IT WOULD BE BEST IF I died right now." Or: "THE ONLY WAY OUT is to die on

the spot." (Michael Madhusudan Datta) F. CONDITIONAL CONJUNCTIVE + par_equivalent, for all practical purposes, to the verbal

noun in the genitive case + par/paer% YAbAr paer% or YAbAr par_"after going" or "after [one/it] goes/went/will go" fgel par_"after [one/it] goes/went/will have gone"

cA àel% par . . . raänA id%lAm| "After the tea had been served . . . we set out." (Satyajit Ray) BAbael paer buekr fBtar Çgun ∏ ael| "After he thought that, fire raged in his breast." (Mahasweta Devi) tAek% fd%Kael% par fõ%ek% Çeg%r GaTanA ÇmAr maen% paRaet% lAgaelo| "From the moment I saw him, I began to recall the earlier event." (Anon.) ^tAr fY% saitÄ%É ik% ÇeC%, àbaM marael% paer% ik% fY% it%in% fr%eK% YAeb%na tA ÅbaiZÄ% ärA Çejo fk%Ö

jAen% nA| "What was actually his [the grandfather's] and whether after he died he would leave it [to

someone], that, of course, none of them knew for sure, even today." (Dilara Hashem)

Exercises—Translate:

1) Çj kAj karaet% nA basael% hay| kAl ÇmarA tAÉ karaba|

2) ÇmAr ÇsAr Çeg% tA ÇmAy jAnAel% pAraet%|

3) ÇjaÉ àÉ kAjaTA fZ%S karaet% pArael% ^bAic%|

4) àÉ kAj fZ%S karael% par ÇmarA ÅnÄa kAej% man id%et% pAir%|

5) ^hÄA, ^hÄA, àÉ kAjaTA àKuin% fZ%S kaer% nA in%el% calaeb% nA|

11Bangal both refers to those who come from East Bengal and is used to mean "rustic" or "unsophisticated." The complementary term is ghoti, which indicates someone who comes from the western parts of Bengal.

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IV. COMMON EXPRESSIONS ÇmAr (ftomAr, tAr, etc.) kI "What's that to me [you, him, et al.]?" Or: "So what?"

tAhAet% samAej%r úanab&iÿ% haÉeb% nA| nA haÉla ta ÇmAr ik%? "By that, society's wealth will not increase." "If it doesn't increase, WHAT'S THAT TO ME?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 105) Çeg% ära Ée∞C% hayain%, tAÉ Çes%in%, àKana Ée∞C% haey%ec% Çs`ec%| ftora ik? "He didn't want to before, so he didn't come; now he feels like it, so he comes by.

WHAT'S IT TO YOU?" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) Çr ik% "OK" or "know what I mean" or "you hear," filler words, used for emphasis

Yaid% kaõA nA fZoeno fto äed%r fD%ek% ftomAy ^CuÉey% id%ÉiC% Çr ik%! "If you don't obey me, I'll call them over and have them touch [thus contaminate] you,

YOU HEAR!" (Advanced Bengali, p. 110) Çr . . . nA, with a verb, translates as: "not any more" or "not any longer"

. . . fCoTa BAÉey%r su«dar ZarIr mAiT%r Öpar paeR% õAkaet% fd%eK% Çr fcoeK%r jal rAKaet% pArael%n nA|

". . . seeing his little brother's handsome figure lying on the ground, he was NO LONGER able to hold back the tears." (Advanced Bengali, p. 128)

Öió% "let me get up," a polite way to indicate you are ready to leave somebody's company

(assuming you are sitting down at the time) (See àeso below.) àk-àk "some, certain, certain individual"

àk-àk id%n àk-àk raeX%r ZAiR% paeR%| "On CERTAIN days she wears a PARTICULAR color sari." àk-àk jaen%ra ïaBAbaÉ ärakama| "CERTAIN people's natures are such." àmana ik%, àk-àk id%n fd%KA YAy, fs% tAra frogA f^óoT id%ey% ^KAcAr ZalA kAiT%bAra fcÛTAy ÇeC| "It was even the case that on SOME days it was seen that he [the parrot] would attempt to

cut through the bars of his cage with his emaciated beak." (Tagore, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 16)

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àk rakam "sort of, somewhat, rather, on the whole"

Çeg%É fto b'el% fr%eK%iC%, ÇmAr pae•% äsab àkrakam ÅsaÈBab| "But I'm telling you beforehand, for me all this is RATHER impossible." (Advanced Bengali, p. 110)

àeso, Çsun/Çes%n "please come again," a polite way to say goodbye to someone who is

leaving

Öió%, sutIéõa| Ç∞CA, àeso| "I must be going now, Sutirtha." "All right, TAKE CARE [Or: SEE YOU]." (Jibanananda Das)

^kAcA see pAkA kapAl (literally, "forehead") "luck, fortune"

ftomAr kapAel% cA fn%É, sutIéõa_| "You are not DESTINED for a cup of tea, Sutirtha—." (Jibanananda Das)

ik% jAin "who knows"

ik% jAin%, Çj b&iÛT% paRaet% pAer%| "WHO KNOWS, it might rain today." daZ baösar Çeg% àkaid%n ik%-jAin% ik% in%ey% duÉ BAÉey%r Kub JagaRA haey%iC%la, fs%É fõ%ek% ib%e∞C%d,

fd%KAeZonA paéYa»a baŒa iC%la| "One day ten years earlier, WHO KNOWS over what, the two brothers had a terrible

argument; from then on they were divided, and even meetings between the two ceased." (Advanced Bengali, p. 128)

àÉ Áaej%çarI kusumaek%, ik% jAin fk%na, fcoeK%ra fd%KA mA÷aÉ BAlabAis%yA fP%il%yAiC%la| "This Brajeswari, WHO KNOWS why, fell in love with Kusum as soon as she laid eyes

on her." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

•amA karA; mAP/mAp karA (literally, "to excuse, forgive")—can be used, in the imperative, as equivalent to "excuse me, please" in English

KuiZ% halAmaa (literally, "I've become happy") uttered after being introduced to someone and can be

used as the equivalent of "I am pleased to meet you" in English

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fKolA% (literally, "to open") but also means "to take off, remove articles of clothing, shoes" (See also CoRA|)

tAra para fkoeN% ~dAiR%ey% buTaejoRA fKolAra fc%ÛTA kaer%| [stage directions] "After that, she stands in one corner and tries to TAKE OFF her boots."

(Ketaki Kushari Dyson) fg%iC% "I'm finished; it's all over for me; I'm done for" fg%eC% "it's finished; it's all over; it's done for"

BAbalum saébanAZ, àÉKAen%É Yaid% ih%mAcal-fB%d, . . . paébAiB%nay hay fto_fg%iC%| "I thought, 'Disaster, if an enactment of the cleaving of the "Ice-Mountains," . . . were to

occur, then—I'M DONE FOR.'" (Advanced Bengali, p. 110) fg%la, fg%eC% past tenses of the verb "to go," used as adjectives to mean "last, previous"

fg%la bAer% Çim%ä àkaTu in%ey% ig%ey%iC%lum_ik% jAin%| "LAST time I too may have taken along a little [Ganges water]—who knows." (Advanced Bengali, p. 109)

CARA (literally, "to quit, abandon, leave") but also means "to change clothes [article of clothing

must be expressed]" (See also fKolA|)

Áej%çarI kApaRa CAiR%yA kusuem%ra Gaer% ig%yA fd%iK%la, taKanaä fs% iB%jA kApaeR%a ˙aÊa haÉyA jAnAlA úair%yA ^dARAÉyA bAih%er%ra id%ek% cAih%yA ÇeC%|

"Brajeswari CHANGED HER CLOTHES [sari] and went to Kusum's room where she saw that she [Kusum] was still in her wet garment, motionless, standing there holding [the bars of] the window and gazing out." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

jueR%a PAP of the verb "to join," used to mean "pervading, spreading over" also see fC%ey%%a PAP of the verb "to cover, spread, roof"

ÇmAra mana jueR% iC%el%na rabI«‹anAõa, kaib%tAya gAen%| "Tagore PERVADED MY HEART, through poetry and song." (Jyotibhushan Caki) ma¥a jueR% àkaiT% il%iB%Ma-üma, ÅéõAö fk%bala basabAra Gara naya, fY%KAen% mAnuSa nAnAn kAjaä kaer% àmana

àkaiT% Gara| [stage directions] "A living room, in other words, not just a sitting room, OCCUPIES

THE ENTIRE STAGE; it is such a room where people do various sorts of activities." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

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taõA, besides pairing with YaõA as seldom used correlatives ("where/there"), may mean:

1. "for that matter, even"

bAMalAy taõA sab Ée«do-ÇéYa BASAy mUúéanÄa fd%KA YAy| "In Bangla, FOR THAT MATTER, in all of the Indo-Aryan languages, retroflex

consonants are found." bAfiIik% áiS% caiw%Z hAjAr fÚok, ^pAcZa saéga, Ca kAƒa, taõA Ö–arakAƒa racanA kaer%iC%el%n| "The sage Valmiki composed twenty-four thousand slokas, five hundred cantos, six

books, FOR THAT MATTER even the Uttarakanda [usually thought to be a later addition]." (Advanced Bengali, p. 304)

2. "for instance, for example"

Ée«do-ÇéYa BASAgueloy taõA bAMalAy mUúéanÄa fd%KA YAy| "Indo-Aryan languages, Bangla, FOR INSTANCE, have retroflex consonants." fboú hay, nadIr gait% pair%baétaen%r saeÆ% saeÆ% kaNAraek%r (taõA ic%e÷oöpalAr) „asAr kaim%yA Çis%et%iC%la| "Perhaps, along with the change in the river's direction, Konarak's (FOR EXAMPLE,

Chitrotpala's) width was decreasing." (Advanced Bengali, p. 177) taõAkaiõ%ta "so-called" duHiK%ta (literally, "saddened")—can be used as the equivalent of "sorry" in English paren% literally a noun, parn, "the act of wearing," in the locative case; used to mean "[I, you, she,

he] is wearing," with the person in the genitive; note place of paren in the sentence, at or near the beginning; pair%úAna, the more SADHU synonym of parn, works the same way ftomAra paraen% kApaRa fn%É fk%na? "Why aren't you WEARING anything?" (Parasuram, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 84) ïAmIra pair%úAen% halaed% pAeR%ra úuit% iC%la| "Her husband WAS WEARING a yellow-bordered dhoti." (Begum Rokeya, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 50)

pAkA literally, as a verb, "to ripen, mature," as an adjective, "ripe, mature"; see a dictionary for

the many other meanings, including "solid, permanent, etc.," as opposed to kAcA| (In English pAkA has been spelled pucca, pukka, and pucka and has taken on the meaning of "genuine, reliable, good.")

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mAil%yA pAhAeR%r in%ec% bIranagar paéYa»a ca«‹AbatIr pAkA rA˙A, tArapar maüBUim%r Öpar id%ey% Çguen%r maeto bAil% fB%eX%, ÖeT% caeR% baÔaBIpuer% fY%et% hay, Çr ÅnÄa paõ fn%É|

"The PAVED road from Candravati extended up to Viranagar [city], beneath the Maliya Hills. After that one had to proceed to Ballabhipur by camel, crossing the desert, sand hot as fire, for there was no other path."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 127) fP%rA besides meaning "to return," this verb also means "to turn around"

iP%ir%yA fd%iK%lAm Zuúu ÅŒakAr_fk%ha fkoõAä nAÉ| "I LOOKED BACK and saw only darkness—there was no one anywhere." (Advanced Bengali, p. 132)

(calA fP%rA karA "to wander, go to and fro") buiJ% though it comes from the verb fboJA ("to understand"), the first-person verb is used

parenthetically to mean "I suppose" or "is that so?" or "you want me to believe that?":

tAÉ buiJ%? "So that's it, is it!" Or: "Is that right?" ÅiB%manÄu| iZ%KA kI baRa haey% fg%eC%! rIit%maeto maih%lA! iZ%KA| bAH, Çpain% ÇmAek% fZ%Sa fd%eK%eC%naa k_ta id%na Çeg%! Ca'-sAta baCara Çeg%, tAÉ nA?

fs%KAen%É ÇTaek% õAkaebo buiJ%? "Abhimanyu: 'How big Shikha has become! A woman through and through!' Shikha: 'My, my! How l-o-n-g ago was it when you last saw me! Six, seven years ago,

no? And I should stay frozen at that stage, I SUPPOSE?'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

BAXA primary meaning, "to break"; see a dictionary for the many other meanings, including "to

walk, proceed along, to climb"

fT%~pu iJ%ek% bael% fd%, Fb%óakaKAnA Gaer% ÇmAr fZobAr ib%CAnA k'er% fd%eb%| Çim% i~s%iR% BAXaet% pAir% nA|

"Tempu, tell the maidservant to make up my bed in the sitting room. I'm unable TO CLIMB the stairs." (Advanced Bengali, p. 138)

mAiT% literally, "earth, soil, ground"; figuratively, "kaput, finito, finished, done for"

àkaiT% fCoTa fm%ey% ib%nAbAkÄabÄaey% gaÈBIr „aZA»a BAeb %es%É mA˙ulaTAr Öpar ig%ey% fc%ep% basala| fC%el%ed%r àman sAeú%r fK%lA mAiT%|

"One little girl, calmly, resolutely went and sat firmly upon that mast [which the boys had been rolling]. Such a cherished game of the boys was DONE FOR, FINISHED." (Advanced Bengali, p. 115)

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mAen% (1) a noun meaning "meaning," which may also (2) function as though it were a 3rd-person verb ("[it] means") and (3) be used as the parenthetical expression "that is to say" or "i.e." or "in other words" or "meaning," which serves frequently in the spoken language to allow the speaker to rephrase something she or he feels might be misunderstood:

1. "meaning"

tAr mAen% kI? "What does that MEAN?" Or: "What is the MEANING of that?" "Å»aHaêa'r mAen% kI? "What does the word 'antastha' MEAN?"

An extended meaning of the word "meaning" is "sense, point"; mAen% + hay (iC%la, past tense) means "to make sense, be sensible, have a point, be justified":

tA CARA àkaõAä maen% kair%ey% id%ey%iC%lAm fY% saMaib%úAn saMa£A»a fY% fkona ÇelocanA saMasaed%É karaet%

haeb%, tAr Çeg% fgopan ÇelocanAr fkoeno mAen% hay nA| "Besides that, I had reminded [the President] that any discussions relating to the

constitution must be conducted in the Assembly proper; prior to that [the Assembly session], THERE IS NO POINT to secret deliberations."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 272) sAmAnÄa àkaTA kukuer%r DAk in%ey% àtaTA mAõA GAmAenor fkona mAen%É hay nA| "IT MAKES NO SENSE to get so concerned about a little barking by a dog." (Anon.)

2. "means" ÇmAr pae•% cAkuir% CARA mAen% dAir%‹Äa ègahaN karA| "For me, giving up my job MEANS embracing poverty." (Advanced Bengali, p. 270)

3. parenthetical expression

Çim% ftomAr saeÆ% YAba, mAen% tuim% cAÉel% YAba| "I'll go with you, THAT IS TO SAY, if you want me to." (Also see Lesson 3, III: "fkoõAy ig%ey%iC%el%n . . . mAen%')

mAP/mAp karA; •amA karA (literally, "to excuse, forgive")—can be used, in the imperative, as

equivalent to "excuse me, please" in English

Note: The above mAen% is NOT really a verb. There is a verb mAnA, meaning "to honor, show respect to; to obey, abide by; to admit, acknowledge," whose 3rd-person present tense would also be mAen%|

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YaõA "such as, for instance"

ÉhA iB%Õa Çraä nAnA „akAr ÇsabAb, YaõA_rAjA-rANIr Caib%, rAyabAhAduer%r pair%ic%ta ä Åpair%ic%ta fCoTa-baRa sAeh%baed%r PaeToègAP . . .

"Besides this, there were other types of furnishings, SUCH AS—a picture of the king and queen, photographs of important and lesser Englishmen, some known to the Ray Bahadur and others not . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 137)

YAkaeg% "so be it; let it be; and that's that" (pronunciation: jagge) (use of fg covered in Lesson 19, II, A, "Imperatives with fg")

kusuma cupa kair%yA raih%l| b&«dAbanaä cupa kair%yA õAik%yA sahasA bail%yA Öió%la, "BAla kaõA, àkaTA kukura rAÕAGaer% òuek% ftomAra ^hAiR%kuiR% rAÕAbAÕA sama˙a fY% fm%er% id%ey% fg%la!'

kusuma ik%CumA÷a ÖeŸ%ga bA cA¥alÄa „akAZa nA kair%yA jabAba id%la "YAk`eg%| Çim% ta KAebo nA,_Çeg% jAn`el% ^rAúaet%É fY%tuma nA|'

"Kusum remained silent. Brindaban too kept quiet, then suddenly spoke out, 'That's just great, a dog entered the kitchen, fouled all your pots and utensils and whatever you were cooking, and left!'

Kusum, showing not the least emotion or agitation, responded, 'FORGET ABOUT IT. I'm not going to eat anyway—if I'd known ahead of time, I wouldn't even have cooked.'" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

YAehok/YA fhok "be that as it may; so be it; let it be"; often emphatic: YAÉ fhok

YAÉ fhok, fsÉ fcora ÅõabA cÄAir%iT%ra ègAhaka BÄAbA gaÆArAma ÇkAeZ% fn%É, . . . "BE THAT AS IT MAY, he's a thief or a recipient of charity, but that 'silly goofus'

[referring to the moon] is not present in the sky, . . . " (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

hAet% hAet% "then and there, right away, immediately"

kAbÄ paiR%bAra samaey%ä Yaid% ih%sAeb%ra KAtA Kuil%yA rAiK%et%É haya, Yaid% kI lABa kair%lAm hAet% hAet% tAhAra in%kAZa cukAÉyA laÉet%É haya, taeb% . . .

"If even when reading poetry we have to keep open the ledger books and IMMEDIATELY tally up the gains, then . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 114)

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LESSON 1919

I. ib%≥An

ÇK fõ%ek% fmom

fp%e¡oil%yAem%r ÅnÄatama ÖpajAta sAmaègI fmom| YAnabAhan fõ%ek% Zuü kaer% ib%iB%Õa iZ%eÓoedÄoeg% „ait% baCar la•a la•a Tan fmom àbaMa fmomajAta sAmaègIr „aeyojan hay| muZaik%l àÉ, fp%e¡oil%yAem%r dAm bARAr saeÆ% saeÆ% fmoem%raä dAm fb%eR%eC% „acur| Åen%k samay payasA Karac kaer%ä cAih%dA ÅnuYAyI fmom saMaègaha karA saÈBab hay nA| tAÉ fmoem%r jaenÄ% àKan ib%kaÓa Ööes%r kaõA BAbaeC%n ib%eZ%Sa≥arA| ib%kaÓa Öösa balaet% ÇeK%r kaõAÉ BAbA hae∞C%| Åen%ek%É hayata la•a kaer%eC%n, ÇeK%r pAtA, fKolA àbaM apaeéb%r gAey% fl%eg% õAek% àk úaraen%r Ft%lA°a Ç˙araN| àÉ Ft%lA°a Ç˙araeN%r „aúAn ÖpAdAn fmom| fd%KA fg%eC%, ÇeK%r fmoT äjaen%r 0.12 ZatAMaZa fmomaGaiT%ta sAmaègI| ÇK mARAÉey%r par fY% iC%baeR% paeR% õAek% ik%CuTA fmom tAr maeúÄ%ä fõ%ek% YAy| à CARA ÇeK%r ras CAkAr par kAeó%r mata fY% ba˙uiT% ÅúaHai•%‡a hay tAet%ä kuiR% ZatAMaZa fmom õAek%| àÉ fmom sahaej% p&õakaä karA YAy| Kabar, BAraet%r fkon àkaiT% ic%in% fkoÈpAin% ÇK fõ%ek% àKan Fd%in%k 150 ik%eloègAem%r mata fmom ÖöpAdan karaeC%| àÉ fmom fõ%ek% Ft%ir% karA hae∞C% ib%eZ%S úaraen%r kAraban, f¯T%nais%l kAgaej%r „ael%p àbaMa àkAiú%k pAil%Z karAr sAmaègI| ÇK fõ%ek% saMag&ahIta Åpair%èZuta fmom fõ%ek% ib%Zuÿa fmom saMaègaha karAr jaenÄ% kAej% lAgAeno hay Kain%j tAraip%n ft%l àbaMa ÇÉeso„apAÉl Çlaekohal| KabaraiT% id%ey%eC%n BArat sarakAer%r maÀaNAlaey%r ÅÄAiD%ZanAl ic%P DAÉer%kaTAr ip% fj% maenohar rAä| ÇKajAta fmoem%r ÖökaéSa sAúaen%r jaenÄ% BAratIya ib%≥AnIrA gaeb%SaNAä cAlAe∞C%n|

"fd%Z,' 49 baéSa 1 saMaKÄA 21 kAiét%k 1388 7 naeB%Íar 1981, p&Ha 37

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II. IMPERATIVES To review, Bangla has TWO IMPERATIVES, a PRESENT and a FUTURE. (See Appendix 1.) In the affirmative, the difference between the two tenses is slight. There is no hard-and-fast rule about how far in the future the command is to be carried out before the future imperative is justified. In the negative, however, the tenses are unequivocally distinct.

Remember: There are—in Kolkata, but not in Dhaka—two common verbs, "to come" and "to sit" whose present imperative in the second-person ordinary is the same as the future imperative:

àeso is both the irregular present imperative and the regular future imperative fboeso is both the irregular present imperative and the regular future imperative fboeso, fboeso| ~dAiR%ey% fõ%eko nA| "Sit down, sit down. Please don't remain standing." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

A. PRESENT IMPERATIVE + fg% and id%ik% Two extraordinary PAP forms, fg% (corresponding to ig%ey%, past active participle of the verb YAäyA "to go") and id%ik% (corresponding to fd%eK%, PAP of the verb fd%KA "to see, look"), FOLLOWING AFFIRMATIVE PRESENT IMPERATIVES, ADD SLIGHT EMPHASIS to the preceding command but need not be translated, and in some cases are not translatable, literally. Whether they are used at all is a matter of style. When printed/written, fg% is often affixed to the preceding imperative:

Ç∞CA_tuim% maÀIek% àÉ kaõA balaeg%, it%in% ftomAra seaÆ% àka Zata Åça, ^pAcaTA ha˙I, Çra àka sahaîa padAit%ka f„araNa kaer%na|

"All right—go give the minister this message: he sends [is to send] with you one hundred horses, five elephants, and a thousand foot-soldiers." (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

õAim%ey% ide%y% àeso fg%| "Go put a stop to it." (Rabindranath Tagore)

PRESENT IMPERATIVE + nA = a polite, AFFIRMATIVE request: "why don't [we/you/they/et al.] do something" or "please do something."

FUTURE IMPERATIVE + nA = the one and only NEGATIVE command: "don't do something." (See Intro Bengali, pp. 150, 178, 376, and 359-60.)

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mara mara, à•uiN% mara tuim%! fY% cueloy baes% ^gAjA fg%elo, fs%É cueloy ig%ey% paRaeg%| "pAkaRatalA'r fDom ftomAr mueK% Çgun id%k|

"Die! die this very instant! Go and burn in that hell where [your] ganja was consumed. May a [low caste] Dom from 'Pakartala' perform your funeral rites."

(Ashapurna Devi) nayanAMZu ik%Cu la•a kaer%eC% nAik%? tA kaüka fg%_ "Did Nayonangshu notice anything or didn't he? So let him notice!—" (Buddhadeva Bose)

Ç∞CA caT k'er% il%eK% Çeno id%ik%| "OK, write this down and bring it quickly [and, literally, let's see]." (Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay) cal id%ik% id%id%, ig%ey% fd%iK%| "Come on, Sis, let's go see." (Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay) flokaiT% tAra fkoeno Ö–ara nA id%ey% jAnaet% cAya, "àka fZo, mA÷a àkaeZoTA TAkA mÄAenja karaet%

pAraeb%na, sÄAra'? "balaelo ik%? àkaeZo TAkA'? "Çpain% bael%É àkadAma bael%iC%'| "fd%KAä id%ik%'| "The fellow, without replying, wanted to know, 'A hundred, will you be able to manage a

mere one hundred takas, sir?' 'What are you saying! A hundred?' 'Because it's you, I'm stating the fixed price [instead of the inflated price that could be

bargained down to something reasonable].' 'So, show it [the object to be purchased] to me, let's see.'" (Syed Shamsul Haq)

B. CORRELATIVES + IMPERATIVES (+ nA fk%na) CORRELATIVES BECOME INDEFINITES WHEN the VERB in the dependent clause is a PRESENT IMPERATIVE—nA or nA fk%na following the imperative is optional, causing no change in meaning. The correlative may be translated as "no matter [who, what, where, when, how, how much]" or "whoever, whatever, etc.":

YaKain% dÄAeKo nA fk%na BAelo ftomAr lAgaeb%É| "NO MATTER WHEN YOU LOOK at it, you'll enjoy it." (from Lesson 3, I)

Probably the most common occurrence of fg% is found in the useful parenthetical expression YAkaeg% ("be that as it may" or "let that be"), an expression often used to mark a change of subject matter to be discussed or simply to signal the end of the discussion of a particular topic (review Lesson 18, IV).

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àr fp%Caen% Yui°% YAÉ õAkuk nA fk%na, fY% ÖpakaraeN %iZ%ÓIek% kAj karaet% hay fs% ij%in%s G&iN%ta bael%

ib%eb%ic%ta haäyAy caémakAr samAej% Å»Äaja fõ%ek% fg%eC%| "WHATEVER the reasoning behind it MIGHT BE, because the medium in which these

artisans must work is considered despicable, leather workers have remained a low caste within society." (Advanced Bengali, p. 183)

taeb% m&tÄur parapAer%r Éit%hAsaTA Yaid% fkona ÖpAey% Zuin%yA laÉet% pArA YAy, taeb% tAr fc%ey% lAB

ÇeC% ik%? tA fs% fY%É baluk àbaMa fY%man kair%yAÉ baluk nA| "But if information about the next world after death could be learned and brought back,

what would be of greater value than that—NO MATTER WHO TELLS [us] that [information] or HOW HE TELLS it." (Advanced Bengali, p. 132)

In the above example, nA fk%na is not used in the first clause, the fk%na not used in the second; in both instances, nA fk%na could have been used.

in%eéboú mAnueS%r Åha≠Aer%r Çr Å»a nAÉ, fs% YAhAr s&iÛT%, tAhAek%É fs% ba«dI kair%aet% cAy, ZAi˙% id%et% cAy!

"There is no end to a fool's pride; NO MATTER WHOSE creation something IS, he [the British] seeks to enslave it, seeks to punish it!" (Kazi Nazrul Islam)

In the above example, the present imperative of the verb "to be" is understood—fs% YAhAr s&iÛT% could have been fs% YAhAr s&iÛT% fhok nA fk%na|

fd%KA YAeb% fY%, fY% úaraen%r ib%Say in%ey%É il%eK% õAek%n nA fk%na, fl%Kaek%r úaméIya Åi˙%‘a fs%KAen% CAyA fP%el%eC%|

"It will be seen that no matter on what sort of subject they wrote, the authors' religious being cast its shadow." (Anisuzzaman)

Remember: Honorific imperative ending: àn in Bangladesh, Ön in West Bengal. Exercises—Translate :

1) fd%ZAKaek% fd%ZAKa bA fd%ZAga YA-É bail% nA fk%na, rAgaiT %àek%bAer% fd%ZIya| (Arun Bhattacarya)

2) àÉ àkaTu paeõ% paeõ% Guer% fb%RAÉeg% hAGaer% hataBAgAed%r mata| (Ashapurna Devi)

3) YataÉ im%ZanAir% ɢuel% paiR% nA fk%na_bAMalA Ö∞cAraeN% Öèga sAeh%ib%yAnA ÇmAr fkona id%n iC%la nA|

(Satyajit Ray) 4) Çim% cail% bAbA| YAehok ik%Cu rAÕA kair%eg%| (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

5) sItA fY%KAen%É õAkun, ÇmarA ^tAhAek% ^Kuij%yA bAih%r kair%baÉ kair%ba| (Upendrakishore Raycaudhuri)

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III. CONJUNCTIONS In most cases, conjunctions in Bangla present no "grammatical" problems for the English speaker. It is just a matter of learning vocabulary. A few conjunctions, however, merit special attention. A. bA/ÅõabA/ik%MabA, nA, ik% "or"—used in Bangla in three different ways:50

bA/ÅõabA/ik%MabA for affirmative expressions: ftomAek% bAMalA bA ih%«dI balaet% haeb%| "You have to speak Bangla OR Hindi." ftomAek% bAMalA balaet% haeb% ÅõabA sakalaek% ÉMair%ij% balaet% haeb%| "You must speak Bangla, OR everyone will have to speak English."

nA for interrogative expressions: tuim% bAMalA bala nA ih%«dI bala? "Do you speak Bangla OR Hindi?" tuim% nA Çim% balaba? "Will you speak OR shall I?" YAbAra samaya nA ÇsabAra samaya maen% fn%É . . . "Was it on the way, OR on the return trip, I can't remember, but . . . " (Satyajit Ray)

ik% for expressions of doubt, uncertainty, or approximation, and are often translatable as "whether X or Y":

ib%ek%el%, saŒÄAy, ik% fjÄoöëArAet%_YaKain% dÄAeKo nA fk%na BAelo ftomAr lAgaeb%É| "WHETHER in the afternoon, at twilight, OR on a moonlit night—no matter when you

look at it you'll be pleased." (from Lesson 3, I) Ç«dAej% maen% hay naTA ik% sAeR% naTA nAgAd jAnAlA id%ey% àkaTA fjonAik% Gaer% òuek%iC%la| "Just guessing, but it would seem to me that around nine o'clock OR nine-thirty a firefly

entered the room through the window." (Satyajit Ray) àkaid%na ik% du'id%n nAiés%M fhoma-à ig%ey%iC%la ära id%id%ek% fd%Kaet%| "She went once, OR maybe twice to the nursing home [maternity home] to visit her big

sister." (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

50"Either/or" and "neither/nor" will be covered in Lesson 20, II.

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B. natubA, nA hay, naec%ö, naih%el% (nAÉel%) "or else, otherwise": ftomAek% bAMalA balaet% haeb% ntuabA sakalaek% ÉMair%ij% balaet% haeb%| "You must speak Bangla, OR ELSE everyone will have to speak English." nabakumAr bAbu| fj%e∆T%laemÄna, ftomAed%ra fmey%ed%ra àjuek%Ta kara_tAed%%ra ïAúInatA fd%ä_jAtaeB%da

taPAö kara_Çra ib%úabAed%ra ib%bAha fd%ä_tA hael% àbaM fk%bala tA hael%É, ÇmAed%ra i„ya BArataaBUim% ÉMlaƒ „aB&it% saBÄa fd%eZ%ra saeÆ% Ta†ara id%et% pAraeb%_naec%ö naya!

"Nabakumar Babu: 'Gentlemen, educate your women folk—give them independence—drive out caste distinctions—and get widows remarried—then and only then shall our beloved Bharat homeland be able to compete with the likes of England and other civilized countries—OTHERWISE not [otherwise she cannot compete]!'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

C. kAraN, fk%nanA (fk%na nA), bael% "because [since, for]"—all mean the same thing, though

grammatically they function differently. (See Lesson 3, III for a discussion of bael% vs. kAraN|)

fk%nanA, like kAraN (but unlike bael% ), comes at the BEGINNING of a clause or phrase:

Yaid% nA fd%y, taeb% dair%‹a ÅbaZÄa tAhAr in%kaT haÉet% cuir% kair%eb%; fk%na nA, ÅnAhAer% mair%yA YAÉbAr janÄa à p&iõ%bIet% fk%ha ÇÉes51% nAÉ|

"If he doesn't [give some food to the poor], then the poor will of course steal from him, FOR [BECAUSE] no one has come upon this earth for the purpose of starving to death." (Advanced Bengali, p. 105)

taeb% ik% sAih%etÄ%r Öe◊%ZÄa flokaek% iZ%•A fd%äyA? _ÅbaZÄa nay| fk%nanA, kaib%r mait%gait% iZ%•aek%r

mait%gait%r saÈpUéNa ib%parIt| "Is the purpose of literature, then, to educate the people?—Certainly not. BECAUSE, the

aims and activities of the poet are completely opposite those of the teacher." (Advanced Bengali, p. 123)

D. Çr, ä, àbaMa "and"—used interchangeably, though àbaMa is slightly more formal.

51An older and obsolete form of Çes|

fk%nanA is usually written as one word. It is pronounced, however, the same as fk%na ("why") + the negative nA| To avoid confusion, the utterance "why not" is often expressed by nA fk%na or fk%n naya|

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E. ik%…, taeb%, tabu "but"—used interchangeably, though only tabu can take the ä suffix52 to become "still then, nevertheless."

OTHER COMMON CONJUNCTIONS:

ÅgatÄA "having no other recourse, perforce" Åtaàb53 "hence, thus, so" Åõaca "yet, still, even then" ÅéõAö/mAen% "that is to say, in other words, namely" ÇpAtatH "for the time being, for now at least" Öpara…, tAr Öpaer% "in addition, moreover, besides" àjaenÄ%/àÉjaenÄ%, fs%jaenÄ%/fs%ÉjaenÄ% "for this/that reason, consequently" kAej%É "therefore, consequently, so" taõAip% "despite that, nevertheless" „ak&tapae•% "in fact, actually" bael% "that" (See Lesson 3, III.) fY% "that" (See Lesson 3, III.)

Exercises—Translate the sentences below. Next, make up sentences using each and every of the "OTHER COMMON CONJUNCTIONS" listed above, taking the three sentences below as your general model. Be inventive.

1) It's raining now. Nevertheless I'm going out.

2) It's Pappa's birthday. Consequently I've got to go to his house today.

3) Because it's raining and I must go to Pappa's house, may I borrow your umbrella?

52This suffix, however, is considered superfluous by many. 53Note the spelling. This is the one word in which the initial à vowel is found following another letter.

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IV. MORE COMMON EXPRESSIONS The symbol "om"——often represented by the candra-bindu or nasalization sign (~ ), when

placed before a Hindu name means "deceased, departed, the late"; instead of the "om" symbol, the adjective ïa¸gIya or ïaégat/ïaégagata ("gone to heaven") may be used. The comparable expression used by Muslim Bengalis is marahuma|

. . .^ maenoemohan ca£abaiét% mahAZay iné%ÿAraN kair%yAeC%n| ". . . THE LATE Manomohan Cakrabarti has determined." (Advanced Bengali, p. 176) kail%kAtA ib%çaib%dÄAlay haÉet% „akAiZ%ta "Fm%manais%MahagIit%kA'y (1923) ÉhA ïaégata dIen%Zaca«‹a fs%n kaét&k

saÈpAid%ta haÉyA "maluyA' nAem% „akAiZ%ta haÉyAeC%| "In Ballads of Mymensingh (1923), brought out by Kolkata University, edited by THE

LATE Dineshcandra Sen, this [the following piece referred to] was published under the name of 'Maluya.'" (Advanced Bengali, p. 205)

"rAÉeP%la froiT% ÇärAta' ÖpanÄAsaiT%ra pAƒuil%ip% marahuem%ra pair%bAer%ra kACa fõ%ek% saMègaha kaer%na

rAjaZAhI ib%çaib%dÄAlaey%ra bAMlA ib%BAeg%ra „aeP%sara ä ÅúÄa•a DaH kAjI Çwula mAÕAna|. . . Åen%kaid%na fõ%ek%É marahuma ÇenoyAra pAZAra àkaiT% baÉ „akAZa karAra É∞CA fpoSaNa karaiC%lAma|

"Dr. Qazi Abdul Mannan, professor and head of the Department of Bangla at Rajshahi University, collected the manuscript of the novel Rifles, Bread, and Women from the DECEASED's family. . . . For many a day I had been cherishing the desire to publish a book by THE LATE Anwar Pasha." (Tajul Islam)

Çsala kaõA "if truth be told, actually, the truth is"

Çsala kaõA àÉ fY%, mAnueS%ra fd%hamaen%ra sakala „akAer%ra i£%yAra maeúÄ% £IRA fèZ%ı; fk%nanA, tA Öe◊%ZÄahIna|

"THE TRUTH OF THE MATTER is that among all activities associated with man's body and mind, play is best, because it is without purpose." (Advanced Bengali, p. 122)

Çes% YAy (nA) "to matter, make a difference whatsoever to someone [or not]" (same as àes% YAy)

ik… it%in% taKanaä ió%ka úaraet% pAer%nain% fY% gaedÄ% fl%KAÉ Çúuin%katA naya, Ca«d aõAkA bA nA õAkAet%ä ik%Cu Çes% YAya nA|

"However, he [Rabindranath] even then could not quite grasp the fact that writing [poetry] in prose does not in and of itself make for modernity; whether metre is present or absent DOES NOT MATTER [is irrelevant]." (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

Öió%et% bais%et% "frequently, at every step along the way"

fs% fY% dAdAra galaègaha haÉyA dARAÉyAeC%, ÉhAÉ tAhAek% Öió%et% bais%et% ^ib%eú%| "There she is, dependent upon her elder brother, and that fact stabs at her

CONSTANTLY." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

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Öpaiê%t haäyA "to become present," is used after more active verbs of coming and going (in their PAP form) and is often NOT TRANSLATED AT ALL or, if translated, rendered "to arrive, to show up, to appear"

. . . BIl rAjae‘% fGoRAy caeR% Öpaiê%t hael%n| ". . . he rode to the kingdom of the Bhils." (Advanced Bengali, p. 128)

àman ik% (àmanik%) "even, moreover, even to the extent that"

ZahId suharAäyAédI àbaMa Çbul hAiZ%m fto baeT%É àman ik% Pajalur rahamAn „aB&it% dai•%NapaÃI nAij%mu◊In ÖpadalaBu°a ib%iZ%ÛTa kaey%kajan fn%tAraä jaim% ÅõabA jaim%dArIet% ib%eZ%S fkoeno bÄai°%gata ïAéõa iC%elo nA|

"Shahid Suharwardi and Abul Hashim, naturally, BUT EVEN a certain few leaders of right-wing Nazimuddin's faction, Fazlur Rahman et al., had no particular personal interest in land or zamindaries." (Advanced Bengali, p. 261)

àes% YAy (nA) "to matter, make any difference to someone [or not]" (same as Çes% YAy)

ÇmAra ik∞%Cu àes% YAy nA| "IT MAKES NO DIFFERENCE to me whatsoever." jAyagATA Çim% BAelo kaer% fd%eK% in%ey%iC%| tAet% ik%Cu YAya Çes% nA| "I've reconnoitered the area well. THAT MAKES NO DIFFERENCE at all." (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

fk%man karA, fk%man-fk%man karA "to feel ill, ill at ease, upset, disturbed"

mA, ÇmAek% ib%dAy dAä, Çim% baÔaBIpuer% iP%er% YAÉ, ÇmAr „AN fk%man karaeC%| "Mother, bid me goodbye; I'm returning to Ballabhipur; my heart is ILL AT EASE."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 126) jael%r mata "easy, simple, clear, straightforward"

bÄabasAr ^GAöe~Goö àman jael%r mata fsojA kaer% buiJ%ey% id%el% ftomarA_ÇmAr Çr tar saÉeC% nA| "You folks have so simply and STRAIGHTFORWARDLY explained the intricacies of

business—I can hardly wait." (Jibanananda Das) dUr ha, dUr haä "be off! get out of here!"

dUr ha, Çj haet% tuÉ ÇmAr Za÷u hail%| "GO AWAY; from this day on, you have become my enemy."

(Advanced Bengali, p.128)

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dUer%r kaõA "not even a consideration; out of the question; beyond the pale; just fantasy"

ik%… fs% sab fto dUer%r kaõA, ik% kair%yA bARIet% saMasAr cail%et%eC% fs%É nA àKan samasÄA? "But all that was BEYOND THE REALM OF POSSIBILITIES; wasn't the problem now

simply how to keep the family going?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 142) úaer% nA in conjunction with two nouns, one in the locative, and means: "the noun NOT in the

LOCATIVE cannot be contained in, or overflows, the noun IN THE LOCATIVE"

. . . Puel%r bAgAen% Çna«da úaer% nA| ". . . joy OVERFLOWS the flower gardens." (Advanced Bengali, p. 118)

paRA ÇeC % genitive-3rd-person, "[I, etc.] have studied, read"

(cf., jAnA ÇeC% genitive-3rd-person, "[I, etc.] know, have learned" [See Lesson 7, III.])

(ÇmAAra) saMa˘&ta paRA ÇeC%| "I'VE STUDIED Sanskrit." Or: "I KNOW Sanskrit." (Advanced Bengali, p. 142) (ÇmAAra) saMa˘&ta jAnA ÇeC%| "I KNOW Sanskrit."

balaet% fg%el%a "one could say, it could be said, in fact, to tell the truth" (cf., saitÄ% balaet% ik% below)

ÇmAra mana jueR% iC%el%na rabI«‹anAõa, kaib%tAya gAen%| balaet% fg%el% rabI«‹anAeõa%ra hAta úaer%É calatAm| "Tagore pervaded my heart, through poetry and song. ONE COULD SAY I used to go

about holding Tagore's hand." (Jyotibhushan Caki) balA bAhulÄa "it goes without saying, of course"

àÉ Áaej%çarI kusumaek%, ik% jAin fk%na, fcoeK%ra fd%KA mA÷aÉ BAlabAis%yA fP%il%yAiC%la| balA bAhulÄa, mA tAhAet% Kuis% ha'na nAÉ, . . .

"This Brajeswari, who knows why, fell in love with Kusum as soon as she laid eyes on her. IT GOES WITHOUT SAYING, Ma [Brajeswari's mother-in-law] was not happy about that, . . . " (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

ÅiB%manÄu| ik% jAeno, Çim% fY% àkaTA fp%pAra paRaet% YAi∞C% fs%TAÉ ÇmAra Çem%ir%kA YAbAra àkamA÷a

kAraNa naya| fd%yA| balA bAhulÄa, ÇpanAra fm%ey%ra saeÆ%ä in%cayaÉ fd%KA karaeb%na| "Abhimanyu: 'You know, that I'm to present a paper [at a conference] is not my one and

only reason for going.' Deya: 'BUT OF COURSE, you will definitely be meeting with your daughter there also.'"

(Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

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bAman haey% ~cAed% hAtaa literally: "as a dwarf, hand [extended, reaching] toward the moon"—meaning: "out of one's element, ridiculously beyond one's capabilities"

maÀI| Çim% paraÈparAya Zuen%iC% fY%, fs% fd%eZ%ra baé–amAna narapait% mAnais%Mah nAik% àÉ kanÄAra pAiN%ègahaNa

kaet%Ä É∞CA kaer%na| rAjA| baeT%? bAman haey% ~cAed% hAt! aàÉ mAnais%Maha àkaTA Öpapa”Ir da–aka pu÷a, à kaõA saéwa÷a rAÙa|

tA à ÇbAra k&ˆakumArIek% ib%bAha kaetÄ% cAy? ik% ÇcaéYÄa! durA’A rAbaNa ik% Fb%ed%hIra ÖpaYu°a pA÷a?

"Minister: 'I heard through various sources that the present ruler of that land, Mansingh, desires to marry this maiden.'

King: 'Indeed? Ridiculous! A DWARF REACHING FOR THE MOON! This Mansingh is the adopted son of a concubine. This is known throughout the kingdom. And he wants to wed Krishnakumari? What cheek! Is the venal Ravana fit bridegroom for Sita?'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

bAeroTA bAej%% literally: "to strike 12 o'clock"—meaning: "to be finished, done for, ruined,

destroyed" (the thing/person so destroyed is in the GENITIVE)

~Juek% pa'eR% kAja karaet% karaet% YAed%ra fm%üdaeƒ%ra bAeroTA fb%ej% YAy? "What about those whose backs ARE RUINED doing stoop labor?" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) iZKA| [fT%ib%la fõ%ek% jIbanAna«da dAeZ%ra fèZ%ıa kaib%tATAra baÉTA tuel% fs%TA id%ey% üiD%ek% fp%TAy] ib%ib%| Çer% Çer%, jIbanAna«da dAeZ%ra fèZ%ıa kaib%tATAra bAeroTA nAÉ54 bA bAjAil%| "Shikha: [Picks up Jibanananda Das' Best Poems from the table and beats Rudy with it.] Bibi: 'Hey, what are you doing! It would be nice if you didn't DESTROY Jibanananda

Das' Best Poems, thank you.'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) maen% karA (can mean) "to mind, take exception to, take offense, think otherwise"

àtaid%n paer% úanÄabAd jAnAi∞C% bael% ÇZA kair% ik%Cu maen% karaeb%n nA| "I hope you are not going to be OFFENDED by the fact that I am thanking you after so

long." (from Lesson 13, IV) maen% maen% balA "to think to oneself [not speaking out loud]"

ik%… fb%Z fboJA YAi∞C%la fs% maen% maen% balaiC%la,eC%el%rA fK%lA karaet% jAen% nA, fk%bal Yata rAejÄ%r fC%el%mAnuiS%|

"But it was quite obvious that she was THINKING TO HERSELF that boys don't know how to play, just a lot of childishness." (Advanced Bengali, p. 116)

54The É here is an emphatic: nA + É| See also Lesson 20, II, B.

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mAõA GAmAeno literally: "to cause one's head to perspire"—meaning: "to be bothered by, to worry over, to sweat [in the figurative sense]"

ik%… Çim% ÇpAtataH pA˘Ael%ra maeto mahAZUenÄ%ra ^PAkA jAyagAgueloek% in%ey% fto mAõA GAmAi∞C% nA! "I, however, unlike Pascal, AM for the time being not BOTHERED BY the empty spots

in space." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) mAnuS karA "to raise a child" mAnuS haäyA "to grow up"

i„%yasaKI, ftomAr hAet% ÇmAr fgohaek% ^saep% id%lum, tuim% mAey%r maeto àek% mAnuS fkoero| "Dear confidante, I place Goha in your hands; like a mother, RAISE him." (Advanced Bengali, p. 127) fgoha fs%É bIranagaer% kamalAbatIr Gaer% mAnuS haet% lAgael%n| "Goha began TO GROW UP in Kamalavati's home in that very Viranagar." (Advanced Bengali, p. 127)

YA KuiZ tAÉ% "whatever one wants"

kalArAejÄ%ra mahApuüSaed%ra YA-KuiZ-tAÉ karabAra fY% Åiú%kAra ÇeC%, Étara iZ%ÓIed%ra fs% Åiú%kAra fn%É|

"The authority that great personages in the field of art have for doing WHATEVER THEY WANT, that authority is not possessed by the lesser artisans."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 121) (YA'e∞C% tAÉ, [YA Ée∞C% tAÉ] % "whatever one wants," often used negatively, designating

something of inferior quality or an action that does not conform to civil decorum) YA habAr (tA) haey%eC% "what was to be has happened; it's over; the inevitable took place"

tA CARA, YA habAra tA fto haey%É fg%eC%| àKana fto Çim% ÇeroegÄ%ra paeõ%| "And besides, IT HAD TO BE AND IT'S OVER. But now I'm on the path to recovery." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

fY%man/fY%man úara/fY%man úaün "take for example, for instance"

àÉ Öösaeb%r ib%iB%Õa ÅÆa, fY%man gaü jAgAeno, . . . "This festival has various parts, SUCH AS [for example] the awakening of the cows, . . ." (Advanced Bengali, p. 199)

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saitÄ% balaet% ik% "to tell the truth, as a matter of fact" cf., balaet% fg%el% above

ik%… saitÄ% balaet% ik% paRAZuenoTA fkonaid%naÉ tAr ft%man BAelo lAgata nA| "But TO TELL THE TRUTH, she never much liked studying." (Dilara Hashem)

hAäyA KAäyA "to have a bit of fresh air"

rAy baMaZaelocan bÄAnAjéI bAhAdur jaim%nadAr ÅÄAƒ ÅnArAir% mÄAij%e¯¡T fb%el%GATA-eb%¥ „atÄaha Fb%kAel% KAel%r úAer% hAäyA KAÉet% YAn|

"Ray Bamsalocan Banerji Bahadur, zamindar and honorary magistrate of the Beleghata court, went daily in the afternoon to the bank of the canal TO HAVE A BIT OF FRESH AIR." (Advanced Bengali, p. 135)

hAäyA badael% YAäyA "to go somewhere [change the air] for health reasons" (fc%e∂ YAäyA) (same as above)

fsomanAõa sapair%bAer% fc%e∂% YAi∞C%la_Ée∞C% iC%la kAåIra YAy_ik%MbA Fn%int%Ala muesOir%et%| "Somnath was heading with his whole family FOR A CHANGE OF SCENERY, FOR

HEALTH REASONS—he had wanted to go to Kashmir—or Nainital, or Musoori." (Jibanananda Das)

hAjAra fhok "after all, after all is said and done, still then"

BAbatum à ÇbAra kI-rakaemr% kaõA, hAjAra fhoka BAÉ fto_ "I used to wonder—what sort of language was that! AFTER ALL, he was a brother,

wasn't he—" (Buddhadeva Bose) Ba°a„asAd| à C~uRIek% fto hAta kaetÄ% pAraib%? gadAúra| Çe≥ %, tAra BAbanA ik%? fgoTA kuiR%k` TAkA Karaca kaelÄ%_ Ba°a„asAd| ku-iR%-TA%-kA! bail%s` ik%? gadAúra| àra kama haeb% nA, bara¥a fj%yAdA nAgael%ä nAgaed% pAer%, hAjAero fhoka C~uRI baÖmAnuS ik% nA| "Bhaktaprasad [an old lecher]: 'Can you get your hands on this girl, really?' Gadadhar: 'Yes, sir, what's there to worry about? If you're willing to spend around

twenty rupees—' Bhaktaprasad: 'Twen-ty-ru-pees! What are you saying?' Gadadhar: 'It won't be less than that. Rather, it might be even more expensive. AFTER

ALL IS SAID AND DONE, the girl is a married woman, now isn't she.'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

madain%kA| úanadAsa, Çim%, BAÉ, satI ˚I naÉ baeT%, ik%… ÇmAra ta nArIra „ANa baeT%_hAjAra haÖka,

paer%ra duHaKa fd%Kael% ÇmAra maen% fb%danA haya| "Madanika: 'Dhanadasa, I am, friend, no perfect lady, but I do indeed have a woman's

heart—and WHEN ALL IS SAID AND DONE, I feel sorrow when I see another suffer.'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

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LESSON 2020

I. kaeõopakaõan "tuÉ nAik% Çrab fd%eZ% YAi∞C%s?' bAdaZA ik%Cu bael% nA| fbon tAr hAt úaer% ÇbAr bael%, "saitÄ%?' bAdaZAek% BAt fb%eR% id%ey% bael%, "tael% tael% kaKan tuÉ ió%k karail%? ÇmarA ik%∞Cu fT%r fp%lAm nA? ftor baŒurA f^Koj karaet% àes%iC%la|' bAdaZA m&du m&du hAes%| ÇbAr tAr ïae·%r fGor lAeg%| ÇbAr fs% rahasÄamay haey% äeó%| ib%úabA fbon cAr fC%el%em%ey% in%ey% bAep%r GAeR% ÇeC%| sab samay ™Ain%et% mail%n haey% õAek%| àKan fs% àkaTA ÇZA fd%Kaet% fp%ey% baRa bÄa˙a haey% YAy| "Kub BAelo hay| kata flok baRaelok haey% fg%la Çrab fd%eZ% ig%ey%| ftor àta buiÿ%, fjoyAn fC%el%, du' id%en%É tuÉ lAK TAkA jamAet% pAraib%| taKan ÇmAr ik%… àkaTA ij%in%s àen% id%ib%|' "ik% baelo|' "id%ib% fto?' "ik% cAä baelo|' "àkaTA fs%lAÉ fm%iZ%n, tAhael% fd%iK%s ÇmAek% Çr ftoed%r TAnaet% haeb% nA| fs%lAÉ-fT%lAÉ kaer% Çim% Kub cAil%ey% in%et% pAraba| fKokanaTAä baRa haey% YAeb%| tuÉ Yaid% äek%ä taKan Çrab fd%eZ% in%ey% fY%et% pAir%s, pAraib% nA?' "pAraba nA fk%na? Çeg% Çim% YAÉ fto|' fKokan bAdaZAr saeÆ% bAÉer%r Gaer% fZoy| rAet% fKokan bael%, "ÇmAek% àkaTA f‚%n ik%en% fd%eb%, cAcA| Kub baRa fd%eK% f‚%n|' "f‚%n? àkaTA f‚%n ik%naet% kata TAkA lAeg% jAin%s? fkoiT% fkoiT% TAkA|' "dUr, fK%lanAr f‚%n, bÄATArI fd%yA| Çim% fs%id%n Çbued%r bAiR%et% fd%eK%iC%|' fKokan mahA ÖösAeh% f‚%en%r baéNanA fd%y| Çbur bAbA dubAÉet% Çj du'baCar haelo fg%eC%| Ñd karaet% àes%eC% kaey%kaid%n haelo|

(Fs%yad ZAmasul hak, "ïae·%r fB%taer% basabAs,' "„AcIn baMaeZ%r in%Haïa sa»An' ègaeÃ%ra Å»aéBu°a [òAkA: sabÄasAcI, 1981], p&Ha 71-72)

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II. THE NEGATIVE A. Bangla has several negatives:

nA = both (a) "no" and (b) the negative used with most verb tenses —fn% is used in place of nA by some, some of the time

ÅnÄAy Çim% fkona maet%É saÉet% pAir%en,% óAkuraiJ%, . . . "I cannot tolerate injustice one iota, sister-in-law, . . . " (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) nAnA bAra kaya äek% bAraNa kaer% fg%el%na_äer% ^CuiR% ^kAid%sa fn%, nAik% kAÕA BAelo

lAeg% nA| "Grandfather reprimanded her several times, 'Hey kiddo, don't bawl. You

know I can't stand crying.'" (Dilara Hashem) in%/nAÉ = negative with two tenses, PRESENT COMPLETIVE & PAST COMPLETIVE (In Kolkata's dialect, in% is used; in Dhaka's and in SADHU, nAÉ is used.) fn%É/nAÉ = negative for all persons of the defective verb ÇC- in the present tense (In Kolkata's dialect, fn%É is used; in Dhaka's and in SADHU, nAÉ is used.)

Çim% ÇiC%_Çim% fn%É "I am—I am not" tuÉ ÇiC%s_tuÉ fn%É "you are—you are not" tuim% ÇCa_tuim% fn%É "you are—you are not" Çpain% ÇeC%n_Çpain% fn%É "you are—you are not" fs% ÇeC%_fs% fn%É "he/she/it is—he/she/it is not" it%in% ÇeC%n_it%in% fn%É "she/he is—she/he is not"

nArA = "to be unable," used primarily in poetic language, e.g., nAir% "I am not able."

*#naäyA$ = in theory the verb "not to be" (in fact, this verb is not found in the dictionary); though its verbal noun form does not exist, inflected forms for all persons in the PRESENT TENSE do exist and are similar to haäyA ("to be")

Çim% naÉ "I am not" tuÉ nas55 "you are not" tuim% naä "you are not" Çpain% nan "you are not"

55Remember: the vowel is "high" (o, not ]) because of the once-present i vowel: n] + is = nos.

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fs% nay "he/she/it is not" it%in% nan "she/he is not"

Remember: In general, the NEGATIVE FOLLOWS the VERB it is negating.

B. nA PRECEDES the VERB in the following situations:

B.1. in Yaid% clauses:

tuim% Yaid% fs%KAen% nA YAä tA hael% Çim% YAba nA| "If you do not go there, I shall not go." (Intro Bengali, p. 284)

B.2. with nonfinite verb forms, i.e., any verb that is not inflected for person and tense—(a) the verbal noun; (b) the infinitive; (c) the conditional participle; and (d) the PAP:

fs%KAen% nA YAäyA BAla| "It's best not to go there." ftomAek% fs%KAen% nA fY%et% bael%iC%| "I told you not to go there." tuim% fs%KAen% nA fg%el% Çim% YAba nA| "If you do not go there, I'll not go." (Intro Bengali, p. 284)

In SADHU, the "h' is considered part of the stem, as though it were an É-stem verb: naih%, naeh%, etc.; see Appendix 1 for É-stem SADHU verbs listed under "(C)V(i)."

in% always FOLLOWS the verb. Many writers, BUT NOT ALL, attach the in% to the end of the verb, like a suffix, e.g., itin tA kaernin| ("He didn't do that.").

fn%É/nAÉ, (*naäyA "not to be"), and (nArA "to be unable") are complete negative verbs in and of themselves, and thus the issue of a following or preceding negative never arises.

nA, in specific situations, PRECEDES the verb.

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fs%KAen% nA ig%ey% är saeÆ% fd%KA karaet% pAir% in%| "Not having gone there, I couldn't meet with her."

In a sentence which has a clause or clauses ending in a PAP and another clause with a negated finite verb, the NEGATIVE generally applies to the ENTIRE ACTION (or several actions) of the sentence—similar to what happens in an English sentence with more than one verb, the first of which is negative. For example: fs%KAen% ig%ey% tAr saeÆ% fd%KA karalAm nA| "I didn't go there and [I didn't] meet her." (NOT: "I did go there and didn't meet her.") Compare with the English sentence: "I didn't go there and meet her" does NOT mean "I didn't go there but I did meet her." The single negative, in both cases, applies to both verbs in the sentence. There are sentences, however, where it is clear from context that the negative is not intended to apply to each and every action within the sentence: fs%KAen% ig%ey%ä tAr saeÆ% fd%KA karalAm nA| "Even though I went there, I didn't meet him."

B.3. in clauses with an infinitive + pArA where pArA means "may" or "might":56

ik%… sakal kaõAr Ö–ar nA id%et% pAir%| "But I may not answer every question." (Bankimcandra Cattopadhyay) hayata, kAla iP%ir%eb%na| nAä iP%raet% pAer%na, . . . "Perhaps, tomorrow he'll return. Then again, he might not return, . . . " (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) ftomAr subacanI baRaelok nA haet% pAer%, ik%… . . . "Although your Subacani might not be a rich person, nevertheless . . . " (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

56For a discussion of pArA, review Lesson 15, II, B and C.

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B.4. in dependent clauses expressing "whether or not/whether"—the "or" is bA when the statement is definitive ("it doesn't matter/makes no difference whether . . . or not, still then . . . ") and ik% when there is uncertainty (see also Lesson 16, III); the nA precedes the second occurrence of the verb in both constructions:

kAej%É bÄai°%gataBAeb% üic%kar fhok bA nA fhok, tAed%r bAd fd%äyA YAy nA| "And therefore whether personally they [the lesser writers being discussed] are men of

taste or not, they cannot simply be excluded." Or: "And therefore let them personally be men of taste or no, they cannot simply be excluded." (Anon.)

taeb% bAbAjI fd%KA fd%eb%n ik% nA fd%eb%n fs%TA kAl rAe÷%r Çeg% fboJA YAeb% nA| "But whether Babaji [a ghost] will or will not show himself, that won't be known before

tomorrow night." (Satyajit Ray)

B.5. in emphatic expressions such as "so what if . . . not" or "who cares if . . . not":

fb%Z, nAÉ57 bA Çis%la! "Fine, so what if she didn't come!" (Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay) ÇmAra fC%el% ÇeC%, Çra fk%ha ÇèZaya nA id%ka, fs% fd%eb%É! "My son is there. So let no one else provide me with shelter, he will!" Or: "So what if no

one else provides me with shelter, he will!" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) C. nA is the conjunction "or" in interrogative constructions (see also Lesson 16, III):

fC%el%puel% fs%É duiT%É fto, nA Çraä haey%eC%? "[You have] those two children, don't you—or were more born?" (Jibanananda Das) maiN%kA äpaer% cael% YAeb%n, nA ik%Cu•aN baes% kATAeb%n fB%eb% fd%KaiC%el%n| "Manika was mulling over whether to go upstairs or sit awhile." (Jibanananda Das)

Note: The interrogative may not be obvious from the punctuation, as in the above example, where the question is imbedded in the larger noninterrogative sentence.

D. àkaTA nA àkaTA "one or another, something or other" (See also Lesson 3, II, B.)

Zahar-bAjAr jAyagA, àkaTA nA àkaTA ik%Cu ÖpAy haÉeb% àÉ kuhaek% paiR%yAÉ fs% fs%KAen% ig%yAiC%la| "It was a market town—some [employment] or other would turn up. Under that delusion

he had gone there." (Advanced Bengali, p. 141) 57The É here is an emphatic: nA + É|

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E. nA is also a filler word, almost a stylistic affectation, used primarily by women:

iZ%KA| [üiD%ek%] äH, ftomek% fto balAÉ haya in%,_jAeno, Çim% nA, kAlaek% rAe÷% àkaTA ïa·a fd%eK%iC%lAma|

"Shikha: [to Rudy] 'Oh, you haven't been told,—you know, I, well, I had a dream last night.'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

F. either/or, neither/nor, and nAhay

"Either" and "or" are expressed in Bangla by the 3rd-person of the verb "to be" ("either" = hay and "or" = either nA hay [sometimes written as one word, nAhay] or nay) and precede the word, phrase, or clause to which they logically belong:

hay tuim% nAhay Çim% fs%KAen% YAba| "Either you or I shall go there." hay tuim% fs%KAen% YAä nay Çim% YAba| "Either you go there, or I shall." hay tuim% ïayaM Éi«d%rA, naya fkona mAyAib%nI| "Either you yourself are Indira, or you are some sorceress."

(Bankimcandra Cattopadhyay) BagabAn, ÇmAra YA' fhok` àkaTA ÖpAya kaer% dAä| hay mAõA tuil%yA sagaeéw% ïAmIra Gaer% YAÉet% dAä,

nA haya, fC%el%eb%lAra fs%É in%ic%»a in%iéw%´a id%naguil% iP%rAÉyA dAä, Çim% in%HçAsa fP%il%yA ~bAic%| "Lord, whatever is in store for me, so be it, but remedy the situation. Either let me return

to my husband's house proudly with head held high, or give me back those carefree, uncomplicated days of childhood, that I might breathe a sigh of relief." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

cail%t-BASAr iZ%ÛTa „aeyog ÇmarA hay jaœagata Åiú%kAer% iZ%ZukAl haÉet%É iZ%iK%yA õAik%, nay

bÄAbahAir%k jIbaen% iZ%i•%ta floek%r kaõAbAétAy àbaMa sAih%etÄ% ÉhAr Fb%iZ%ÛTÄguil% la•Äa kair%yA ÉhAr rIit%-nIit% Çya–a kair%yA laÉ|

"We either learn idiomatic use of the colloquial language from childhood, as a birthright, or, in our daily adult lives, master its conventions by observing the characteristics of it in both literature and live conversation." (Advanced Bengali, p. 231)

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For expressions of doubt, uncertainty, or approximation, ik% is used in place of nay or nAhay to mean "or"; compare with the use of ik in Lesson 19, III, A.3.

rAjA| bala ik%, maiÀ%? à saMabAda ftomAek% fk% id%el? maÀI| mahArAja, úanadAs haya ÅdÄa Fb%kAel% ik% kalÄa „Aet% àes% Öpaiê%ta haeb%| tAra mueK% à sakala

kaõA Zunael%É ta Çpain% ib%çAs karaeb%na? "King: 'What are you saying, minister? Who gave you this news?' Minister: 'Maharaja, either this very afternoon or tomorrow morning Dhanadasa will be

present. If you hear it from his lips, will you then believe it?'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

"Neither" and "nor" are both expressed by the simple negative nA, again (usually) preceding the word, phrase, or clause to which it logically belongs:

ÅiB%manÄu| . . . ÇmAed%ra fd%eZ%ra floka in%rApa–A ib%Saey% àek%bAer% saec%tana naya,_nA in%ej%ed%ra

in%rAp–A ib%Saey%, nA ÅnÄaed%ra| "Abhimanyu: ' . . . the people of our country are not at all sensitive to matters of safety—

neither their own safety nor that of others.'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) nA pAralAm ftomAek% ^bAcAet%, nA pAralAm in%ej% ^bAcaet%| "Neither was I able to rescue you nor able to survive myself." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay) „aÒaTAr fB%tar nA-iC%la ib%‹Up, nA-iC%la fkonaä ^JAJ| "In the question there was neither sarcasm nor any sting." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay) mA bail%el%na, "fs% saŒÄAra paer% haeb%| nAer% tAmAsA nay, Çra samay fn%É_fs% pAgaelra nA ÇeC%

TAkAkaiR%, nA ÇeC% flokajan_ÇmAek% saba BAra baÉet% haeb% . . .' "Mother said, 'It will take place after dusk. No, my child, it is no joke. And there's no

time—that idiot has neither the money nor the people—I'm going to have to bear all the responsibility . . .'" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

YAka, fs% kaõA fZ%Sa haey% fg%eC%| fs% kaõA tuel% fkona pae•%É Çr lABa haeb% nA_ftomAraä nA,

ÇmAraä nA| "Let it be. The matter is over. Raising the issue again will be of no benefit for either

party—not for you nor for me." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

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nA hay/nAhay, besides being one of the two possible counterparts to hay in an "either/or" sentence, has a number of other meanings:

"at least"

àKana nA haya mA ÇeC%na, ik%… it%in% ta ic%rakAla ^fb%ec% õAkaeb%na nA| "At least [his] mother is there now, but she will not live forever." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

"all right, in that case"

. . . f™AbAla äyAiém%Ma, ègInahAÖsa àeP%k`T`! Çim% ä bÄApAer% KubaÉ saec%tana| ftomarA nA-haya sAba¡aip%kAla haey% ig%ey% frhAÉ pAeb%| ÇmAed%ra kI haeb%? ¡aip%k`es%ra sAmaen% nAik% maüBUim% CARA paõa fn%É|

". . . global warming, green-house effect! I'm very much aware of all that. In that case, of course, you [in England] will become subtropical and escape punishment. But what about us? The only road that lies ahead for the tropics is desertification." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

"what if, how about if, why not"

nA hay Bair% ih%es%eb% CARaeb%n, sutIéõabAbu, . . . "How about if you sold it by the bhari [unit of weight], Sutirtha Babu, . . "

(Jibanananda Das) Exercises—Translate:

1) If you are not good, you will not get any rasagullas to eat.

2) You should not eat too many chillies.

3) It might not rain today.

4) Let's read either Tarashankar or Manik.

5) Are we going to read Mahasweta Devi, or Syed Shamsul Haq?

6) Best not to keep unclaimed merchandise [fb%äyAir%s mAl] in the house too long.

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III. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE (a.k.a. qualifier) & NUMBERS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The basic rules governing numbers and the use of the qualifiers (TA, iT%, and jan) are given in Intro Bengali, p. 94. To review: The appropriate qualifier is usually added to a number when the noun following represents discrete, countable items; when the noun following is a unit of measure (of mass, time, money, distance, etc.), then the number usually does not take a qualifier. ^pAcaTA p&ıA "five pages" (COUNTABLE units) ^pAc Ga∆TA "five hours" (MEASURE of time) ^pAc TAkA "five rupees [India] / takas [Bangladesh]" (MEASURE of money)

A. EMPHASIS USING aTA—To EMPHASIZE the length of time, the qualifier could be added to

the number, thereby calling attention to each individual, countable hour:

Çpain% ik% puero ^pAcaTA Ga∆TA Åep%•A karaiC%el%n? "Were you waiting a full five long hours?" flokaiT% tAra fkoeno Ö–ara nA id%ey% jAnaet% cAya, "àka fZo, mA÷a àkaeZoTA TAkA mÄAenja karaet%

pAraeb%na, sÄAra?' "The fellow, without replying, wanted to know, 'A hundred, will you be able to manage a

mere one hundred takas, sir?'" (Syed Shamsul Haq) B. UNITS OF MEASURE—Units come in all shapes and sizes, for example, "pages," "cups,"

"steps," and "stories," and, in keeping with the basic rules, do not take a qualifier. If, in the first example above (pAcaTA p&ıA), we were MEASURING how much we just read, and it happened to be five pages worth of text, then the qualifier would not be used:

kata paeR%eC%n? "How much have you read?" Çim% ^pAc p&ıA paeR%iC%| "I read/have read five pages."

The focus here is on measuring the total amount (of the book, magazine, or whatever) read, not on counting as separate entities the individual units known as pages.

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Another example of a number without a qualifier, used to MEASURE the total amount rather than to count discrete objects:

àk kAp cA KAeb%n? "Will you have a cup of tea?"

It is not the cup that is being counted but the tea which is being measured—the unit of measure is the cup. Compare with: àkaTA cAey%r kAp fB%eÆ% fg%eC%| "A teacup got broken." And, stairs can be MEASURED by the number of steps they have:

. . . ɢuel% Kuba laÍA sAta-ÇTa úApa i~s%iR% iC%la, . . . ". . . at school there was a rather long seven-to-eight step stairway, . . . " (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

Likewise, talA, meaning "story, level, floor," can be a unit of MEASURE:

pair%Saed%r in%jaïa cAratalA Babaen% kAéYAlay, ègaÃAlay, pAóAgAr, . . . "within the Society's four-story building are offices, a library, a reading room, . . . " (from Lesson 17, I) ik%nu fgoyAlAra gail%| fdotalA bAiR%ra flohAra-garAed%-fd%äyA àkatalA Gara paeõ%ra úAer%É| "It was in Kinu-the-cowherd's lane. A two-story house's ground floor flat, iron bars in the window openings, overlooking that narrow path." (Rabindranath Tagore)

As prefixes, chiefly, fdo may be used in place of du, ft% for it%n, and fcO for cAr, for 2, 3, and 4 respectively; see section G below.

talA, with a number prefixed, moreover, can be a noun, meaning the particular floor itself:

tAek% . . . àkatalAya kayalA rAKabAra Gaer%ra àka pAeZ% bAsa karaet% id%ey%iC%luma| ". . . I had made a place for him [the sheep] on one side of the room on the first floor

[ground floor] where coal is stored." (Rabindranath Tagore) fdotalAra dai•%Naid%ek%ra fs%É GaraTAya õAeko nA ÇjakAla? "These days why don't you stay in that room on [of] the second floor which faces south?"

(Jibanananda Das)

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bARIra iB%taer% ˚Ipu÷aid%gaek% f„%raNa kair%yA Çim% Fb%óakaKAnAra ft%talAy Öió%lAm| "I sent my wife and children into the house and went up to the third floor of the baithak-

khana." (Advanced Bengali, p. 98) Å∂ail% iB•u su«dara-samu‹aek% sAtatalAr Öpara àkaTA Gaer% in%ey% fg%elo| "Anjali took the mendicant Sundar-samudra to a room on the seventh floor." (Intro Bengali, Pt. II, Lesson 28a, p. 188)

C. EXCEPTIONS to the basic rules governing numbers—Some "exceptions" are predictable

and can be considered standard idiomatic usage; others represent options which may or may not be exercised (speaker's choice).

Fairy tales and the like conventionally begin with something such as àk fd%eZ% àk rAjA iC%el%n| "In a land there was a king," comparable to "Once upon a time there was . . . " Less predictable but still fairly common are other exceptions to the rule. One finds both

subacanI àelo tAr it%n fC%el%ek% in%ey%| "Suvacani brought her three children." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

and it%in% taö•aNAö sa»An duÉiT%ek% saeÆ% kair%yA raäyAnA haÉel%n| "He set off then and there, taking along his two children." (Asutosh Bhattacarya)

It is more often the case that the qualifier is omitted (when, according to the rule, one would expect it) than that it is inserted (when one would not expect it, given the rule). For example:

maPaHaïael% nATak karaet% fg%eC% òAkAr àk tueKoR ÅiB%en%tA| "A seasoned actor went to perform in the boondocks." (Lesson 14, I) bAbAra fp%naZana Çra baRa du BAÉey%ra sAhAeYÄ% saMasAra cael%| baRa duiT% BAÉä àmana fkoeno baRa bÄabasA

kaer% nA fY%, tArA TAkA fb%ra karaet% pAer%| "We get by on father's pension and with the help of my two elder brothers. Those two

elder brothers, however, do not hold down such a job that they can afford to part with that money." (Syed Shamsul Haq, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 132)

^hÄA, Çim% fCoTa BAÉ| ÇmAra Çero it%na BAÉ ÇeC%| "Yes, I'm the youngest. I have three brothers." (Syed Shamsul Haq, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 133)

When the number ends with the word "hundred" (fZoa) or "thousand" (hAjAra) or "lakh" (lAKa, la•) or "crore" (fkoiT%/fkoTIa), the qualifier is usually omitted:

àÉ baÉgueloet% ^pAc fZo pAtA| "There are five hundred pages in these books." (Intro Bengali, p. 147)

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fs%KAen% sAir% id%ey% it%naeZo fC%el% ~dAiR%ey% â gAna gAÉtAma| "We used to stand there in a line, three hundred boys, and sing that song." (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

The following examples are all from Saradindu Bandyopadhyay's children's story, "sadAiZ%eb%ra fGoRA-fGoRA kAƒ' ("Zaraid%a«du Åm`in%bAsa' Å»aégata, 4éõ Kaƒ, „atulaca«‹a gu‡a saÈpAid%ta [kail%kAtA: Çna«da pAbail%ZAés, 1974]). Note when aTA/iT% or jana is used and when not:

iZ%bAjIra „Aya ^pAc hAjAra is%pAhI puNAya Öpaiê%ta ÇeC%, tArAä KAeb%; tACARA ca«‹agaRa dueég%ra ^pAcaeZo floka| saba im%il%ey% daZa hAjAra Çsaeb%|

"Sivaji has about five thousand soldiers stationed in Pune, and they too will want to eat; moreover, the Candragarh fort has five hundred people. Altogether, ten thousand will be coming."

dueég% ik%… àkaeZo ra•I ÇeC%| "There are a hundred defenders in the fort, mind you." muhUétamaeúÄ% cArajana „aharIra muKa àbaM hAta-pA f~beú% fP%lA hala| "In an instant the four watchmen were gagged and bound hand and foot." ftoraNa-ŸAra Kuel% id%ey% sadAiZ%ba fs%KAen% ^pAcajana pAhArAdAra ^dARa kair%ey% bAik% flokajana in%ey%

Ç˙Abael%ra id%ek% calala| "Having opened the main gate, Sadasiva stationed five guards there and with the

rest headed for the stables." iTkArAma, tuim% daZajana floka in%ey% YAä . . . "Tikaram, take ten men and go . . . " gajAnana, ftomarA ib%Zajana äTAya ig%ey% tAed%ra iG%er% ~dAiR%ey% õAeko . . . "Gajanan, the ten of you go there and surround them . . . " ~cAed%ra Çeloya pa¥AZajana fjoyAen%ra fco*ka ÖösAeh% cakacaka kaer% Öóala| "In the light of the moon, fifty soldiers' eyes shone with excitement." iZ%bAjI du' hAjAra fGoRA fp%ey% in%caya Kuba KuZI haeb%na| "Sivaji will be ecstatic to get two thousand horses." tArapara hukuma id%la, "saba KAbAer%ra fJolA daZaTA fGoRAra ip%eó% cApAä|' "Then the order came, 'Load up all the bags of food on the backs of ten horses.'"

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D. The English word "number" has been borrowed by Bangla; e.g., àk naÍar ("no. 1"):

kata naÍar bAs ÇsaeC%? "What number bus is coming?"

Note: The interrogative kata is used here where English uses "what"; in Bangla, one says "how many/much number," not "what or which number."

Ca naÍar bAs à•uiN% Çsaeb%| "No. 6 bus will be coming momentarily."

E. Adding àk ("one") as a suffix to any number (and to KAn, as in KAen%ka) MAKES THAT

NUMBER LESS PRECISE; the construction can be translated as the number + "or so," or "around/about" + the number:

KAen%ka "one or so" du'àk/duey%ka "a couple" ^pAec%ka "around five"

Except for "a couple," the thing (or the class, "jan," in the case of humans) being counted usually PRECEDES the number.

Thing/class FOLLOWS number ("a couple"): . . . ÇmAr ib%çAs Çim% ÇmAr saeÆ% àKAnakAr 2|1 jan bAÆAlI baŒuek%ä àÉ kAej% TAin%et%

pAir%ba| (jan "person" FOLLOWS) ". . . I believe that I shall be able to draw into this work with me a couple of Bengali

friends from here also." (Advanced Bengali, p. 270)

Thing/class PRECEDES number (other than "a couple"): fk%bala jagadIZabAbu sae«d%ha kaer% janaa Caey%ka bAXAlIek%% õAnAya fT%en% in%ey% fg%eC%na| (jan "person" PRECEDES) "The only thing [that happened was] Jagadish babu, suspecting [some of them] dragged

six or so Bengalis to the police station." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) baCara-duey%ra maeúÄ% fs% bAra-^pAec%ka ÉhAek% baŒaka rAiK%yA àkaiT% kair%yA TAkA id%yAeC%| (bAra "time" PRECEDES) "In two years he had taken it [a bell-metal plate] five or so times before as a pledge and

lent [Gafur] a rupee on each occasion." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

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pir%bAra tAr Kuba baRa naya_fs%, tAr ˚I_àkaiT% fm%ey%, bAero baCara bayasa, fC%el%iT%ra bayasa baCara sAet%ka| (baCara "year" PRECEDES)

"His family was not large—he and his wife—a daughter, twelve years of age, and the boy's age was about seven." (Jibanananda Das)

hAjAir%bAga fõ%ek% mAÉla caiÔ%eZ%ka dUer% fB%RA nadI fp%ir%ey% mAÉla KAen%ka ^hATAra par rAjarA<A| (mAÉla

"mile" PRECEDES) "About forty miles from Hazaribagh, crossing the Bhara river, then after walking a mile

or so [we came to] Rajarappa." (Satyajit Ray) . . . sa‡Aha KAen%ek%ra jaenÄ% tArA fb%RAet% ig%ey%iC%la muiéZ%dAbAda| (sa‡Aha "week" PRECEDES) ". . . for a week or so they visited Murshidabad." (Dilara Hashem) „Aya Za'it%en%ka YA÷I, ib%Za-~paic%ZaTA sAeh%ba iPir%ÆI, ÖeR%, mA‹AjI, pA∂AbI, tAä Za'ed%eR%ka haeb%, bAkI

baémA, . . . (fZoa "hundred" PRECEDES) Nearly three hundred passengers, twenty to twenty-five Englishmen and Eurasians,

Orissans, Madrasis, Punjabis, they came to about a hundred and a half, and the rest, Burmese, . . . (Saratcandra Cattapadhyay)

F. The word fgoTA ("whole, full, entire, undivided") precedes numbers and other adjectives of

quantity and can be translated "A TOTAL OF" or LEFT UNTRANSLATED:

_fgoTA kataka ib%ba a Kued% fC%el% . . . "—several small naked boys . . . " (Advanced Bengali, p. 115) tuim%, BAÉ, àKAen% àkaTu õAka, Çim% ig%ey% ära saeÆ% fgoTA duÉ kaõA kaey% Çis%| "You, my friend, wait here a bit. Let me go have a word or two with him." (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

When preceded by fgoTA, the numbers themselves do not take the qualifier TA: Çr inlAm fgoTA bAr puraeno hailÖeDr Cibr iBiDä| "And I took a total of twelve old Hollywood movie videos." (Dilip Basu)

fgoTA often modifies the more general number expressions ending in àk: fgoTA duey%k "a couple" fgoTA key%k "several" fgoTA pa¥AeZ%k "a total of about fifty" kalakAtAya YaKana „aõama Éfyo Éfyo fb%erola, Åin%la àka saeÆ% fgoTA ÇeÛT%ka ik%en% in%ey% àla ɢuel%| "When the yo-yo first appeared in Kolkata, Anil bought a total of about eight of them all

at once and brought them to school." (Satyajit Ray)

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fgoTA, an adjective, is not restricted to modifying numbers only:

iZ%KA: ÅiB%kAkA, fgoTA jagaöTAÉ Yaid% ÇpanAra ZarIra hay, taeb% fk%mana ka'er% balaeb%na àÉTA ÇpanAra baiD% Çra àÉTA nan`-baiD%? fkoõAä fkoeno ^PAka fn%É fY%|

"Shikha: 'Uncle Abhimanyu, if the entire universe is [an extension of] your body, then how can you say that this is your body and this over here is non-body? There is no hiatus anywhere, after all.'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

G. guN meaning "quality or property" is suffixed to numbers to mean X-TIMES:

iŸ%guN "twice, double, doubled" àka samaya fs%KAen% iŸ%guNa fb%eg% jala paeR%| "At one point, [rain] water poured down there at double the velocity." (Sunil Gangopadhyay)

Note: With guN, the more Sanskritic prefix is used for "two" (iŸ%) and may be used for "three" (i÷%%) and "four" (fcO%).

i÷%guN, it%naguN "thrice, threefold" fcOguN, cAraguN "four times, fourfold" ^pAcaguN "five times, fivefold," etc. fcor fdoSI baeT%, ik%… k&paN úanI tadaep%•A Zata gueN% fdoSI| "A thief is culpable, for sure, but a miserly rich man is a hundred times more culpable." (Advanced Bengali, p. 104)

H. Some idiomatic expressions involving numbers:

àk Çú "a few, just a few, several"

àk Çú muhUéta Éta˙ata kaer% sutIéõa balael%, . . . "Hesitating for a few moments, Sutirtha said, . . . " (Jibanananda Das)

àfk% . . . tAy/tAet "on the one hand . . . moreover [on the other hand]"

àfk%ta àaÉmA÷a fs% úamak` KAÉyAeC%, tAhAet% Åec%nA jAyagAya haóAö fkoõA haÉet% fk% bAih%ra haÉet% àmana ^fCo mAir%yA fkona id%na fk%ha tAhAek% laÉyA YAya nAÉ|

"On the one hand, he [the six-year-old boy] had just been scolded, and then in addition, in this unfamiliar place, suddenly, out of nowhere, who was this person who came out [of the house] and snatched him up—no one had ever taken him away [like that before]." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

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àfk% t rAjA mAnais%Meh%ra saeÆ% ^tAra baRa sa⁄Aba nAÉ, tAet% ÇbAra jayapuer%ra dUta àKAen%

Çeg% àes%eC%| "On the one hand, he [the princess Krishnakumari's father] is not on very good

terms with Raja Mansimha [the man she wants to marry], and, on top of that, an emissary from Jaipur [whose ruler, Raja Jagatsimha, wants to marry the princess] has already arrived here." (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

f£oúaBaer% kana fd%bI ip%Cu fk%na DAka| bÄAes% ÅÕa id%yA Çis% Gaer% bais% õAka|| àfk% buRA tAeh% BAÆI úuturAy fBola| Åfla ÅparAeú% kara mahAgaƒaegola|| "Angrily the goddess [Annada] spoke, 'Why do you call me from behind? I'm on my way to give Vyasa some rice. Go on home and stay put! First of all, you're old, and on top of that, you bhang addict, you're befuddled by

dhutura. For [Vyasa's] minor offense, you've caused a major hullabaloo.'" (Bharatcandra Ray)

Kuba àkaTA "very"

fZoeno, pAcAtÄa samAej%ra ic%»Aä Çeg%jAra id%en% Kuba àkaTA ÇlAdA iC%elo nA| "Mind you, in the past even the West's attitude was not very different [from what

we have been criticizing]." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) duÉ, dueTo, dujan may translate as "both" dueTo may mean "a little"

Çim% dueTo BAt KAba| "I'll have a little [a mere two kernels of] rice." caraaNaek% YA'ehoka dueTo KAÉey% dAä_ÇmAek% bARI fY%etÉ% haeb%! "All right, all right, give Caran a little something to eat—I've got to head home!"

(Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) du'cAr "several"

bÄa˙a samIer%ra kAeC% du'daƒa basA ik% saÈBaba haeb%! du'cAraeT% kaõA ik% ä balaaeb% maenoraem%ra sAeõ%! "Would it even be possible to sit a couple of minutes with busy Samir! Would he

chat awhile [speak several words] with Manoram!" (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

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iB%taer% du'cArajana kaétAbÄai°% fgoeC%ra floka samIraek% iG%er% úaer%| "Inside, several management-type of people gathered round Samir." (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

cAraeT% may mean "some" ^pAcajan/pAcaTA may mean "others, people/things at large"

Çra ^pAcaTA jIeb%ra mataÉ tArA jIba»| "Like other beings, they too are alive." (Anon.) floek% nAnA kaõA bal`ebÉ ta| pARAy ^pAca jana fC%el% fC%ok`rA ÇeC%, ftomAra fboen%ra àÉ

fsoma–a bayasa, àmana ^kAcA fsoNAra raXa_ "People will talk, after all. There are the young fellows in the neighborhood, and

your sister is at that marriageable age, and such a soft gold complexion—" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

sAt-^pAc "many and diverse; this and that"

sutIéõa . . . sAt-^pAc BAbaiC%la| "Sutirtha's . . . mind wandered." (Jibanananda Das)

sAt jaeœ% "a very long time," literally, "in seven incarnations" sAt puüS "a very long time," literally, "seven generations"—also see fcO◊a puüS sAt samu‹a ft%ra nadIr pAer "far away, on the other side of the world," literally, "beyond the

seven seas and thirteen rivers" daZ may mean "the people"

fl%Kaek%rAä ÅbaZÄa daeZ%r kAeC% hAtatAil%r „atÄAZA rAeK%n| "Of course, writers too expect the applause of the people."

(Advanced Bengali, p. 122) Öin%Z-ib%Z "slight or negligible difference" fcO◊a puüS "a very, very long time," literally, "fourteen generations"

bApa-óAkuradA fcoe◊o puüSa fto äBAeb%É ib%ey% kaer%eC%na! "Fathers and their fathers from time immemorial have, after all, gotten married

that way!" (Ghulam Murshid)

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ft%i÷%Z fkoiT% fd%batA "all the gods," literally, "three hundred thirty million gods"

Fk%ek%yI balael%n, mahArAj, tuim% fY% Zapaõ k'er% „ait%≥Abaÿa h'el% tA É«‹a„amuK ft%i÷%Z fd%batA Zunun|

"Kaikeyi said, 'Great king, may the thirty-three [million] gods, Indra first among them, hear that to which you have vowed and are obligated.'"

(Advanced Bengali, p. 306) hAjAr fhoka "after all, still then" see also Lesson 19, IV

iZ%bAjI balael%na, "tA fto jAin%| Çja paéYa»a fkoeno kAej% fs% in%ÛPala hayain%| ik%… hAjAra fhoka fC%el%mAnuSa fto_'

"Sivaji said, 'That I know. He has not yet been unsuccessful in any task. Still then, he's just a boy—'" (Saradindu Bandyopadhyay)

IV. INTERJECTIONS, EXPLETIVES, & OTHER EMPHATICS: (Review Lesson 7, II, "Emphasis.") ÇbAr expressing negative feelings of disbelief, with emphasis

im%ÛTAr DAn bArabAr bael% id%ey%eC%n, "rAet% fY%na ÇbAr ^gAey% fõ%eko nA|' "Mr. Dunn has said again and again, 'Do not EVER stay in a village at night.'" (Intro Bengali, p. 354)

Çer% (See äer% below.) ÇhA "oh my, goodness gracious, ah," expressing surprise or sorrow and sympathy ÇhA mair% (literally, "ah, I die," see mair% below) somewhat antiquated expression of surprise tinged

with derision, "pshaw" És`/ÉZ` "oh no! oh my goodness, heavens, yuk!" expressing surprise and negative feelings

És`, BArI ft%j! "MY GOODNESS, what haughtiness!" (Advanced Bengali, p. 138)

ÖHa "ooh!" expressing pain, impatience, derision Ö~hu/^Öhu "uh uh, oh my" negative, expressing disapproval, resignation

Ö~hu; mA ik% fZoen%! "OH MY, but did Mother heed my words!" (Advanced Bengali, p. 110)

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àÉ fY% an attention-getter, "hey there" äer%/Çer% an expression of greeting, showing some surprise and emotion

äer% BAÉ, fk%na tuÉ àÉ daZ baCar ÇmAy fC%eR% pAhAeR% Guer% fb%RAil%! "HEY THERE, Brother, why did you leave me and spend these ten years roaming the

hills!" (Advanced Bengali, p. 129) fk%Ö fn%É| Çim% ÇiC%| fk%, guü? ^hÄA| Çer%, Çim% fto tAÉ fd%KalAm, ftomAra fmoTarabAÉkaTA raey%eC% darajAra kAeC%, Åõaca kAÖek% fd%Kaet%

pAi∞C% nA| "'No one here.' 'I'm here.' 'Who's that, "Guru"?' 'Yeh.' 'OHO, I figured as much, your motorbike was by the door, but I can't see anybody.'"

(Samaresh Basu) kõAÉ fn%É "without question! absolutely! why even mention it!"

ÇjakAla saba yuin%Baiés%iT%et%É JAnu JAnu saba tAiék%ka fm%ey% fd%Kaet% pAäyA YAy| Çem%ir%kAet% fto kaõAÉ fn%É| saba ÇelocanAek%É ärA fj%ƒAra ÉZuet% fT%en% in%ey% YAeb%_

"These days one sees at the university in particular all these clever women, adept at argumentation. In America, of course, THAT'S ABSOLUTELY THE CASE. They'll take each and every discussion and draw it into a gender issue."

(Ketaki Kushari Dyson) Çra àkaTu lAey%ka fC%el% hael%É sAeéT%r ip%Caen%ra kalAraTA id%ta tuel%| f¯pAéTasamÄAna hael% ta kaõAÉ

fn%É| ^Öcu §Aes%ra fk%ÛTadA, YatIZadA, ih%mAMZudA, ^àrA sakael%É fK%eloyARa iC%el%na, Çra sakael%É kalAra tulaet%na|

"If you were one of the more grown-up kids, you would put your shirt collar up. NO QUESTION ABOUT IT if you were an athlete. Upper-classmen Kesta-da, Jatish-da, Himangshu-da, they were all athletes, and all of them wore their collars up."

(Satyajit Ray)

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kI ÅsaBÄa "how impolite! how impertinent! how risqué" usually restricted to women's speech and often said in feigned indignation

üiD%| fs%KAen% mAõA GaSAra nAma ka'er% fCoTa bAõaüma, baRa bAõaüma, ëAna, lai∆ %_kI-kI karael% tA

àkamA÷a tuim%É jAeno| iZ%KA| kI ÅsaBÄa! ib%ib%mAsI, ftomAra CA÷ara BayaMakara bARa fb%eR%eC%! ZAsan karA karakAra! "Rudy: 'There [upstairs], in the name of powdering your nose,—going "number one,"

"number two," bathing, laundry—only you know what all you were really doing.' Shikha: 'WHAT IMPERTINENCE! Auntie Bibi, your student is becoming horribly

brash! A little discipline is in order here!'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) ik%Cuet%É "in any way, at all" (frequently in negative sentences and with the emphatic É)

. . . rAjaput bIer%r dal fgohaek% ik%Cuet%É fC%eR% fd%n in%| ". . . the Rajput warriors did not let Goha go!" (Advanced Bengali, p. 127) tuÉ ik%∞Cu Baya kair%s`en% kusum, à ib%ey% Çim% ik%Cuet%É haet% fd%ba nA| "Don't you worry in the least, Kusum. THERE'S NO WAY I'll allow this marriage to

happen." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) ik%… (literally, "but, however") used at the end of clauses to add emphasis

tuim% fs%KAen% fY%ä nA ik%…| "You BETTER not go over there!" fs%É baÉ àkaKAnA àeno ik%… bAbA, àbAr Åib%iZÄ% Åib%iZÄ%| "You BETTER bring a copy of that book, Father, for certain, this time." (Advanced Bengali, p. 142)

KabaradAr "beware, I'm warning you, watch yourself" (See sAbaúAn|)

daiR%et% hAta id%eyo nA balaic%_KabaradAra balaic%, BAla haeb% nA| "Don't lay a hand on the rope—I'M WARNING YOU, it won't turn out well." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

iC% iC% "shame, come on now," expressing reproach, condemnation, but also almost a feeling of

embarrassment for the person being reproached

iC% iC%, tA nay| "COME NOW. It's not that." (Intro Bengali, p. 373) . . . fY% •uúAra ∏AlAya ib%nA ÇhvAen%É ftomAra ÅÕa KAÉyA fP%el%, fcora bail%yA tAhAra daƒa kara_iC%

iC%| ". . . he who, burning with hunger but lacking an invitation, eats up your food, you punish

him as a thief—SHAME ON YOU!" (Advanced Bengali, p. 104)

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fto/ta One of the more difficult words to learn to use properly (see Intro Bengali, pp. 347-48,

361), it may do three rather different things: (1) it introduces the "then" clause in an "if-then" construction (see Lesson 8, II); (2) it adds a note of questioning or uncertainty; and (3) it adds a note of conviction or certainty.

(2) tuim% àÉ cA-TAÉ KAeb% fto| "You will have this tea, WON'T YOU?" (Jibanananda Das) (3) bAiR% pAi∞C% nA fto fkoõAä| "I'm not finding a house anywhere." (Jibanananda Das) (2) ÇmAra fC%el%eb%lAr GaTanA saba Zuen%c ta?% "You've heard all about my childhood experience?" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) (3) Zuen%ic%| ik%… fs% ta ÇgAegoRA im%eõÄ%| "I heard. But it's absolutely untrue." (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) (3) cail%yAiC% ta cail%yAiC%_àÉ sa≠IéNa pAey%-calA paõ eY% Çr fZ%S hay nA| "I've gone this far, AFTER ALL—but there's no end to this narrow footpath." (Advanced Bengali, p. 132)

A simple negative reply, indicating that the negative answer is given with no equivocation, is nA fto! "No, [I'm rather surprised you asked]."

Çpain% cAkair% fC%eR% id%ey%eC%n Zuen%iC%| nA fto| fk% balala? "'I heard you gave up your job.' 'AS A MATTER OF FACT, no. Who said so?'"

id%ibÄa (colloquial form of id%bÄ_literally, adj. "heavenly, divine") as a noun, used as an oath (Also

see mAÉir and ZAlA|)

fgobaéÿana muKa rAÆA kair%ya bail%la_"ftomAra id%iw% mAsI Çim% jAin%en%_fkon ZAlA fJoep%ra iB%taer%_mAÉir% bal`ic%_àkaTA ^dAtana BAX`et%_ . . . '

"Gobardhan, his face turning red [flustered, after being accused of spying on Kusum while she bathed in the tank], said, 'I SWEAR BY YOU, Auntie, I know nothing—some so-and-so in the thicket—for heaven's sake, I'm telling you—went to snap off a twig [to use as a toothbrush]— . . . '" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

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As an adverb, id%ibÄa is a positive expression, meaning "quite" or "quite well, just fine": kumIra froda fpohAe∞C%, tAra ip%eó% baka baes% ÇeC% id%ibÄ%, . . . "a crocodile is sunning himself, on his back sits a stork IN FINE FASHION, . . . "

(Satyajit Ray) dUr (literally, "distance") "ah, go on! nonsense! get outta here!" expressing mild rebuke

indicating disagreement or disbelief at what was said, or vexation about what is happening

dUr! àman kaõA fk% balala? "RIDICULOUS! Who told you that?" ib%ib%| ih%e¯T%ir%ka fhoeyo nA, fd%yA| iZ%KA| dUr! ih%e¯TarAÉ fn%É fto ih%e¯T%ir%ka haeb% kI ka'er%? ib%ib%| bAej% baik%sa nA| ih%e¯T%er%k`Taim%ra para Åen%ka samaya fm%ey%ed%ra mana KArApa hay| tuÉ Çra kI

ka'er% jAnaib%| "Bibi: 'Do not become hysterical, Deya.' Shikha: 'OH, GO ON! She has no uterus, so how's she going to get hysterical?' Bibi: 'Don't talk nonsense. A lot of times following a hysterectomy women become

depressed. How would you [Shikha is young] know about these things?'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

fdohAÉ (ÇpnAra/ftomAra/ftora) "by your leave, bless you, please"

ib%ib%| fdohAÉ ftomAra, ÇeloTA ∏AlAä, üiD%| "Aunt Bibi: 'BE A GOOD BOY and turn on the light, Rudy.'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) „ajApait%óAkura, Çim% ftomAek% mAir%in%, ÇmAra àkaTA BAla ib%ey%et% bAg`rA id%ä nA, fdohAÉ| "Lord Butterfly, it wasn't I who harmed you. PLEASE, don't block my chances for a

good marriage." (Samaresh Basu) úanÄa "bravo, good for you"

it%in% hAis%mueK% maen% maen% balael%n_"úanÄa fgoha! úanÄa tAr BAlabAsA|' "With a smiling face he said to himself, 'GOOD FOR Goha! BRAVO FOR his

devotion.'" (Advanced Bengali, p. 129) iú%k "fie" (somewhat antiquated)

iú%k`kAr fd%äyA "to cry fie upon"

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úuö/úue–or/úUr/fú%ö "stop that! now cut that out! nonsense!" expressing mild rebuke

úU-r, BUet%ra bAiR% mAÉir%, fk%Ö fn%É! "GO ON! it's a haunted house, for heaven's sake, nobody here!" (Samaresh Basu)

fn%makahArAma% "abuser of salt [hospitality], not worth one's salt, ingrate"

Çim% mAnuSa naÉ? nA| kukura-fb%rAlaä naä_tArA ftomAra fc%ey% BAla_àmana fn%makahArAma nay| "'Am I not human?' 'No. You aren't even a dog or a cat—they are better than you—they're not such

INGRATES.'" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) baÉik%% (See Fb%ik below.) baeT% "exactly, definitely, of course, without question, indeed" (often used with the emphatic É;

comes at the end of the independent clause or may stand alone)

Example from section III. D above: fcor fdoSI baeT%, ik%… k&paN úanI tadaep%•A Zata gueN% fdoSI| "A thief is culpable, FOR SURE, but a miserly rich man is a hundred times more

culpable." (Advanced Bengali, p. 104)

baeT is actually the third person, present tense of the verb baTA, meaning "to be," but with an added sense of emphasis. It can be conjugated and indeed was (in the present tense only) by a nineteenth-century writer like Michael Madhusudan Datta, yet is today restricted to being used in its third-person ordinary form only, as an emphatic. Examples from Datta are the following:

dUta| (úandAes%ra „ait%) mahAZay, ÇmarA YaKana ÖBaey%É àkaiT% ÅmUlÄa rae”%ra ÇZAya à

fd%eZ% àes%iC%, taKana ÇmarA ÖBaey% ÖBaey%ra ib%pa•a baiT%, ik%… tA baelÄ% ÇmAed%ra para¯paer% ik% fkona ÅsaŸÄabahAra karA Öic%ta?

"Emissary: (to Dhanadasa) 'Sir, since we both have come to this land in hopes of obtaining a priceless gem [the princess, Krishnakumari], therefore we are indeed mutual rivals. But having said that, is it proper to behave in an unseemly manner toward one another?'"

úandAsa| mahAZay, ÇmAed%ra ÅÍara sA•Aö ÅÍara-„aed%ZaÉ baeT!% fs%KAen% ÅÆanAkula

tArAkulatulÄa su«dara; Çra fm%eG% fY%mana fsOdAim%nI Çra bAir%ib%«du, rAjaBAaƒAer% ft%main% hIraka ä mu°A „aB&it%, tAet% ÇbAra ÇmAed%ra mahArAja ta ïayaM ZaZaúara_

dUta| ~hA, ZaZaúaer%ra nÄAya kala≠I baeT%na! "Dhanadasa: 'Sir, our Ambara [Jaipur] is without question a province of

Ambara [the heavens]! There the women are beautiful like stars. And as there are lightning and droplets of water in clouds, so too in the royal

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treasure house are there diamonds and pearls and such. Moreover, our maharaja is the very moon himself—'

Emissary: 'Yes, and like the moon he is definitely stained!'" B&tÄa| fk ä? ä! raGubarais%Maha! ÇH! bAcael%ma| Çim%, BAÉ, ftomAek% bIraBa‹a

fB%eb% palAet% ÖdÄata haey%iC%lAma| tA tuim%ä „Aya bIraBa‹a baTa! "Servant: 'Who's that? O! Raghuvara Simha! Aha! I'm saved! I, friend,

thinking you to be Virabhadra, was about to flee. Come to think of it, you yourself are almost like a Virabhadra, of course!'"

========== Besides these occurrences, where the verb agrees in person with the subject

of the sentence, Datta also uses this verb in the very same text in the impersonal third-person ordinary form, for emphasis, comparable to the way it is used today:

madain%kA| taeb% Çra àKAen% fõ%ek% ik% haeb%?_YAba baeT, ik%… raAjani«d%nIek% fC%eR% fY%et%

„ANaTA fY%na fk%mana kae%r%| "Madanika: 'What's the point of staying here?—of course I'll go! But my

heart aches at having to leave the princess.'" bA "after all, moreover; so what!" (See Lesson 19, III, for use of bA as a conjunction.)

àÉ àtaTuku bARIet% fkoõAy bA baraYA÷Ied%r basAebo Çr fkoõAy bA fm%ey%-jAmAÉek% fZoyAebo| "Where in this little house [AFTER ALL!] am I going to put the groom's party, and

where in the world am I going to have the bride and groom sleep." (Intro Bengali, p. 371)

TAÖn-hael% ba°&tA Zunaet%É bA k'jan YAy_Çr gaeR%r mAeó% PuTabal-eK%lA fd%Kaet%É bA k'jan

YAy? "How many people go to hear a speech at Town Hall—and how many, AFTER ALL, go

to see a football match on the maidan by the fort?" (Advanced Bengali, p. 122) fk%Ö fk%Ö bA jAt KuÉey%iC%el%na àman ÅnumAnaä ÅsaÆat anay| "It is not unreasonable to assume that some of them, MOREOVER, lost caste." (Advanced Bengali, p. 195) Çim%É bA paer%ra fC%el%ra dAya GAeR% fkor`ba ik% sAhaes%? "With what audacity shall I, AFTER ALL, take on my shoulders the responsibility of

caring for someone else's child?" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay)

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úanadAsa| (ic%»A kair%yA) à ib%bAeh% k&takAéYÄ hael%ma nA bael% Yaid% mahArAj ib%ra°a hana, hael%naÉ bA; nA haya, ^ära rAjÄa tÄAga kaer% ÅnÄa÷a ig%ey% bAsa karaebo| Çra ik%!

"Dhanadasa: (thinking to himself) 'If the maharaja is displeased because I have been unsuccessful in arranging this marriage [of his daughter with a particular prince], so he's displeased, SO WHAT! All right, I'll leave this kingdom of his and go elsewhere. What do I care!'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

bAHa/bAhabA "bravo! oh my! goodness me/gracious! how wonderful!" (used by an audience when

responding positively to a musician, for instance—often repeated: bAHa bA bA bAa; also used derisively to mock or deflate some pretention)

ïAit% àes% Öpaiê%ta hala: "bAH fmonuid%, tuim% àKAen%| Çra äid%ek% . . .' "Swati appeared: 'TERRIFIC, Monu-di, you here! And meanwhile back there . . . '"

(Advanced Bengali, p. 146) fd%yA| Çpain% ÇmAek% lÄAeB%ƒAraguelo fk%na pAió%ey%iC%el%na? ÅiB%manÄu| lÄAeB%ƒAra? fd%yA| bAH, maen% fn%É? ÅiB%manÄu| kaeb% baelo fto? fd%yA| bA fr%| fs%É fY%, Çpain% fZ%Sa fY%bAra ib%el%et% àes%iC%el%na| "Deya: 'Why did you send me that lavender?' Abhimanyu: 'Lavender?' Deya: 'GOODNESS GRACIOUS, you don't remember?' Abhimanyu: 'When was it?' Deya: 'GOODNESS ME, it was then, that last time when you came to England.'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

bAlAÉ% "heaven forbid! what are you saying! not on your life!"

k& akumArI| mA, Çim% ik% ÅparAúa kaer%iC%, fY% ftomarA ÇmAek% jael% BAis%ey% id%et% ÖdÄata haey%eCo? (frodana)

ÅhalÄAdebI| bAlAÉ! fk%na maA? ftomAek% jael% BAis%ey% fd%ebo fk%na? fm%ey%rA ik% icrakAla bAep%ra Gaer% õAek%, mA? (frodana)

"Krishnakumari: 'Mother, what offense have I committed that you are prepared to take me out and drown me?' (weeps)

Ahalya Devi: 'HEAVEN FORBID! Why, sweetie? Why would we drown you? But do daughters remain forever in their father's house, my little darling?' (weeps)"

(Michael Madhusudan Datta)

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Fb ik/Fb%ik%/baÉik% "of course, indeed [positive sense]; indeed! how's that! [negative sense]"

ib%lAsabatI| Çra ÖpaAya ik%? madin%kA| ÖpaAya ÇeC% Fb ik%! BAbanA ik%? "Vilasavati: 'Is there any other solution?' Madanika: 'INDEED, there's a solution! What's the worry?'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta) (in%cayaÉ "certainly, of course"; also ÇlabAö, ib%la•aNa)

BAigÄ%sa% "luckily, fortunately"

BAigÄ%sa%, fdotalAra P`lAZaTA àKanaä sacala ÇeC%| "LUCKILY, the flush mechanism on the second-floor toilet is still functioning." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

mar`/maero (literally, the imperative "die") a rather mild rebuke, despite its literal meaning, and

somewhat antiquated—used in the tuÉ and tuim% forms

Ç mar, äTAek% fk% Çnael%? dUr dUr_ "THE DEVIL TAKE YOU, who brought that thing in? Get away, get away—" (Advanced Bengali, p. 138)

mair% (literally, "I die, let me die") a mild exclamation of surprise, sometimes with a tinge of

disapproval—somewhat antiquated

Ç mair% mair%, ik% camaökAr ic%÷a kair%yAeC%| "Well, MY, MY, what a beautiful picture he has made." (Advanced Bengali, p. 99)

mAego% (literally, "mother dear") a mild exclamation of distress

sItAek% Åen%ka ÅÚIla kaõA iZ%iK%ey%iC%la maenorama, sItA Zuen% duhAet% muKa fò%ek% hAsaet% hAsaet% balata_mAego!

"Manoram had taught Sita a lot of off-color words, [and] Sita, when she would hear them, used to, all the while laughing, cover her mouth with her two hands and say—'OH MY!'" (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

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mAÉir% (literally, "Mary") mild profanity (Also see id%ibÄa and ZAlA|)

ik%… ä flokaTAraä àkaTA bÄApAra ÇcaéYa, àek%bAer% gAlAgAla id%ey% balaet% É∞CA kaer%, Ka∞caraTAra na'TA fC%el%em%ey%, mAÉir%!

"But that guy's got one side to him that's incredible, makes you want to swear, that son of a bitch has nine kids, FOR GODSAKES!" (Samaresh Basu)

àka àkaid%n, ÇmAra mAÉir%, kI rakama Baya karaeto| "Now and again, OH MAN, I used to get frightened to death." (Samaresh Basu)

mAõA KAä/KAsa (literally, "you eat my head") "heaven forbid!" "for my sake," a mild rebuke

ä rAma, mAõA KAs` ÇmAra, YAs`en%_laßI BAÉiT% ÇmAra, . . . "Oh Ram, FOR HEAVEN'S SAKE, please, don't go—good little brother of mine, . . . " (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay, in Bengali Prose Reader, p. 39)

mAõA KArApa% (literally, "[your] head is bad") "you're crazy," a mild rebuke

ÅiB%maanÄu| kI, ftomAy bael%iC%lAma nA, Çep%la kama pa'eR% YAeb%, ib%ib% rAga karaeb%? üiD%| mAõA KArApa? "Abhimanyu: 'Now, didn't I tell you there won't be enough apples and Bibi will be

angry?' Rudy: 'ARE YOU CRAZY?'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

fmoeT% "at all, definitely" (often with emphatic É or ä [even at all]; used in negative sentences)

Çim% fmoeT%É cAkair% CARaebo nA| "I MOST DEFINITELY will not quit my job." fs% àman kaõA fmoeT%É bael% in%| "He CERTAINLY did not say any such thing!" ftomarA fmoeT%ä bÄa˙a fhoeyo nA| Çim% fb%Za ÇiC%| "Don't get all busy [on my account]. I'm just fine, thank you." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

A simple but emphatic negative reply is fmoeT%É nA! or fmoeT%É nay! ("Heavens no! Definitely not! Not at all! Not on your life!") YA Besides being the singular, nonhuman correlative pronoun, e.g., YA fs% bael%eC% tA saitÄ% "What

he said is true." (Intro Bengali, p. 243), YA is also used like ik% and kata in the rhetorical sense either as a pronoun or as an emphatic modifier. (See Lesson 4, II, D.)

bAHa_ftomAed%r YA kAjakaéma, fd%eKo àKan àr par majATA| "Bravo—WHAT work you've done! Now be prepared to face the consequences." (Advanced Bengali, p. 144)

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YA Bay ÇmAr haey%iC%la kAl! "WHAT a fright I had yesterday!" (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay) àkaTu basaba bael% àes%iC%lAma| bAÉer% YA b&iÛT%! "I just came [in] to sit awhile. WHAT a downpour outside!" (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

Heard in spoken Bangla but not found in the standard dictionaries is YAHa (YA with aspiration following the vowel). YAHa is an interjection used to dismiss as incredible or outlandish what has just been said.

Çim% Çjaek% cAkair% fC%eR% id%i∞C%| YAHa, fbokAr mata kaõA ba'elo nA| "'I'm going to quit my job today.' 'POPPYco*ck, don't talk like an idiot.'"

kAero KAäyA fdKel tuim fGÕA pAä fto? Åenek pAy| YAH! fY fKet pAer fs KAeb nA fkn? fGÕAr kI? "'Are you disgusted by watching someone eat? Many people are.' 'NONSENSE! Why shouldn't a person with a good appetite eat well. What's to be

disgusted by?'" (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay) fY% As an emphatic, often following the verb if a verb is at all expressed, fY% can be translated as

"after all" or "for heaven's sake" or almost anything else in and of itself innocuous but which calls attention to the statement it accompanies. In some cases, fY% is better left untranslated; an exclamation mark should suffice.

àtaguelo ^tAbur àkaTA Çeloä fY% fcoeK% paeR% nA! "Not even one light from all those tents could be seen!" (Advanced Bengali, p. 132) ÇmAr ÅnuBUit%et% tAhA fY% ÅnAib%Ûk&ta fd%Z| "In my experience, it VERY MUCH IS an undiscovered land." (Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay) ftor b&«dAbana fY% ÇbAra ib%ey% kae∞c% fr%!a "Your Brindaban, I WANT YOU TO KNOW, is getting married again!" (Saratcandra Cattopadhyay) paen%ero TAkA bAik% raÉla fY%| "Fifteen rupees remain, MIND YOU." (Jibanananda Das) fm%ey% haey% jaeœ%iC%s fY%| "You were, AFTER ALL, born a woman." (Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay)

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bael%«‹ais%Mha| à ik% à, mahAZay? ÇpanAed%ra maeúÄ% fGora Ÿa«Ÿa Öpaiê%ta fY? "Balendra Simha: 'What is this, now, gentlemen? A nasty little quarrel between the two

of you!?'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta) fY%É "as soon as, just when"

ÇmAed%ra bAiR%ra id%ka fõ%ek% kAÕAra frola Öeó%eC%| fYÉ ZunalAma Åmain% ɢuel%ra id%ek% fdOeRoet% Zuüa karalAma|

"The sound of wailing arose from the direction of our house. AS SOON AS I heard it, I then and there started running toward school." (Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay)

ZAbAZ/sAbAs "excellent, well done, bravo"

sAbAs fjoyAn fh%Éeyo, mAero fó%lA ^fh%Éeyo "BRAVO, strong man—heave-ho; give a push now—heave-ho!" (Advanced Bengali, p. 115)

ZAlA% (literally, "brother-in-law, brother of one's wife") moderately strong profanity (Also see

id%ibÄ,a mAÉir, and KabadAra|)

iK%i˙% kaer% bail%, "s`sAÔA, Ba‹aeloek%ra fm%ey%ed%ra iT%Taik%ir%| s`Zahaer% ftomAra gAiR% cAlAenora bAeroTA bAij%ey% fd%ba Çim%| KabadAra, ÇmAra fcoeK% fY%na fkonaid%na Çra nA paeR%|'

"Swearing, I told [that rickshawalla], 'YOU BASTARD [note pronunciation, lengthened consonants for emphasis and the dental sibilant of the street tough's lingo], speak disrespectfully to proper girls, will you? I'll put an end to your operating a rickshaw in town. Watch out, make sure I never see you again.'" (Samaresh Basu)

SAT% (literally, a TADBHAVA word for "¡aµ±hÆ ," the goddess of children, meant to invoke the

protection of that goddess) spoken to crying children to console them

tArapara sItAaek% „ANapaeN% jaiR%ey% úaer% bA∞cA fC%el%ra maeto Çkuil%-bÄAkuil% karata| sItA Guma fB%eX% balata_ÇhA, SATa SAT| àÉ fto Çim% raey%iC%, Baya kI? ió%ka fY%mana iZ%Zuek% mA fBolAya|

"Then he [Manoram, the husband] would grab and hold onto Sita [his wife] for dear life, cowering. Sita, aroused from sleep, would say—'Oh my, µ≠± µ≠± . I'm right here, what's there to fear?'—just as a mother consoles her baby."

(Sirshendu Mukhopadhyay) sAúu! sAúu! "bravo, well done, excellent"

fdyA| [hAtatAil% id%ey] ÁAeBo! ÅiB%manÄu| sAúu! sAúu! saitÄ%É BArI su«dara| "Deya: (applauding) 'Bravo!' Abhimanyu: 'WELL DONE! EXCELLENT! It really was quite beautiful.'" (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

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sAbaúAn "care; beware, take care" (See KabaradAr|)

sAbaúAna, Cuir%et% Kuba úAra ÇeC% ik%…| "TAKE CARE, the knife is quite sharp, mind you." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson) sAbaúAen% fY%ä, üiD%| rA˙A Kuba ip%Cala|| "Go CAREFULLY, Rudy. The street is very slick." (Ketaki Kushari Dyson)

haóAö "suddenly"

Note: The word haóAö is used somewhat more frequently in Bangla than the word "suddenly" is in English; it does add emphasis but need not always be translated literally into English.

hAy "alas, mercy" hAy hAy mair% "alas, I am overcome!" mair% hAy, hAy fr% "ah, goodness me" (See the Bangladesh national anthem, from Lesson 8, I.) ^hu "hmmm, yes, well"

^hu, bail%_àÉ fb%lA à gaÆA-mA'r fZoBA YA fd%KabAr fd%eK% nAä| "WELL, I tell you—see what there is to see of Mother Ganges' beauty at this opportune

time." (Advanced Bengali, p. 110) fh% "oh," a vocative; also used at the end of a sentence, as an all-purpose verb "to be" of sorts

fh% BagabAn "Oh Lord" ib%lAsabatI| fb%Za! fb%Za! äeh% úanadAsa, tuim% fY% àkajana parama rais%ka puüSa haey% paRael% fh%? "Vilasavati: 'That's clever! That's good! O HEY, Dhanadasa, you've become quite the

comedian, haven't you?'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta) madain%kA| (safroeS%) tuim% ta BAir% pAgala fh%! ÇmAek% ik% kaic% fC%el% fp%ey%eCo, fY% im%óAÉ fd%iK%ey%

fBolAeb%? "Madanika: (angrily) 'You are absolutely crazy, YOU ARE! Do you take me for some

wet-behind-the-ears baby whom you can bamboozle by offering a bit of candy?'" (Michael Madhusudan Datta)

^

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^fh%Éeyo a working song refrain used by a group of men to coordinate their pulling or pushing of some heavy object

sAbAs fjoyAn fh%Éeyo, mAero fó%lA ^fh%Éeyo "Bravo, strong man—HEAVE-HO; give a push now—HEAVE-HO!" (Advanced Bengali, p. 115)

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ANSWER KEY

Lesson 2, II 1) ÇmarAa fk%Ö kaKanä i£ekT fKilin| ÇmAed%ra fk%Ö kaKanä i£ekT fKilin| ÇmAed%ra maeúÄ% fk%Ö kaKanä i£ekT fKilin| ÇmAed%ra maeúÄ% fk%Ö kaKanä i£ekT fKelin| 2) tAedr (äedr, àedr) kArä kArä Kuba JAl fKet BAl lAeg| tAedr (äedr, àedr) maeúÄ% kArä kArä Kuba JAl fKet BAl lAeg| 3) ftomarA fk fk ÇgAmI baCar bAMlAedZ YA∞C? ftoedr maeúÄ fk bAMlAedeZ YAib (YAaeb) ÇsaeC baCaer? ÇpnAedr maeúÄ fk fk YAe∞C (YAe∞Cn) ÇgAmI baCear bAMlAedeZ? 4) ÇmAed%ra fk% fk fBeb%eC fY Çj b&iÛT paReb? Çj b&iÛT paReb ba'el ÇmAed%ra maeúÄ fk fk maen kaeriCl?1 Çj fY b&iÛT paReb, ÇmAed%ra maeúÄ fk tA ibçAsa karalAma?2 5) ftomrA YArA parI•A fZS kaerC tArA cael fYet pAero| ftorA YArA parI•A fZS kaeriCs ftArA cael fYet pAirs| 6) ÇpanArA YArA kAl àfln nA tArA hak sAehbAr sAeõ fdKaA karaet pAernain| ftomarA YArA gata kAl Çesoin ftomarA imiss haekr seÆ paircay karet pAeroin|

1If you do not understand this use of ba'el, don’t worry. It is discussed in Lesson 3, III. Be sure you understand the use of the pronouns. 2If you don't understand this use of fY, not to worry. It is discussed in Lesson 4, II. Be sure you understand the use of the pronouns.

Lesson 2, III 1) pae•% 2) jaenÄ% 3) haey% 4) haey%, jaenÄ% 5) haey%, pae•% Lesson 2, IV 1) àKn (bsa» kAl) caleC| 2) bAMalA nababaéSa ài„l mAes% paeR%| 3) K&ÛTAeÂ%r nababaéSa fpOS mAes% paeR%| 4) baRaid%nä fpOS mAes% paeR%| 5) sAmaen%r it%n mAes% @@@ paRaeb%| Lesson 3, III 1) fY% 2) ba'el% 3) ba'el% 4) ba'el% 5) bael%

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Lesson 3, IV 1) baÆAeÂ% àKan fcO◊eZo @@@ sAl| 2) baÆAeÂ%ra fteroeZo @@@ sAel% ÇmAra jaœa hala| 3) baÆAeÂ%ra fteroeZo cuyAÕ (1354) sAel BAratbéS ä pAik˙Aenr ïAúIntA imll| 4) rbI«‹nAõ ÇóAeroeZo àkSi¿ (1861) ˝IÛTAe jœAeln| 5) 1768 Zaek%ra èZAbaNa mAsa ˝IÛTAeÂ%ra ÇóAeroeZo fC%caiÔZ% (1846) sAel% paRaeb%| 6) Fc%tanÄaed%b% fSol Ztek mArA YAn| Lesson 4, II 1) She was incapable of even imagining that such an event that did happen would happen. 2) Even the world-famous French sculptor Rodin, who chipped out countless lifelike gods and demons from the body of utterly inert stone, so we hear, would at any odd time [now and again] take clay in hand and with his fingers fashion little figurines. 3) From the fear [literally: that specimen/example of fear] that I saw in that particular gaze [that look in his eyes], what else could I conclude—tell me—except [that it was/that he had seen] a ghost. 4) I have no idea when the jackels and crickets quieted down, nor when it was that I fell asleep. 5) Sutirtha, I don’t want to say that the fact that you haven’t paid the last three

months’ rent implies you’re playing a game of hide-and-seek [with me]. Or: Sutirtha, that you haven't paid your rent for three months—that you, dodging me, didn't pay it—such I do not wish to say. Lesson 4, III 1) Take care that [he] is not at all inconvenienced. 2) Lest he have to suffer a scolding from his father—out of fear of this, Opu revealed it to no one. 3) Definitely do not tell anyone else about this plan of mine. 4) Let's hope that the cook does not put chilies in my curry. Or, depending on the context: The cook should not/must not put chilies in my curry. 5) It was as though they [his lips] could not at all keep suppressed his innermost thoughts. 6) Somebody or other was saying that he's coming to Chicago next month to give a lecture. Lesson 4, IV 1) What’s the date today? 2) When is Tagore’s birthday? 3) On what dates do Independence Day for India and Pakistan fall? 4) What day of the month will it be next Monday? 5) When’s Christmas celebrated?

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Lesson 5, II 1) fpoSA kuRAr DAek% banÄa kuRA Çis%yA fs%KAen% fs%É ^KAcAiT%r Öpar bais%bAmA÷a ÉhAr pA flohAr ÇMaiT%r maeúÄ% ÇTakAÉyA YAy, banÄa pAKI Çr ÖiR%et% pAer% nA| As soon as the wild kura—having come at the call of the trained bird—alights there upon that cage, its foot gets trapped in an iron ring; the wild bird can no longer fly away. 2) ^tAed%r Çim% haraúanu fd%iK%ey%iC%lAm, ik%… ^tArA fk%Ö úaraet% bA tulaet% nA pArAet sakalaek%É Çim% „atÄAKÄAn kaer%iC%| I had shown them Siva's bow, but since none of them could grasp or raise it up, I rejected them all. 3) bÄAir%ÛTArI pAZ karaet% ib%laÍa haäyAy it%in% gaBIr hatAZA „akAZ kaer%eC%n ib%dÄAsAgaraek% fl%KA ic%ió%et%| In a letter written to Vidyasagar, he [Michael Madhusudan Datta] expressed profound disappointment over being delayed in passing the bar exam. 4) ip%àc.iD%. pAZ karAmA÷a fs% fd%eZ% iP%er% ig%ey% paRAet% Zuü karala| 5) tuim% kAl nA ÇsAet% fs% Kub rAg kaer%iC%la| 6) Yaeõ%ÛTa cAl/BAta nA õAkAy tArA üiT% fK%la| Lesson 5, III 1) isenmA Zuü nA haäyA paéY» Çim bAÉer Åep•A karaebo| 2) taKan paéY» tArA isenmA haelr sAmaen ^dAiRey õAkaeb|

3) baŒ nA haäyA Åbaiú itin lAÉÁiret raÉebn| 4) rAt dupur Åbaiú õAkaebo| 5) tuim ÇmAek nA balA paéY» tuim fY Åsuê tA jAnatAm nA| Lesson 5, IV 1) BAratbeéYra ZatakarA duÉ BAga flok [or: nAgairk] iZK| 2) cAr| What’s twelve from sixteen? Or: What is sixteen minus twelve? 3) ÇpanAedr itn BAg fõek àk BAegr (fcey) fbiZ kylA bÄbahAar karaet haeb| 4) One and a half times fifty equals seventy-five. 5) ZatakarA daZ BAeg%ra fcey kam| bAMlAedZIedr maeúÄ ZatakarA katjan ih«du Lesson 6, II 1) A boy offered to take her to the movies. 2) He had an uncanny ability to judge [one's] vices and virtues. 3) There's no one else but me to look after you, Basundhara—that's why I worry so. 4) I have no interest in discovering all that. 5) This matter is not to be spoken of openly to anyone except one's husband. 6) Basundhara too was at an age for dreaming.

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Lesson 6, III 1) kAr kaõA balaCa? About whom are you talking? 2) fs% fY% kAelo pAin% pAr haey% ib%el%et% YAeb% nA ÇmAy kaõA id%ey%eC%| He promised that he would not cross the black waters [of the ocean] and go to England. 3) rAÕA karAr kaõA in%ey% ÇmarA paer% ÇelocanA karaba| We'll discuss the matter of cooking later. 4) natun iZ%•akaed%r saeÆ% ÇmAr fd%KA karAr kaõA iC%la| 5) bAraTA pAó àÉ fkAyAéTAer%r maeúÄ% fZ%S karAr kaõA| 6) tAr ic%ió%et% in%ej%r kaõA Kub fb%iZ% fl%eK% in%| Lesson 7, II 1) ba√a, baRaÉ, ba√aÉ 2) ka•aeNo, kaKaenoÉ, ka•aNaÉ 3) iC%laÉ 4) Besides this nagardola Ferris wheel, there used to be merry-go-rounds, airplane rides, bumper cars, an Alpine railway, and so, so much more. 5) My goodness, you do the strangest things! What's the point? 6) It's inconceivable how many people have come!

Lesson 7, III 1) jAnalAm 2) jAnatAmaÉ 3) jAnalAma 4) jAnatAm 5) jAnA 6) jAnael%n Lesson 8, II 1) in%ej%r 2) in%ej%rA/in%ej% 3) in%j 4) in%ej%ek% 5) in%ej%r Lesson 8, III 1) sabAÉek%/sakalaek%, it%najanaek% 2) ÖBaey%ra/dujaen%r, sabAr/sakael%r 3) sabAr/sakael%r, „aetÄ%ek%r 4) cArajaen%, sabAÉ/sakael% 5) sabAÉ/sakael, duajana Lesson 8, IV 1) bAMalAed%eZ%r sImAnAr saeÆ% BAratabéS, ibeZeS, àbaM ÁªaedZ fl%eg% ÇeC%| 2) fmoÍAÉ mahArAÙ „aed%eZ%r maeúÄ% paeR%|

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3) kalakAtA fõ%ek% òAkA péY» fsojA eg%el%, Ö–ara-pUéb id%ek% fY%et% hay| 4) nA, YamunA baeÆopasAgar péY» baey% YAy nA| bAMalAed%eZ%r maeúÄ% p€A nAem àkaTA nadIra sAeõ% im%eZ% YAy| 5) BUTAen%r Ö–ar sImAnAy cIn (itwt)| Lesson 9, II 1) ÇmAed%r Kub BAla kaer% KAäyAna hala fs%id%n| 2) fZ%S paéYa»a suBASca«‹a úarA paeR%nin%| 3) ió%k balA YAy nA, Çj b&iÛT% haeb% nA haeb% nA| 4) Paresh Canda could be called a young doctor. 5) It could be read also as a biography of a poet. 6) If one skips over or ignores it [i.e., the "logic" of the poem], then why would the poet's intended meaning be captured [comprehended]? Lesson 9, III 1) My gaze, according to longstanding habit, turned of its own toward my left wrist. It was thirteen minutes past six. 2) In other words, if they could keep the environs of his majesty a silent, ghastly desert, free of laughter, play, and people, then royal prestige would be maintained to their liking. 3) Nothing can be more of a falsehood than to call him an honest person. Or: There can be nothing comparable to the

falsehood to call [of calling] him an honest person. 4) No conclusive proof came to the fore. Or: No proof [by which] to draw a conclusion came to the fore. 5) . . . from the total revenues collected, whatever remained, after excluding expenses pertaining to their administration, the English Company will spend however they want to [according to their wishes]. 6) In those days in many people's homes there wasn't a camera; or, if there was one, it was a four or five rupee box camera; one couldn't get very good pictures with such a camera, at least not group pictures worth framing. Lesson 9, IV 1) fsoyaA bAeroTA 2) fpoen sAtTA 3) sAeR sAtTA 4) itneT fbej ÇóAero iminT 5) daZaTA bAjaet itn iminT bAik 6) fdRaTA 7) Çim @@@ (Çú G∆TA) õAkaet pAir| 8) @@@ (ió%k sAeR ÇTTAy) b°&tA Zuü haeb| 9) àKAn fõek ÉÖinBAraisiTet fYet @@@ (mA÷ du iminT) lAgaeb| 10) àKan @@@ (bAeroTA) bAej|

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11) ^hÄA, ÇRAÉTAy Çim ÇpanAr saeÆ ÅnAyAes fdKA karaet% pAir| 12) nA, rAt dupuerr paer bAiR àel hay|3 Lesson 10, II 1) Öóaelo (action is implied; õAkaelo suggests stasis) 2) õAkaeto (stasis is implied; mAraeto is not an auxiliary and paRaeto suggests sudden action) 3) in%lAm (action directed toward the subject of sentence) 4) tula%elo (the meaningful verb, "to redden," is transitive—the swords redden the roads; compare with Lesson 2, I, where the water becomes red from abir powder: ÇbIer% lAl haey% Öóaeto dIiG%r jal|) 5) basael%n (action is implied; fK%el%n is not an auxiliary nor is àel%n in this sentence) 6) fg%elo (direction of the meaningful verb is implied—the tunnel "went" down, instead of "came" down; ÇeC% suggests stasis and is not appropriate here—the tunnel did not "remain" descended) Lesson 10, III 1) ik%… pAóak ih%es%eb% ÇmAr maen% hay, . . . 2) ûpakaõAr arAjArA rAjA haey%É jaœAya| 3) kalakAtAr nabAb haey% §AÉeB%ra „aõama maen% paRala nabak&aeˆ%ra kaõA| 3This construction of conditional participle + haya may be unfamiliar to you. It is discussed in Lesson 18, III.

4) iŸ%tIya paéYAey%r sAMabAid%ek%rA fl%Kak ih%es%eb% ïIk&it% pAbAr dAbI rAeK%n| 5) bAMalAed%eZ% sarakAer%r sama˙a ZAKA ÇmAed%r ÇÉnasaÆata pair%cAlak %ih%es%eb% ègahaN kaer%eC . . 6) fdKaet igey bueRo fKAkA hey fYet hay| Lesson 11, II 1) Çim% bAMalA im%iÛT% fK%et% BAlabAis%| baŒurA àel% tAed%rek im%iÛT% KAäyAet% BAlabAis%| 2) fs% kAl sArA rAt Guemoelo| fs% tAr fC%el%ek% tARAtAiR% Gum pAiR%ey% id%elo| 3) gAiR%TA baRa rA˙A id%ey% Kub tARAtAiR% calala| fs% gAiR% ba√a fb%iZ% ‹uta fb%eg% cAlAy| Lesson 11, III 1) itin àKana ÅiP%es% fnÉ| She is not in the office now. 2) ÇmAra Çjaek% lAÉeÁ%ir%et% YAäyA Öic%ta nay| I ought not go to the library today. 3) àmana kaõA Zunael% ära muKa lAla haya nA| His face doesn't get red [he doesn't blush] if he hears such things. 4) ÇmAra gata kAlaa ftomAed%ra äKAen% YAäyA ÅsaÈBaba iC%la| It was impossible to go to your place yesterday.

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5) fY jAyagAya ÇmAra mA õAek%na fsKAen% Kuba fb%iZ% b&iÛT% haya nA| It doesn't rain a lot where my mother lives. 6) àrA hae∞C ÇmAed%ra Gain%ıa baŒu| They are our close friends. Lesson 12, II 1) Put a pretty looking vase in his room. 2) There was no one to help a widow during these bad times. 3) She is drawing alpanas with a solution of rice flour dissolved in water—a lotus, a bird, an ear of paddy, a newly risen sun. 4) She is my ruinous waif. 5) Basundhara put down the guavas she had in her sari [her "sari" guavas]. Literally: Basundhara put down the guavas of her sari. 6) There was no way of determining how old [i.e., of when] the stain was. Lesson 12, III 1) ikCu BAla kaer la•ÄaÉ kair in| I hadn't observed particularly well. la•ÄaÉ kair in| I hadn't noticed. 2) ik… inejek Bul bueJiClum| But I had misunderstood myself. ik… inejek bueJiClum| But I had understood myself.

3) mAnas ZÂ kaer hAes| Manas laughs out loud. mAnas hAes Manas laughs. 4) Çpin inHsaMfkoec ÇmAedr pUjA èghaN kaün| Please accept our adoration without hesitation. Çpin ÇmAedr pUjA èghaN kaün Please accept our adoration. 5) sahaejÉ pAäyA fgla TÄAiV| A taxi was gotten very easily. pAäyA fgla TÄAiV| A taxi was gotten. Lesson 13, II 1) What one calls a genuine friend, I have no such person in the city of Kolkata. 2) As soon as I had remembered Mother, I cried violently. 3) Of course I'm willing to take the money in installments. 4) By "old Bangla prose" I meant pre-1800 A.D. Bangla prose. 5) Before I knew it, my reputation as a poet spread throughout that small town. 6) While the sun shines, ghosts don't go out. 7) You [Sugriva] and Vali look exactly alike. 8) I am powerless to vie with his cruelty.

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Lesson 13, III 1) äÉ sAdAguelo| 2) baRarA| 3) lAl is%l`aek%raTA| Lesson 13, IV April 3, 1984 Dhaka Uncle Clint,4

Please accept my Bangla New Year’s greetings.5 I hope you are well. Many days ago I received the gift you sent. But I’ve been rather tardy in writing you a note. I hope you are not offended because I am thanking you after all this time.

How are your Bangla studies coming along? When will you return to Bangladesh? No doubt Bangladesh and Bangladeshis occupy your thoughts a lot. We quite often think of you. I tell many people about you. My mother comments frequently on how you are able so easily to adapt to another environment.

I stay in Dhaka now.6 I’m in the honours7 program in Economics at the University of Dhaka. Khuki is in class ten, and Khoka studies in class seven.8

4Since I know the family due to my friendship with the man of the family, I become a fictive cAcA (father’s brother) to his children. 5The Bangla year begins April 15th; review Lesson 2, IV, if need be. 6The family was living in Chittagong in 1984 when this letter was written. 7Universities offer two BA-degree tracks, the plain-and-simple BA and the Honours BA; the former takes two years to complete while the latter is a three-year program. 8“Khuki” means “little girl” and is a very common nickname for girls; likewise, “khoka” means “little

My heart is saddened to have left them. During vacations I visit there.

Our campus9 has changed considerably now. We all would be most pleased if you come again. All of us are well. (signature) Lesson 14, II 1) I saw him in nineteen fifty in the jungles of Assam hopping about with a magnifying glass in hand. 2) Sudhir Babu did not hesitate in the least to give a reply. 3) I've seen my father playing tennis and cricket, dressed in his white slacks. 4) Vali did not delay further to come. 5) I saw her day after day going to the office in that same outfit. 6) Thinking "why not get a bite to eat in a restaurant," I put my hand in my pocket only to have that hand immediately come to rest at the bottom of that [empty] pocket.

boy” and is a very common nickname for boys. The writer of this letter has a younger sister and a younger brother. 9The campus referred to is the University of Chittagong, where the letter writer’s family lived when I spent some time with them.

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Lesson 14, III 1) ikCuidn úaeraÉ ra° canamana karaeC, fdh aÖdAsa lAgaeC, fsÉ jaenÄaÉ ik ïa·aTA fdKaeln? (p&: 9) For some days now he was feeling restless; his body seemed indifferent [to the world around him]; was it for that reason that he had the dream? 2) ïa·aTA mAeJ mAeJ fdeKn fkOyAra, Çr ïae·ra frZ maen fleg õAek, Åenka•aNa fleg õAek| (p&: 12) Kouar had the dream from time to time, and faint remnants of the dream would linger in his mind, linger a long time. 3) Gar fõek fberosa nA àkabAraä| ipsAb lAgaelä nA| (p&: 17) Don't go outside the house even once, not even if you have to piss. 4) pUjAtAjA idel fdbaedbatAek KuiZ rAKael äSuú-DA°Ara lAeg nA| (p&: 22) If you do your puja, if you keep the gods happy, there's no need for doctors and medicine. 5) à fk? kaõA balaeC nA? ÇmAra BAgen lAeg| (p&: 27) Who's he? So, why's he not talking? He's my nephew. 6) Çim fto jaÆael [gAC] lAgAi∞C Kub| fleg YAy Yaid, à fõek Paer¯Taa Åenk friBinÖ pAeb| (p&: 122-23) I am planting quite a few [trees] in the jungle. If they take root, the Forest Office will realize a lot of revenue from that. 7) jaÆael fmOyA lAgAebn nA? ikCu lAgAlAm| taeb baRa haet samay lAeg Kub fbiZ| (p&: 123)

Aren't you going to plant mohua in the jungle? I planted some. But it takes such a long time for them to get big. 8) bÄa˙, Åit bÄa˙ paõ| ¡Ak, mÄATAeDora, sAÉekl, ˘uTAra, haóAö ^GÄAca kaer àkaiT gAiR õAem äedra sAmaen| äedr mueK úuelo lAeg| (p&: 178) A busy, very busy road. Trucks, Matadors, bicycles, scooters—all of a sudden a car screeched to a halt in front of them. Dust flew up into [covered] their faces. Lesson 15, II 1) sArA baCar jaÆal ^tAra àkAra| mahuyAra átuet sabAÉ mahuyA kuRAet pAer| (p&: 10) The jungle is his alone the entire year. [But] during the mohua season, everyone may come and gather mohua [blossoms]. 2) sarakArI Çips àlAkAy òuek fgel hAäyA badael YAy| Çim õAkaet fs haet fdba nA| (p&: 37) Once they penetrate the government office area, the whole situation [the "air"] changes. While I'm around, I'll not let that happen. 3) paõ icaen Çsaet pAer Zuúu ftt`ir ^BUÉn| (p&: 72) Only Tetri Bhuin knows the way and is able to come. 4) ÇmAr fdokAn fCeR YAä bApu, ÇmAek fbcA-fknA karaet dAä| (p&: 86) Leave my shop, Sir, let me conduct my business. 5) fs maen maen balet õAek, fkOyAr ÅnÄ jagaetr mAnuS| (p&: 174)

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He keeps saying to himself, Kouar is a being from another world. 6) fkoõAä Bula karael fkoeno fmeyr É≤at fYet pAer| (p&: 176) If at any point you slip up, some of the women might get molested [their honor might leave]. 7) haóAö ^GÄAca kaer àkaiT gAiR õAem äedra sAmaen| . . . fkoislA iCTaek äeó, fdKet pA∞Ca nA? cApA fdeb nAik? ik fBeb . . . (p&: 178) A car suddenly screeches to a halt in front of them. . . . Kosila explodes, "Can't you see? Were you going to run over us or what? Whatever were you thinking . . . " 8) ftt`ir inemeS muK baŒ kaer ä CuTet õAek, CuTet õAek| (p&: 179) Tetri instantly shut her mouth and just kept running and running. Lesson 16, II (a phone conversation between teenagers, overheard) fh%elo| karaiC%s kI? __ Çj ib%ek%el% is%en%mA fd%Kaet% YAäyA ió%k karalAm| ÇmAr ÅpaéNA fs%en%r natun Caib% fd%Kaet% Kub Ée∞C% karaeC%| fk%ÛTa àKuin% ig%ey% dueTo iT%ik%T kATabAr fc%ÛTA karaeb%! buJil, is%en%mA fd%Kaet% KubaÉ BAla lAeg% ÇmAr| ftoraä, Çim% jAin%| mA bAiR%et% fn%É b'ael% fs% ÇmAed%r ib%jalIet% YAäyA baŒa karaet% pAraeb% nA àbAr| __ Ç∞CA, Ç∞CA, bueJiC, taeb tuÉ tARAtAiR äÉ sab kaib%tA-Paib%tA fl%KA fZ%S kaer fPl; ÇmAed%r ÅnÄa kAj ÇeC% Çj| cael% Çy| duégA ÇmAed%r jaenÄ% sAmAnÄa àkaTu rAÕA karaet% Zuü karaeC% fdKiC| samay õAkael% YAbAr paeõ% cA fK%et% õAmaet%ä pAir%| fkman? Çy nA, iZg`igr! Ç∞CA, rAKaiC%|

Lesson 17, II paer%r bAr YaKan òAkAy YAn taKan ÇmAr àkaTA ÖpakAr karaet% pArael% k&ta≥ a haebo| Çpain% ÇmAed%r CA÷a-CAi÷%ed%raek% bAMalA fZ%KAenor fkoeno àkaTA bÄabaêA karaet% pAraeb%n ik%? CA÷a-CAi÷%ed%r Kub fb%iZ% „aZaMasA nA kaer% ÇmAed%r ib%BAeg%r ÖeÔ%Ka karabAr sueYoga Yaid% pAn, Çpain% dayA kaer% balaeb%n fY% ik%Cu id%n bAMalAed%eZ% õAkabAr Pael% äed%r Kub ÖpakAr haeb%| DaHa ÉsalAm fY% samay àKAen% iC%el%n taKan änAr pair%cay karalAm| änAr f^Koja karaeb%n| änAr sAeõ% fd%KA karAr sueYoga fp%el% Öin% in%cayaÉ ÇpanAek% sAhAYÄa karaet% pAraeb%n| YAet% Baib%SaÄet% fk%Ö ÇmAed%r in%«dA nA kaer%, ÇmAed%r àKana àkaTA ik%Cur bÄabaêA karabAr fc%ÛTA karA Öic%t| Lesson 18, II 1) Will you mind awfully if I don't go with? 2) The purpose for which authors have presented us books [i.e., to be reviewed in Bangadarsan]—if we do not carry out that [i.e., the reviewing], then we are obliged to send [them] the price of all those books. 3) If he doesn't change the water, then, take a look, perhaps [the magur fish] has died. 4) If indeed it had been caused by the Muslims, then it is worth pondering why such current news did not find its way into so important an account. 5) If you didn't have any money, how did you manage to come by taxi?

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Lesson 18, III 1) It's all right if we don't set down to work [on it] today. We'll do it tomorrow. 2) You could have informed me of that before I came. 3) If only I could have finished this work today! 4) After finishing this task, we can concentrate on other work. 5) Yes, yes. It would simply not do not to finish up the project immediately. Lesson 19, II 1) Whatever we call "deshakha"—"deshakha" or "deshaga"—the raga is utterly indigenous. 2) Let's roam about a little like some homeless waifs. 3) No matter how many missionary schools I attended, I have never had any marked Western affectation in my Bangla pronunciation. 4) I've got to go, Father. Let me cook something or other [before I go]. 5) No matter where Sita is, we will search her out for sure.

Lesson 19, III 1) àKan b&iÛT% paRaeC%| taõAip% bAÉer% YAba| tAhael%ä bAÉer% YAba| tabuä bAÉer% YAba| 2) Çj pA<Ar jaœaid%n| kAej%É ÇmAek% är bAiR%et% fY%et% haeb%| fs%ÉjaenÄ% ÇmAek% är bAiR%et% fY%et% haeb%| Åtaàb ÇmAek% är bAiR%et% fY%et% haeb%| 3) b&iÛT% paRaeC%, Öpara… pA<Ar bAiR%et%

ÇmAek% fY%et% haeb bael% Çim% ik% ÇpanAr CAtA úAr karaet% pAir%?

Çim% ik% ÇpanAr CAtA úAr karaet% pAir% fk%nanA [kAraN] b&iÛT% paRaeC% àbaMa pA<Ar bAiR%et% ÇmAek% fY%et% haeb?

Lesson 20, II 1) tuim% Yaid% BAla nA haä, rasaegoÔA fK%et% pAeb% nA| 2) ftomAr Kub fb%iZ% la≠A nA KAäyAÉ BAla| ftomAr Kub fb%iZ% la≠A fK%et% fn%É| ftomAr Kub fb%iZ% la≠A nA KAäyA Öic%t| 3) Çj b&iÛT% nA haet% pAer%| Çj b&iÛT% nAä haet% pAer%| 4) hay tArAZa≠ ar nAhay mAin%k paiR%| 5) ÇmarA ik% mahAeç%tA fd%bI nA Fs%yad ZAmasul hak paRaba? 6) fb%äyAir%s mAl, fb%ZI id%n Gaer% nA rAKAÉ BAla| (Advanced Bengali, p. 137)

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GLOSSARY (covers the first section of each lesson only)

ÅMaZa n. part, piece, section

ÅMaZaègahaNakArI n. participant

ÅMaZaègahaN n. participation, taking part

Å•u⋲ a adj. unimpaired, unhindered,

intact

ÅgaNan adj. countless, innumerable

ÅègaBAg n. the top part, peak

ÅèGAN n. a month (November-

December)

Åi≠ %ta adj. marked, drawn, painted,

delineated

ÅÆa n. limb, body

Å¥al n. area, region; end of woman's

sari

Åtaàb conj. hence, so, therefore

Åit% pref. very, extra, excessive; adj.

very

Åit%iõ% n. guest

Åit%ir%°a adj. superfluous; additional

ÅtÄa»a adj. very much, exceedingly,

extremely

Å⁄ut adj. strange, unusual,

extraordinary

ÅúaHai•%‡a adj. thrown down; discarded

Åiú%kAMaZa adj. most, the greater part

Åiú%kArI adj. having ownership,

authority; n. owner, proprietor

Åiú%ed%batA n. a guardian or presiding

deity

Åiú%nAyak n. leader, commander

Åiú%bAsI n. an inhabitant, resident, native

ÅúIn adj. controlled by; subservient to

ÅnabadÄa adj. flawless, impeccable;

innocent

ÅnaïIkAéYaa adj. undeniable

Åin%ic%ta adj. uncertain, dubious;

indefinite

ÅnukUla adj. helpful, favorable,

propitious

Ånuta‡a adj. repentant, contrite

ÅnuÕata adj. undeveloped, backward

ÅnubAd n. translation

ÅnubAdak n. translator

ÅnuYAyI pp. according to

Ånuûp adj. & pp. similar, like

Ånuil%ip% n. a facsimile, transcript

ÅnuıAn n. a function, ceremony

ÅnUid%ta adj. translated

Åen%k pron. & adj. many, a lot

Żara n. the heart, mind; interior; adj.

different, other; pp. after an interval

of, every

Å»arAÙIya adj. foreign, of another

country

Å»aéBu°a adj. included, enclosed, lying

within

ÅŒakAr n. darkness; adj. dark

ÅnuÕata adj. not high, backward,

undeveloped

ÅnÄatama pron & adj. one of many; a

particular

ÅnÄarakam n. & adj. another kind,

different

ÅnÄAnÄa adj. various, sundry, several

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ÅnÄAnÄaBAeb% adv. variously

Åpair%èZuta adj. congealed

ÅpAóÄa adj. unreadable

ÅbaúAir%ta adj. determined, fixed;

inevitable

ÅbalaÍan n. support, act of accepting

ÅbaZÄa adv. of course, certainly,

inevitably

Åib%laeÍ% adv. without delay

ÅbÄabaih%ta adj. contiguous; immediate,

next

ÅiB%úAn n. dictionary

ÅiB%en%tA n. actor

ÅiB%mueK% adv. in the direction of,

toward

ÅiB%YAn n. an expedition, campaign,

adventuresome exploration

ÅiB%ZAp n. curse

ÅBÄaéõanA n. reception, act of greeting

ÅÌaZUl n. acid indigestion

ÅraNÄa n. forest

ÅéõanIit% n. economics

ÅépaN n. act of offering, handing over

ÅÓa adj. some, a small amount

Åsu«dar adj. not beautiful, ugly

ÇHa interjection: ah! oh!

ÇkaéSaN n. attraction

ÇkAZ n. sky

ÇK n. sugar cane

ÇKajAta adj. produced from sugar cane

Çgata adj. arrived, already come

ÇgAmI adj. next, coming, subsequent

Çeg% adv. before, previously, at first, in

front; pp. before, in front

ÇC- v. to exist, be, have

Çj adv. today

ÇT adj. eight

ÇóAero adj. eighteen

Ç’acair%t n. autobiography

Ç’ain%eyog n. act of applying oneself

Ç’AbamAnanA n. self-deprecation

Çid% suf. "etc."

Çiú%kÄa n. excess; predominance

Çúuin%k adj. modern

Çna«da n. bliss, joy

Çna«dabAjAr pai÷%kA n. name of a Kolkata

newspaper

Çna«dajanak adj. engendering bliss,

delightful

Çnai«d%ta adj. delighted, glad

ÇnA v. to fetch, bring

ÇnA n. the anna coin, 1/16th of a

taka/rupee

Ç»aéjAit%k adj. international

Çpan pron. one's own, self

ÇbalI n. a row, series, collection

ÇbaiZÄ%k adj. compulsory

ÇbAr adv. again

ÇbAs n. place to stay, dwelling

ÇbIr n. a red powder sprinkled on

people during the Holi festival

Çeb%dan n. appeal, solicitation;

application

Çm n. mango

ÇmadAin%/ÇmadAnI n. import

Çmal n. reign, regime; age, period

ÇmAy obj. case pron. "to me"

ÇyA n. a nanny, maidservant

Çr conj. and

Çrab n. an Arab, an Arab nation

Çero conj. and, more

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ÇerohaN n. act of mounting, climbing,

riding

Çiéõ%k adj. economic, monetary

ÇlAdA adj. separate, different

Çelo n. light

ÇelocanA n. discussion

ÇeloRan n. act of churning; agitation;

recollection, deliberation

ÇZA n. hope

ÇiZ%s n. blessing, benediction

ÇçAs n. assurance, confidence, promise

Çiç%na n. a month (September-October)

ÇSAô n. a month (June-July)

ÇSAôIya adj. of or during Asarh;

fantastic

ÇSAeô% adj. of or during Asarh; fantastic

Çsan n. a seat, sitting position

ÇsaÕa adj. approaching, imminent

ÇsA v. to come

ÇsAm n. Assam, N-E province of India

Ç˙araN n. covering, layer; bedcover,

carpet

ÇhAr n. food

ÇhvAn n. a call, summons, invocation

ÉMarAjI/ÉMaer%jI/ÉMair%jI adj. English; n.

the English language

ÉMarAjIi„%ya adj. those partial to English

ÉMaer%ja n. an Englishman

ÉeToyAlA adj. of bricks

Éit%maeúÄ% adv. in the meantime, till now

Éit%hAsa% n. history

ÉtÄAid% adv. and so forth, etc.

Ñd n. the annual Muslim Eid festival

Ö∞Calajalaiú%taraÆa n. swelling waves

Öió%yA YAäyAa "to be no more"

ÖökaéSa n. improvement, increase,

excellence

Öökala n. Orissa

Öök&ÛTa adj. excellent, best

Ö–arASAôA n. one of the 27 named stars

Ö–IéNa adj. successful, passed, crossed

over

Ööpai–%êal n. place of origin

ÖöpAdan n. generation, production,

manufacture

Öösa n. source, wellspring

Öösab n. festival, celebration

ÖösAha n. enthusiasm

Öösuk adj. eager

Öd`GATan n. act of uncovering, opening

Öe◊%ZÄa n. an intention, purpose, motive

Ö⁄Abak n. creator, inventor, deviser

ÖÕait% n. progress, development,

improvement

ÖÕayan n. the act of improving,

advancing

ÖÕayanaZIl adj. progressive

ÖpakaraN n. ingredient; equipment,

apparatus

ÖpakArI adj. useful, helpful, beneficent

ÖpajAta adj. produced; n. a by-product

ÖpaYu°a adj. fit, worthy, suitable,

worthy

Öpair%BAg n. the upper part

Öpalae•% pp. on the occasion of, for the

purpose of

ÖpaêApan n. act of introducing,

submitting

ÖpahAr n. gift, present

ÖpAdAn n. ingredient; apparatus,

equipment

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ÖpAy n. way, means; earnings, income

ÖBay adj. & pron. both

ÖeÔ%K n. mention, reference, allusion

ÖeÔ%KÄa adj. worth mentioning

Üeé› pp. above

àka adj. one

àkaTu adj. & pron. a little, a bit

àkain%ıaBAeb% adv. single-mindedly,

intently

àkabAr adv. once, one time

àkamA÷a adv. only, one and only

àkAiú%k adj. more than once

à•aNa adv. now

à•uiN% adv. immediately, just now

àKan adv. now

àKAen% adv. here

àgaeno v. to advance, go forward

àta adj. & adv. so, so much, so many

àtadue◊%Z n. this purpose, aim, intention

àtadue◊%eZÄ% adv. for this purpose, to this

end

àbaMa conj. and

àbAr adv. now, this time

àman adj. & adv. such, so, in such a way

àman ik% adv. even, even such that

àûpa adj. this kind, this sort

àlAkA n. locale, area, place

àsarAj n. a stringed instrument

ä conj. and; adj. that; pron. she/he/it;

interjection, oh

äjan n. weight

äóA/ÖóA v. to get up, rise up

äRA/ÖRA v. to fly

äpAr n. the far shore, the other side

kaÉ adv. where; an exclamation,

emphatic

ka•a n. room, chamber

kaKan adv. when

ka∆óa n. voice, throat

kata adj. how much, how many

kaõA n. word, story; pp. about

kaeõopakaõan n. conversation

kaib% n. poet

kaib%k. abbr. for Kabikankan

Mukundaram Cakrabarti, author of

the Candi-mangal

kaib%tA n. poetry, a poem; name of a

magazine

kaib%tABaban n. name of a publishing

house

kam adj. few, little, less

kaey%ka adj. a few

kara≠ a n. a beggar's bowl

karA v. to do, make

kaüN adj. pathetic, sad; compassionate

kaétabÄa n. duty, that which must be done

kaétA n. the one who does, husband, boss

kaét&ka pp. by, done by, by means of

kaét&pa•a n. the authorities, management

kalakAtA/kail%kAtA n. Kolkata (formerly

Calcutta), the capital of West Bengal

kalA n. art; banana; digit of the moon

kalÄANIyAsu complimentary closing to a

girl

kAÖek% obj. indef. pronoun

kAgaj n. paper

%kAC n. nearness, proximity

%kAC fõ%ek% pp. from (a human)

kAeC% pp. & adv. nearby, near, to, from

kACAir% n. zemindar's office; magistrate's

court

kAj n. work, a task

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kAej% lAgA v. to be of use

kAej% lAgAeno v. to put to use

kAej%É conj. consequently, therefore,

thus

kATA v. to cut, spend time (etc.)

kATAeno v. to spend time (etc.)

kAó n. wood, timber

kAóuir%yA, kAóuer% n. a woodcutter

kAmanA n. a wish, desire, longing

kAiét%k n. a month (October-November)

kAéYa£am n. program

kAéYAlay n. office, place of work

kAl n. time; yesterday, tomorrow;

Death

kAla adj. black

kAlI n. the goddess Kali

kAlIGAT n. Kalighat, a temple and

neighborhood in south Kolkata

kAÓain%k adj. imaginary, fanciful

kAıa n. wood, timber

kAih%nI n. a tale, account, story

ik%/kI interrogative indicator; pron. &

adj. what; conj. or

ik%MabA conj. or

ik∞%Cu emphatic of ik%Cu

ik%Cu pron. & adj. some, few

ik%i¥%ö adj. & pron. a small amount, a

few

ik%nArA n. edge, border, bank, shore;

outskirts

ik%… conj. but, however

ik%eZor n. an adolescent boy, teenager

ik%i %-bai«d n. payment by installments

kuiT%kuiT% adj. minced, torn to shreds

kuiR% adj. twenty

kul n. family, clan, species

k&ta adj. done, made

k&ta≥ a n. thankful

k&taib%dÄa adj. learned, well-educated

k&tasaMakaÓa adj. determined, resolved

k&it%‘a n. proficiency, skill, credit

fk%na adv. why

fk%nA v. to buy

fk%«‹a n. center, the main place

fk%bal adv. only, just

fk%man adj. how, what kind

fk%ÔA n. fort

fkoiT% n. a crore, ten million

fkoeno adj. any, some

£IRA n. a game, sport, pastime

i£%yAekOZal n. expertise, efficiency

•amatA n. power, ability, skill

•u‹a adj. small, tiny

f•%÷a n. field, area

KT`KaT` expressing: the sound of striking

at or on something hard

Kaƒa n. part, region; volume, section

Kain%j adj. mineral

Kabar n. news

Karac n. expenditure, expense

KAÉ-Karac n. board, money for food

^KAiT% adj. genuine, pure, real

KAin%k adj. a little bit, a very little

KAp KAäyA v. to agree with, suit

%KAp KAäyAeno v. to adapt to, fit in, adjust

KAbAr n. food

KAm n. envelope

Kub adv. very

KulanA n. Khulna, a city in Bangladesh

KuiZ%/KuZI adj. happy, glad

fK%yAl n. awareness, attention; whim,

caprice

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fK%lanA n. a toy, plaything

fK%lA n. game; v. to play

fK%lAúulA n. games, sports

fK%eloyAR n. a player, sportsman

f^Koj karA v. to search, look for

fKokan n. a young lad; nickname for a

boy

fKolA adj. open; v. to open

fKolA n. bark of a tree, skin of fruit,

shell

˝I. abbr. for Christian, A.D./C.E.

calendar

gaÆA n. the Ganges

gaÆAsAgar n. the mouth of the Ganges

where it empties into the Bay of

Bengal

gaRan n. act of building, creating, shaping

gaRA v. to make, build, model

gaN pl. suf. "people"

gaiN%t n. mathematics

gata adj. past, gone by

gatakAla adv. yesterday

gaŒaéba n. a Gandharva (demi-god,

proficient in music and war)

gaeb%Sak n. researcher

gaeb%SaNA n. research

gaeb%SaNAmUlak adj. based upon research

gaman n. the act of going

gaÍuja n. a dome, cupola, vault

gaiéb%ta adj. proud

gail% n. a narrow street, alley

gaÓa n. a story

gA n. body, surface

gAäyA/gAhA v. to sing

gAdA n. heap, pile; swarm

gAúA n. a donkey, ass

gAn n. song

gAn gAäyA v. to sing

guN n. quality; good qualities, a virtue;

with numbers: times; multiplication

guNamuØ adj. impressed with virtue/talent

guü‘apUéNa adj. important, filled with

gravity

guil% n. a bullet; any small round ball; a

pill

guhA n. a cave

fgoRA n. the beginning, root, base

fgoıI n. group, class, clan, society

fgosal n. bath, bathing

fgOrab n. pride, honor, glory

ègaÃa n. book

ègaÃAlay n. library

ègahaN n. the act of receiving, holding,

adopting

ègA. abbr. for ègAmÄ

ègAhak n. subscriber

ègAm n. village

ègAmIN adj. rural, pertaining to the village

ègAmÄa adj. rural, pertaining to the village

™Ain% n. fatigue, weariness, depression

GaT n. a water pot

GaTan/GaTanA n. an occurrence, event,

happening

GaTanAkaétA n. perpetrator, the one who

causes

GaiT%ta adj. caused, occurred; suf.

involving

GaiR%äyAlA adj. possessing a clock

Gana adj. thick, dense; n. clouds

Gana Gana adv. often, repeatedly, now and

then

Gain%ıa adj. intimate, close

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Gar n. room, house, building, residence

Gar-GAT n. buildings and such

GAR n. nape of the neck

GAT n. the steps leading down to water, a

wharf

fGoRA n. horse

fGor adj. dreadful, dark; n. obsession,

darkness

èGAN n. scent, fragrance, smell

caäRA adj. wide, broad

ca¿aègAm n. Chittagong, a city in

Bangladesh

caRA v. to ride, mount

catuéõa adj. fourth

caiw%Z-paraganA n. a district in West Bengal

camaökAr adj. wonderful, marvelous

camaök&ta adj. amazed, impressed

carA v. to wander, roam, travel; to gaze

cair%t n. character; biography

caécA n. study, cultivation, practice

caéma n. hide, skin, leather

calA v. to move

cA n. tea

cAÉ n. necessity, want

cAäyA v. to want, desire

cAäyA v. to gaze at, look at

^cAdA n. subscription, contribution, quota

cAcA n. uncle (father's brother, Muslim)

cAra adj. four

cAratalA "four-story"

cAlAeno v. to carry on, manage; to drive a

vehicle

cAih%dA n. need, demand

ic%ik%ösA n. medical treatment, cure

ic%ió% n. letter

ic%ió%pa÷a n. letters

ic%in% n. sugar

ic%raid%n adv. forever, always

cIen%mAiT% n. china, porcelain

^fccAeno v. to shout, scream

fc%nA v. to know, recognize

Fc%÷a name of a month (March-April)

fco*k n. eye

Caib% n. picture

CAäyA v. to spread over, pervade,

overcast

^CAkA v. to strain, filter

CARA v. to depart; leave; quit; change,

send off; pp. except for, besides, in

addition to

CA÷a n. a student

CAyA n. a shadow, shade

iC%TAeno n. to sprinkle, scatter

iC%baeR% n. pulp, that from which the juice

has been squeezed

fC%el% n. a boy, son

fC%el%em%ey% n. children

fCoTa n. small, young

jagat n. world, universe

jagaöejoRA adj. world-wide

jaTA n. matted hair (of an ascetic)

jan suf. person, people

janagaNamaÆaladAyak n. the benefactor of the

people

janagaNamana n. the hearts of the populace

janaiZ%•A n. public education

jaœa n. birth

janÄa/jaenÄ% pp. for

jamAeT% adv. enthusiastically, fully,

thoroughly

jamAeno v. to save up, accumulate,

deposit

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jaim%dAr n. a zemindar, landowner

jaya n. victory, "hail to thee"

jayagAõA n. victory ballad, song, narration

jal n. water

jAgA v. to awake, be awakened

jAta n. caste, kind, sort; adj. born, made;

suf. born of, resulted from, made of

jAit% n. caste, community, nation

jAtIya adj. national

jAtIya saMgIta n. national anthem

jAnA v. to know, learn

jAnAeno v. to cause to know

jAyagA n. place, spot, position

ij% yes (a deferential "yes," used by

Muslims)

ij%eg%s n. questioning, a question

%ij%eg%s karA v. to ask

ij%in%Sa/ij%in%sa n. thing, object

jIban n. life

jIib%ta adv. alive, living

fj%lakada n. name of month in Hijra

calendar

fj%lA n. district (See Lesson 8, IV.)

fjoTA v. to be available, to assemble

fjoRA/juRA v. to join, affix; to begin; to

pervade; n. a couple, pair

fjoRAeno/juRAeno v. to join; to console,

allay, satisfy; to cool

fjoyAn n. young man; soldier

fjoradAr n. force, emphasis, impetus,

vigor

≥An n. wisdom, knowledge;

understanding; consciousness

fjÄoöëA n. moonlight

fjÄoöëArAt n. moonlit night

∏ ala∏ ael% adj. shining, blazing, sparkling

JarAeno n. to cause to fall, drop, ooze

TAkA n. taka (Bangladesh), rupee (India)

TAkAkaiR% n. money

TAn n. a pull, attraction; speech accent

TAnA v. to pull, attract

TAil% n. tile

iT%ik%Ta n. postage stamp; ticket

Tuku suf. indicating smallness,

paltriness

fT%r n. awareness, feeling, sensation

%fT%r pAäyA v. to be aware of, to sense

óAkur n. deity; a Brahmin cook; a Hindu

family name

óAZA/óAsA v. to cram, stuff, load

ió%k adj. right, proper; correct, corrected;

adv. certainly, for sure

ió%k karA v. to decide; to fix

ió%kAnA n. address, location

fó%kA v. to touch, dash against

D. abbr. for doctor, with a Ph.D.

DAH abbr. for medical doctor

DAk n. mail, post; n. a call, summons

DAkaGar n. post office

DAn adj. right (direction)

òAkA n. Dhaka, the capital of

Bangladesh; v. to hide, conceal, be

concealed

fò%r adj. a lot, plentiful, enough

taKan adv. then

taetoid%n adv. for so long, this amount of

time

taö•aNAt/taö•aNAö adv. then and there,

immediately

taöpar adv. after that (primarily

SADHU)

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taõA adv. & conj. so, like; even; for

instance

taõÄa n. fact, truth, actuality

taba pron. your (poetic)

tabu conj. but, however, nevertheless

taeb% conj. but, still, then

tara comparative suf. more, . . .-er; other

than, non-. . .

talA n. base, the underneath; a floor,

deck, story

tael% pp. beneath, at the base of

%tael% tael% adv. secretly; at heart

tA pron. it, that

tAÉ conj. that is why

tAkAeno n. to look at, gaze

tAmAk n. tobacco

tAraip%n n. turpentine

tArA n. star; (also pl. pron. "they")

tAir%K n. date, day of the month

tAil% n. act of clapping

tAhael% conj. then, in that case

tAhArA pl. pron. "they" (SADHU)

it%lak n. an ornament, dot placed on

forehead

tIÁa adj. strong, violent, harsh

tueKoR adj. skillful, expert, clever

t&N n. grass, straw

t&tIya adj. third

t&i‡% n. satisfaction, gratification

ft%ÉZa adj. twenty-three

ft%l n. oil

Ft%ir%/FtarI n. act of making, preparation;

adj. ready, made, prepared

Ft%lA°a adj. oily

fto adds emphasis, adds a note of

doubt, used with Yaid% to mean "then,

in that case" (See Lesson 18, II.)

ftolA v. to raise, lift, bring up

i÷%Za/it%ir%Z adj. thirty

F÷%mAis%k adj. quarterly

õAkA v. to be, remain, live

fõ%ek% pp. from; than (like fc%ey%)

dai•%N n. & adj. south, right (direction)

dai•%NAMZa n. southern portion

dai•%eN%çara n. Daksineswar, a place on the

north side of Kolkata

daƒa n. stick; punishment; measure of

time (24 minutes)

daün pp. for, because of, on account of;

for the sake of

daéZak n. the audience, viewer

dA suf. elder/eldest brother, short for dAdA

dAHa abbr. for doctor

dAna n. gift

dAna karA v. to give, bestow

dAbA n. the game of chess

dAbARu n. a chess player

dAm n. price, the money equal to the

price

dAiy%‘a n. responsibility

dAüN adj. very great, tense, excessive

id% suf. elder/eldest sister

id%k n. direction

id%n n. day

id%bas n. day (formal)

id%ey% pp. via, by way of, by means of

dIiG% n. tank, excavated pond

dIéGa adj. long, prolonged, deep

duÉa adj. two

du' id%ena "in a short time"

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durad&ÛTa n. misfortune; adj. ill-fated,

unfortunate

durabaêA n. poverty, wretchedness,

miserable state of affairs

durIkaraN n. expulsion, banishment,

removal

duéga n. fort

duégA n. the goddess Durga

duébalatA n. weakness, debility

duélaB adj. rare, expensive, difficult to

obtain

dUr n. distance, a distant place;

interjection: "go on, get out of here!"

dUr karA v. to eradicate, dispel

dUrad&ÛTa n. prudence, act of seeing the

future, foresight

dUrabI•aN n. a telescope

dUrIkaraNa n. dispelling, expulsion,

removal

d&iÛT%BaÆI n. viewpoint, perspective

fd%äyA/fd%yA v. to give

fd%KA v. to see, observe, view

fd%KAeno v. to show, display

fd%batA n. a deity, god

fd%ir%/fd%rI n. delay, tardiness

fd%Z n. country, land, home; name of a

Kolkata magazine

fd%Zae„%im%k n. lover of one's country,

patriot

fd%ZIya adj. of or pertaining to the country

fd%ha n. the body

Fd%in%k adj. daily

Fd%in%k Ée–%PAk n. name of a Dhaka

newspaper

fdokAn n. store, shop

fdol n. a Hindu festival, also called Holi

‹a/‹aHa abbr. for ‹aÛTabÄa, vide, see

ŸAdaZ adj. twelve

ŸArA pp. by, by means of

iŸ%tIya adj. second

iŸ%mAis%k adj. occurring every two months

úanÄabAd n. thank you

úaran n. manner, type; way, method

úarA n. the world, earth

úarA v. to hold, catch, grab

úaer% pp. for (with time)

úAr n. bank, edge, side

›ain%„asAraN n. "microphones, speakers,

etc."

nak`ZA/naVA n. rough sketch, plan, design

na•a÷a n. star, constellation

natun/fnotun adj. new

nadI n. river

naba adj. new; nine

nabagaió%ta adj. newly formed, created

naba„ait%iı%ta adj. newly established

namunA n. example, sample, specimen,

model

nayaeto conj. if not, otherwise

nara n. man

nar-nArIa n. men and women

nA no

nAäyA v. to bathe

nATak n. a play, drama

nATakIya adj. dramatic, theatrical

nATakIyatA n. high drama

nARA v. shake, move

nAnABAeb% adv. in various ways

nAm n. name

nAmak adj. by the name of, called

nAmA v. to get down, descend

nArAj adj. unwilling

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nArI n. woman

in% negative of the completive tenses

in%Haïa adj. not one's own

in%kaT pp. near, next to; from (SADHU)

in%jaïa adj. one's own

in%ej% pron. oneself

in%tA»a adj. extreme, thorough

in%tÄa adj. eternal; adv. always, forever

in%bAir%ta adj. prevented, prohibited,

mitigated

in%eb%dan n. petition; humble narration

in%ñail%iK%ta adj. written below

in%yaim%ta adj. regular; adv. regularly

in%Yu°a adj. employed, engaged,

appointed

in%eyoij%ta adj. employed, engaged,

appointed

in%ra•aratA n. illiteracy

in%rasanakaÓa n. intention/resolve to

redress/mitigate/terminate

in%éúAir%ta adj. ascertained, determined,

fixed

in%iZ%id%n adv. night and day, constantly

in%cay adv. of course, certainly

nIit% n. policy; practice; ethics; a science

fn%É negative of ÇC-

fn%äyA v. to take (See laäyA|)

fn%t&‘a n. leadership, act of commanding

fnOkA, fnOeko n. boat

^payatAiÔ%Za adj. forty-five

pae•% pp. for, from the perspective of

pa¥am adj. fifth

pai∂%/pa∂I n. almanac, calendar;

chronicle, listing

paóan-pAóan n. study and teaching

paRA v. to fall

paRA v. to read, study

paRAZueno n. studies, education

pa÷a n. leaf, page, letter, magazine

pai÷%kA n. a periodical, magazine

paõa n. path, way

padAéõata—aib%d n. a physicist

padAéõaib%dÄA n. physics

paÿait% n. manner, method, system

payalA n. & adj. the first of the month

payasA n. the pice coin, one one-

hundredth of a rupee/taka

par/paer% adv. & pp. after, afterward,

subsequent to

parabatéI adj. subsequent, next, ensuing

para¯par adj. reciprocal, mutual, one

another

parAmaéZa n. advice

pair%kaÓanA n. plan, scheme, planning,

devising

pair%cay n. acquaintance, introduction;

name of a Kolkata magazine

pair%ic%iΩ %ta adj. identified, marked

pair%∞Cad n. a covering, garment, clothing

pair%tÄa°a adj. relinquished, abandoned

pair%da‡ar n. an office, secretariat

pair%baétan n. change, alteration

pair%baiét%ta/pair%baié–%ta adj. changed, altered,

modified

pair%ba¸tI adj. subsequent, next

pair%baiéú%ta/pair%baiéÿ%ta adj. enlarged,

developed

pair%eb%Z n. surroundings, environment

pair%eZ%eS% adv. at last, ultimately

pair%Saö/pair%Sad n. a society, an association

parI•A n. examination

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paéba n. holiday, festival; section of a

book, node or point on a stem or

stalk

paébat n. mountain, hill

paéYa»a pp. until, up to; from

palAZ n. the palash tree

paÔI n. the village

pAäyA v. to get, receive

pAKA n. a bird's wing; a fan

pAiK%/pAKI n. bird

pAgal adj. mad, crazy; n. a madman,

eccentric

pAó n. a lesson; reading, recitation

pAóAgAr n. reading room, library

pAóAeno v. to send

pAóÄa adj. assigned reading, required (on

syllabus)

pAR n. shore, border, edge

pARA n. neighborhood, section of town

pAƒuil%ip% n. manuscript

pAtA n. leaf

pA÷I n. bride

pArA v. to be able

pAéõakÄa n. difference, distinction

pAlan n. fostering, nurturing, protection

pAZ n. the side, bank, edge

pAZ karA v. to pass

pAeZ% pp. beside

ip%–apAõair% n. gallstones

ip%–aZUl n. bile

pIr n. a Muslim holy man

pur suf. city, town

puraeno/purAeno/pueroeno adj. old

pu˙ak n. book, tome

pui˙%kA n. booklet

pUjA n. puja, ritualistic worship

pUij%ta adj. worshiped, honored

pUéNa adj. complete, full, whole

pUiéN%mA n. the full moon

pUéba/pUéwa adj. previous, former; eastern;

n. the east; precedence

pUébASAôA n. one of the 27 named stars

p&õaka adj. separate, different

p&ıA [p&Ha] n. page

fp%T n. the stomach

%fp%T Baer% KAäyA to eat one's fill

fp%raeno/fp%üeno v. to cross over, go

beyond

fp%Z n. the act of submitting, placing

before someone

fpOeroih%tÄa n. acting as a priest

fpOéNamAsI n. the full moon

fpOS n. a month (December-January)

„akaÓa n. "mechanics" (neologism)

„akAr n. kind, type, class, sort

„akAZ n. publication, revelation

%„akAZ karA v. to publish

„akAZak n. publisher

„akAZan/„akAZanA n. the act of publication

„akAZanI n. a publishing house

„akAiZ%ta adj. published

„acAr n. circulation, proclamation,

announcement, dissemination

„acur adj. abundant, ample, numerous

„aNAlI n. a strait, channel; procedure,

method, system

„ait% adj. every, each; pp. toward, to;

regarding, concerning

„ait%kAr n. redress, remedy, revenge

„ait%k&it% n. a portrait, an image

„ait%i£%yA n. a reaction, response

„ait%in%iú% n. representative, delegate

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„ait%eYoig%tA n. competition

„ait%ıA n. establishment, founding,

installation

„ait%ıAn n. an institute, institution,

establishment

„ait%iı%ta adj. established, founded,

dedicated

„atIk n. symbol, sign

„aetÄ%k adj. each and every

„aõam adj. first

„aõA n. custom, practice, system

„adaéZanI n. a public show, exhibition

„adAn n. the act of giving, bestowal

„aed%Z n. a province, state

„aúAn adj. main, chief, principal

„aúAnamaÀI n. the prime minister

„aPuÔatA n. cheerfulness, gaity,

happiness

„aba°A n. proponent, advocate

„abaŒa n. essay, article

„ab&–a adj. engaged in, occupied with,

commenced

„aB&it% conj. etc., and so forth

„aeyojan n. need, necessity

„aeyojanIya adj. necessary

„ael%p n. a coating, an ointment; the act

of smearing

„aZAsaka n. administrator

„aiZ%•aN n. training

„ais%ÿa adj. famous, renowned, reputed

„a˙Ab n. proposal, subject for discussion

„a˙uta adj. prepared, ready

„aharaNa n. weapon

„aharaNAid% n. weapon, etc.

„Ak&it%k adj. natural

„AcIn adj. ancient, old

„AN n. heart, life

„Ay adv. about, nearly

„AyaÉ adv. often, frequently

i„%ya adj. dear, favorite; suf. . . .-phile,

partial toward

f„%m n. love, affection

f„%ir%ta adj. sent, dispatched

Pala„asu adj. successful, producing

results

PAgun n. colloquial form of PAflun, a

month (February-March)

PuTA n. a hole; adj. porous; v. to bloom,

open, appear; to be boiled

PuTAeno v. to cause to bloom, open; to

boil

PurAeno v. to deplete, exhaust, empty; to

be spent, exhausted

fP%rat n. the act of giving back,

returning; adj. returned

fP%rA v. to return, turn around, go to and

fro

fP%lA to throw, throw down; see also

Lesson 10, II, "Auxiliary Verbs"

baÉ n. book

baÉpa÷a n. books and such

baMaZa n. family, lineage

ba°&tA n. lecture, talk

baÆa n. Bengal; adj. of or pertaining to

Bengal

baÆadaéZan n. a nineteenth-century

magazine

baÆIya adj. of or pertaining to Bengal

baCar n. year

baT n. the banyan tree

baRa adj. large, big; old; very

baRa haäyA v. to grow up

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baRaelok n. a wealthy, important person

baiR%ZA n. Barisha, a suburb of Kolkata

baösar n. year

badael% pp. in place of, instead of, in

exchange of

ban n. forest, wooded stand, jungle

banaègAm n. Bongram, a neighborhood in

Dhaka

baŒu n. friend

bayaHa£am n. age

baya a adj. grown-up, adult, older, elderly

baey%s n. age

bair%ZAl n. Barisal, a town in Bangladesh

baéNanA n. description

baéNabAdI adj. pertaining to the concept of

caste/color (distinctions), apartheid

baémA n. Burma (also Áaªaed%Za)

baéSa n. year

baéSAraÈBa n. the beginning of the year

bal n. strength, power

balA v. to speak, say, tell, call

bail%yA pp. as, called; conj. because; that

bail%ıa adj. stout, healthy, sturdy

bael% pp. as, called; conj. because; that

basabAs n. the act of residing, dwelling

basA v. to sit

ba˙u n. substance, material, thing

ba˙uta adv. in fact, indeed, really

ba a n. clothes, clothing

ba˚Aid% n. clothes, clothing, etc.

bahu adj. many, much, a lot

bahuib%ú n. various sorts, various types

bA conj. or

bAÉer% adv. outside

bAMalA n. the Bangla language; the land of

Bengal; adj. of or pertaining to

Bangla

bAMalAed%Z n. Bangladesh

^bAcA v. to live, survive

^bAiZ% n. flute

bAik%/bAkI adj. remaining, extra

bAG n. tiger

bAXAlI n. a Bengali; adj. of or pertaining

to Bengalis

bAÆAlA n. the Bangla language, the land

of Bengal; adj. pertaining to

Bangla/Bengal

bAjA v. to sound, be struck

bAjAeno n. to play an instrument, to

sound

bAjAr n. marketplace

bAµanIya adj. desirable

bARA v. to increase, expand; to serve

(something to someone)

bAiR%/bARI n. house, residence

bAiN%jÄa n. commerce, trade

bAtalAeno v. to suggest, devise

bAtAs n. wind, breeze

bAdal n. rain, a rainy day

bAnAeno n. to build; adj. fabricated, made-

up

bAp n. father

bAbA n. father

bAbu an honorific suffix used on Hindu

men's names (like Mr.); n. a fop,

dandy

bAra n. discrete time; day of the week

bAüd n. gunpowder

bAiéS%k adj. annual

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bAis%«dA/bAis%e«d% n. a resident, dweller,

native

bA˙ab adj. real, genuine, actual; n. reality,

truth

bA˙aib%k adj. real, genuine, actual

bAhan n. vehicle, conveyance

bAih%r n. outside, exterior

ib% abbr. for ib%eZ%SÄa "noun"

ib%kaÓa n. an alternative, a substitute

ib%kaiZ%yA adj. manifested, displayed

ib%kAl/ib%ek%l n. afternoon

ib%£ay n. selling, sale

ib%e£%tA n. seller

ib%KÄAta adj. famous

ib%cÄuta adj. separated, detached, shed

ib%≥ ai‡% n. announcement

ib%≥An n. science

%ib%≥AnI n. scientist

ib%≥Apan n. ad, advertisem*nt

ib%N abbr. for ib%eZ%SaN "adjective"

ib%taraN n. distribution, the act of giving

out

ib%tAn n. a pavilion, canopy

ib%–aZAlI adj. wealthy, well-off, of means

ib%dÄAbuiÿ%hIn adj. devoid of intelligence

ib%ŸAn adj. learned, erudite

ib%úabA n. a widow

ib%in%may n. exchange, substitution

ib%paéYay/ib%paéYAy n. disorder, upheaval

ib%‚abI n. a revolutionary

ib%baraNa n. description, an account

ib%eb%canA n. deliberation, thoughtful

opinion

ib%BAg n. department, section, division

ib%iB%Õa adj. various and sundry, different

kinds

ib%muK adj. averse, disinterested,

apathetic

ib%raic%ta adj. written, composed, formed

ib%rala n. solitude, lonely place; adj.

sparse, rare

ib%rAT adj. huge, vast, great

ib%eroú n. enmity, hostility; dispute

ib%laiÍ%ta adj. delayed, late; hanging,

suspended

ib%lAeno v. to give away, distribute

ib%el%tI adj. English, foreign

ib%iZ%ÛTa adj. special, distinguished

ib%Zuÿa adj. pure, genuine, flawless

ib%eZ%S adj. special, particular; n. type,

kind

ib%eZ%Sa≥ a n. a specialist, expert

ib%eZ%SataHa adv. especially, chiefly

ib%eZ%SaBAeb% adv. especially, particularly

ib%ça n. the world, universe

ib%çaekoS n. encyclopedia

ib%çabaer%NÄa adj. world renowned

ib%çaib%KÄAta adj. world famous

ib%çaib%dÄAlay n. university

ib%çAs n. trust, belief

ib%Say n. topic, subject matter

ib%Sayak suf. concerning, relating to, about

ib%Saey% pp. about, concerning

ib%˙IéNa adj. spread out, vast, extensive

bIj n. seed

bIN n. the vina, a string instrument

bIeroic%t adj. warrior-like, proper to a

hero

bIéYa n. heroism, valor, virility

b&ÿa n. an old man; adj. aged, elderly

%b&ÿA n. an old woman

b&«da n. a multitude; pl. suf.

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b&iÛT% n. rain

buk n. chest, breast

buiÿ% n. intelligence, intellect

fb%RAeno v. to visit, wander about

fb%rAeno v. to go out, come out

fb%hAlA n. a neighborhood in Kolkata; a

violin

Fb%≥Ain%k adj. scientific; n. a scientist

fboú n. cognition, consciousness,

sensation

%fboú karA v. to feel

fboú hay perhaps

fbon n. sister

fboÍAÉ n. Bombay/Mumbai

bÄai°% n. an individual

bÄatIta pp. except for, without, devoid of

bÄabaêA n. arrangement, preparation,

system

bÄabahAr n. use, application; behavior,

conduct

bÄabahAir%k adj. applied, practical,

experimental

bÄabahAéYa adj. useful, applicable

bÄabah&ta adj. used, applied

bÄa˙a adj. busy, impatient, anxious,

excited

bÄAèGa n. tiger

bÄApakaBAeb% adv. pervasively, extensively

bÄApAr n. a matter, affair

bÄApArI n. a trader, trafficker, dealer

ÁAªaeN%tara n. lesser than Brahmins

Ba‹amaih%lA n. a lady (formal)

Ba‹amaehodaya n. a gentleman (formal)

Baban n. abode, mansion, residence

Baib%SÄat/Baib%SÄaö n. the future

BarA v. to fill, be filled

BarAe•%t n. a crop-filled field

Baétuik% adj. subsidized

BAgÄa£aem% adv. fortunately, luckily, by

chance

BAÆA v. to break, be broken; adj. broken

BARA n. rent; adj. rented, hired

BAt n. rice (cooked and ready to eat)

BAbA v. to think, consider, contemplate

BArat n. India

BArataekoS n. Indian encyclopedia

BAratabaéSa n. India

BArataBAgÄaib%úAtA n. controller of India's

fate

BAratIya adj. Indian, pertaining to India

BAla/BAelo adj. good

BAelobAsA v. to love, like

BASaN n. a formal speech

BASA n. language

iB%.ip%. V.P., value payable post =

C.O.D.

Bu°a adj. eaten, enjoyed; included

BUim%kA n. introduction, preface; a role,

part

fB%taer%/iB%taer% adv. inside, within

fB%d n. piercing, difference, separation

ËUkuƒA n. a grass that grows during

Asharh

maÆalakAbÄa n. genre of medieval narrative

poetry

ma¥a n. stage, platform

mata/maeto pp. like, similar to

maúur adj. sweet

maúÄa adj. middle, central

%maeúÄ% pp. among, within

man n. mind, heart

man id%ey% adv. intently, with concentration

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main% n. gem, jewel

%maen% „AeN% adv. to the core, innately

maen%ra maeto ka'er% "do to one's heart's

content"

maÀaNAlay n. a council chamber, cabinet,

privy council, ministry

maPaHaïal n. the mofussil, the countryside,

non-urban area

marA v. to die

malaya paébata n. the "Malay hills," the

Western Ghats along the Malabar

coast

mail%n adj. gloomy, dark, dirty

masaij%d n. mosque

ma˙a adj. big, great, lofty

mahal n. residence, edifice, office

mahA pref. great, grand

maha‘apUéNa adj. full of greatness,

excellence

mahABArat n. the Mahabharata epic

mahAmAnÄa adj. most honorable

maehodayagaN n. pl. gentlemen

mA n. mother

mAgA v. to beg for, pray for

mAG n. a month (January-February)

mAiT% n. the ground, soil, earth

mARAÉ n. threshing, pounding

mAt& n. mother

mAt&BASA n. mother tongue

mA÷a adv. only, merely; suf.

"immediately upon [some action]";

total, all

mAúÄam n. a medium

mAnanIya adj. honorable, respected

mAnais%k adj. mental, of the mind

mAen% n. meaning

mAyA n. illusion; love, devotion

mArA v. to kill, strike; to die

mAlapa÷a n. articles, goods, luggage

mAs n. month

mAis%k adj. monthly

mAhA’Äa n. glory, greatness; a genre

which sings the praises of a

particular deity

mAhutaTuil% n. Mahuttuli, a Dhaka

neighborhood

im%õun n. a male and female; Gemini

im%õÄAkaõA n. a lie

im%èZagaiN%t n. higher mathematics

mu°a adj. free, liberated, unfettered

mui°%kAmI adj. one who desires freedom

muKamaƒal n. the face

muØaa adj. fascinated, enchanted, absorbed

murail% n. flute

muZaik%l n. a difficulty, trouble

musalamAna n. & adj. Muslim

muhUéta n. a moment, instant

mU÷apAõair% n. kidney stones

mUiét% n. figure, image, idol

mUiét%bÄatIta adj. beyond form, without

form

mUlak suf. based on, originating from,

causing

mUlÄa n. price, value

m&du adj. soft, gentle, slow

fm%jAj n. temper, temperament

fm%id%nIpur n. Midnapore, a city and

district in West Bengal

fm%ey% n. girl, daughter

fm%lA v. to open, spread out

fmoT n. total, sum, aggregate

fmom n. paraffin, wax

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fmomaGaiT%ta adj. containing wax

fmorA pron. we (poetic)

fmOiK%k adj. verbal, by mouth

fmOil%k adj. original

YaKanaa adv. when

Yata adv. & adj. as much, as many

Ya”a n. effort, care, earnest attention

YaõAYaõa adj. exact, true, fit; adv. exactly,

fittingly

Yaid% conj. if, when

Yamaj n. twins

YamunA n. name of two rivers, one in

India, one in Bangladesh

YaeZohar n. Jessore, name of Bangladesh

town

YAäyA v. to go

YAek% obj. pron. "to whom"

YAtAyAta n. the act of coming and going YAtAyAtakArI n. one who frequents YAet% loc. pron. "by/through/in which"

YAnabAhan n. a vehicle

YAbatIya adj. all, whatever

Yu°a adj. joined, united

fY% conj. that; correlative pron./adj.

fY%KAen% adv. where, there where

fY%na adv. as, so, such, as though, as if

fYog n. union, connection, association,

yoga

%fYog fd%äyA v. to join

fYogAeYog n. communication, contact

fYogÄa adj. fit, worthy, deserving

fYoÿA n. a soldier, fighter, warrior

raäyA v. to remain, be, exist

rakam n. type, kind

ra•aka n. protector, guardian

ra•A n. protection, defense, saving,

maintaining

racanA n. a literary composition;

construction

ra‡Ain%/ra‡AnI n. export

raib% n. the sun

rabI. abbr. for Rabindranath Tagore

ras n. juice, the essence of literature

rais%katA n. a joke, funny story

rahasÄamay adj. mysterious

rAKA v. to keep, place, save

rAiK'/rAiK%yA SADHU PAP of rAKA

rAjanIit%iB%i–%k adj. based on politics

rAjA n. raja, king

rAjÄa n. kingdom

rAt n. night, evening

rAe÷% adv. in the evening, at night

rAZ n. heap, pile

rAiZ% n. pile, heap; signs of the zodiac

rAÙapait% n. president

rA˙A n. street, road

ûp n. form, beauty

fr% vocative particle, see hAy

frog n. disease

laäyA v. to take, accept, carry (See

fn%äyA|)

la•a/lAK n. a lakh, one hundred

thousand

la•Ä/la•a karA v. to notice, observe, aim

at

lail%takalA n. the fine arts

lAgA v. to touch, strike, stick to, to

require

lAgAeno v. to engage, connect, cause to

touch

lAegoyA adj. adjoining, contiguous

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lAió% n. a big stick, staff

lAB n. profit, benefit, gain

lAl adj. red

lAladIiG% n. Lal-dighi, name of a tank

[dighi] in central Kolkata

lAlabAjAr n. Kolkata's police

headquarters

ilÖek%ir%yA n. leukorrhea, a whitish

vagin*l discharge

il%iK%ta adj. written

il%ip% n. writing, a script, an inscription

il%ip%-fkOZal n. writing style

il%ip%baÿa adj. committed to writing

lukAeno v. to hide, conceal

fl%Kak n. a writer, author

fl%KA v. to write; n. writing

flok n. people, person; world

flOik%k adj. folk, popular

Zai°% n. strength, power; the Goddess

Zatak n. a century, a hundred

ZatAMaZa n. a hundred parts, percentage

Zain%bAr n. Saturday

ZaÂa n. word, sound

ZaZI n. the moon

Zahar n. city, town

iZ%kAr n. hunting

iZ%•A n. learning, education

iZ%•AõéI n. a student, learner, trainee

iZ%g`ig%r/ZIg`gIr adv. quickly, soon,

immediately

iZ%eÓoedÄog n. industrial enterprise

iZ%Zu n. baby, child

ZItal adj. cold, cool, soothing

Zuúu adv. only, merely; adj. empty

ZunÄa n. the zero, void; suf. destitute of,

devoid of, . . .-less

ZuBa adj. beneficial, auspicious,

favorable

ZueB%∞CA n. "best wishes," commonly

used opening or closing line of a

personal letter

Zuü n. the beginning, start

Zul`ka n. fee

fZ%S n. the end

FZ%Zab n. childhood

fZonA/ZunA v. to hear, listen to

fZoBA n. beauty, glamor

fZoyA/fZoäyA v. to lie down

èZI n. title for Hindu men (comparable to

Mr.); the goddess Laksmi; beauty,

good luck

èZImatI n. title for Hindu women

(comparable to Mrs./Miss)

èZIlaMakA/ZIla≠A n. Sri Lanka

fèZ%NI n. class, division; line, row

fèZ%ıa adj. best, ultimate

SAN`mAis%k adj. biannual, every six

months

saÉ n. signature

saMa£Ai»% n. the last day of the Bangla

month

saMaKÄA n. number; issue of a journal

saMagaóan n. an organization

saMaeg%/saeÆ% pp. (gen.) with, in the

company of

saMaègaha n. collection

saMaègahIta adj. collected

saMa≥A n. principle; designation

saMabAd n. news

saMabAdapa÷a n. newspaper

saMaeYog n. connection, contact, liason

saMalAp n. conversation, dialog

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saMaiÚ%ÛTa adj. united, included, related to

saMasad n. an association, parliament; a

Kolkata publishing house

saMa araN n. edition, printing

saMa˘&it% n. culture

saMaêA n. an organization, association,

club

sakl adj. & non-human pron. all

sakAl adv. morning

sakael% pron. everyone, all

sa•am adj. competent, capable, active

sa•aratA n. literacy

saÆata adj. just, proper, reasonable

saeÆ%/saMaeg% pp. with, in the company of

saÆIt n. music

sa≠ ail%ta adj. collected, anthologized

saic%÷a adj. illustrated

saic%÷a saŒAnI n. name of a Dhaka

magazine

saitÄ% n. truth; adj. true; interjection:

really, truly

sadasÄa n. member

sa»An n. child, boy

sae«d%ha n. doubt, suspicion

sa΀A n. twilight, evening

saÕÄAsI n. a sanyasi, an ascetic

sa‡aiés%maƒal n. the Seven Sages (Big

Dipper)

saPar n. travel, a journey

sab adj. & non-human pron. all

sabAÉ human pron. all, everyone

sabujapa÷a n. name of a journal

saBA n. assembly, association

saBAgAr n. assembly hall

saBAka•a n. meeting room

saBApait% n. chairman

samaBAeb% adv. uniformly, in the same way

samay n. time

samayamata adv. in time; at the proper time

samaiÛT%gataBAeb% n. adv. taken as a whole,

aggregately

sama˙a adj. all, every, entire

samasÄA n. problem, difficulty, obstacle

samAj n. society, community

samAd&ta adj. warmly received

samAúAn n. completion, accomplishment;

solution

samAn adj. equal, identical; level

%samAn samAn adj. equal

samAelocak n. critic

samAelocanA n. criticism

saim%it% n. committee

samu‹a n. ocean

samu‹aib%eZ%S n. sort of an ocean

samUha adj. many, numerous; pl. suf.

saÎAin%ta adj. respected, honored

saÈpAdak n. editor

saÈpAid%ta adj. edited

saȄadAy n. community, religious group

saȄait% adv. at present, currently

saÍaŒIya pp. related to, concerning,

regarding

saÍail%ta adj. containing, supplied with

saÈBab adj. possible

saÈBabataHa adv. possibly, probably

saÈBAr n. a collection of things

saeÎ%lan n. a conference, gathering,

meeting

sarakAr n. the government

sarakArI adj. official, governmental

saraiN% n. street, road

saéba adj. all

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saha pref. co-, with; suf. inclusive of

sahaj adj. innate, simple, plain, easy

sahajatara adj. simpler, easier

sahaeYoig%tA n. cooperation

sahaeYoeg% pp. together with, mixed with

sahar n. city, town

saih%t pp. with

sahÄa n. endurance, fortitude

sAMa˘&it%k adj. cultural

sA•aratA n. literacy

sA•At adj. visible; n. an interview,

meeting

sAgar n. ocean

sAjAeno v. to decorate, dress up

sAdar adj. cordial

sAúak n. one who practices ascetic

austerities; a practitioner, one who

endeavors

sAúan n. austerities; realization,

attainment; means, instrument

sAúAraN saÈpAdak n. general secretary

sAúu adj. refined; saintly; n. an ascetic

sA‡Aih%k adj. weekly

sAPalÄamaiƒ%ta adj. successful

sAbAn n. soap

sAmaègI n. a thing, things collectively

sAmaiy%k adj. periodical, temporary,

timely

sAr n. best part of, essence; sap, pith,

gist

sArA adj. entire, whole, all

sAl n. year

sAhacaéYa n. cooperation; company

sAhAYÄa n. help, assistance

sAih%tÄa n. literature

sAih%itÄ%k n. litterateur

sAeh%b n. Western man; honorific title for

Muslim man

is%MahAsan n. throne

is%ÿA»a n. conclusion, decision, resolution

sukumAr adj. very soft, gentle, graceful

suKaduHaKa n. joys and sorrows

sugaŒa n. sweet aroma

sutAnuiT% n. Sutanuti, name of one of the

villages that became Kolkata

su«dar adj. beautiful

su«daraban n. the Sundarban jungles

suib%eb%canA n. thoughtful opinion,

consideration

sueYog n. chance, opportunity

sur n. voice, tone, melody

suraúunI n. name of the Ganges in

heaven

suèZI adj. very beautiful, comely

susai≤%ta adj. well-dressed, well-

equipped

susaMa˘&ta adj. very refined, polite

sUcanA n. introduction, start, preamble

sU÷a n. thread, string; rule;

commencement

sUiYÄ%mAmA n. "Uncle Sun"

sUéYa n. the sun

fs%KAen% adv. there

fs%janÄa/fs%ÉjanÄa conj. for that reason,

thus

fs%bA n. service, nursing, attending

fs%bAÉta n. votary; priest/beneficiary of a

temple

fs%r n. a unit of weight (two pounds)

fs%lAÉ n. sewing

fsonA n. gold

fsonAr adj. golden

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fsonAil% adj. golden

fsom n. the moon, soma

˙ab n. praise, eulogy

˙abak n. stanza

˚IMa abbr. feminine

êal n. place, spot, location

êAn n. place, spot, location

êAna fB%ed% "in different places"

êApanA n. placing, putting; installation

iê%r adj. motionless, fixed, certain

ëAnIya adj. of or pertaining to a bath; fit

for ceremonial ablutions

ië%Øa adj. cooling, refreshing, smooth,

cordial

¯paÛTa adj. clear, evident, plain

ì&it% n. memory

ïa·a/ïapan n. dream

ïaéga/ïaraga n. heaven

ïaégata adj. deceased, "gone to heaven"

ïaÓa adj. very little, some, a bit

ïaÓakAlIn adv. for a short while

ïA•ara n. signature

ïAgata n. welcome, auspicious arrival

ïAéõa n. one's own interest, self-interest

fï%∞CAes%bI adj. pertaining to a volunteer,

of "self-help"

haÉet% pp. from (SADHU)

haraPa n. letter of the alphabet, font in

printing

hair%ca«dan n. white sandalwood

hair%N n. deer

hayata/hayaeto adv. perhaps, possibly

hAäyA n. air, breeze

^hA/hÄA yes

hAT n. a weekly or biweekly market

hAt n. hand, arm

hAr n. defeat, loss

hArA v. to lose, be defeated

hAsA v. to smile, laugh

hAis% n. a smile, laugh

hAy/hAy fr% interjection: ah, alas

ih%«du n. & adj. Hindu

ih%«duYugIya adj. pre-Muslim, pre-modern

era

ih%«duêAn n. the older name for India

ih%mAcal n. the Himalayas

ih%sAeb%/ih%es%eb% pp. as, in the capacity of

hIn suf. without, devoid of

fh% interjection: hey, oh!

fh%rA v. to see, behold

%fh%es% kuiT%kuiT% haäyA overcome with

laughter

fhoim%ä adj. homeopathic

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BANGLA INDEX ÅÇ/ÅÇkK "A-B-C's," 1.2-N Å≠ a "arithmetic," 5.4 ÅõabA "or," 19.3-A Åiú%kAra "authority, rights," with verbal

noun in genitive, 6.2-B ÅnuYAyI postposition "according to,"

16.4 Ånuûp postposition "like, as," 15.4 ÅnusAer% postposition "according to,"

16.4 Ånuïar (Ma) vs. X in spelling, 1.2-K; in

abbreviation, 1.3 Åen%ek% pronoun "many," 8.3-A Å»aHaêa Å, Y 1.4-C&D Å»ara "heart," 12.2-B; suffix, "other

than, end," 12.4; postposition, "every," 16.4

Åep%•A comparative postposition in SADHU, 1.1-C, 16.4

Åbaiú%/Åbaid% "until, since," 5.3, 16.4 Åbasar "opportunity, leisure time," with

verbal noun in genitive, 6.2-B ÅeBÄ%s/ÅBÄAs "habit, practice," with

verbal noun in genitive, 6.2-B Åmuk "a certain person/something,"

15.3 Åsuib%eú%/Åsuib%úA "inconvenience," with

verbal noun in genitive, 6.2-B, 11.3; with infinitive, 14.2

Çeg% with verbal noun%, 6.2-A; made into adjective, 12.2-A; postposition "before, in front of," 15.4

ÇC- with verbal noun in genitive, 6.2-C; with jAnA, 7.3; as auxiliary verb, 10.2-C; existential verb "to be," 11.3-B,C&D; verb "to have," 11.3-D, 17.3; with infinitive, 15.2-D; not in conditional clauses, 18.2-C; negative of, 20.2-A

Çe≥ % nA "no," 9.4 n. Çe≥ % ^hÄA% "yes," 9.4 n.

Çpan reflexive, 8.2 Çpain% reflexive, 8.2 ÇmAra fsonAra bAMlA Bangladesh national

anthem, 8 Çr before indefinites, 3.2-C Çr ik% "know what I mean!" 18.4 Çr ... nA "not any longer," 18.4 ÇsA irregular present imperative, 1.2-F,

19.2 ÇsA/YAäyA as auxiliary verbs, 10.2-A É emphatic suffix, 7.2-C É∞CA/Ée∞C% "wish, desire," with verbal

noun in genitive, 6.2-B; with infinitive, 16.2-C

ÉiÆ%t "indication, hint," with verbal noun in genitive, 6.2-B

Éey% "what's its name," 15.3 Öic%t "ought, should," 11.3-C&D,

15.2-D; suffix, "appropriate," 12.4 Öió% a way to disengage and leave, 18.4 Öe◊%eZ postposition "toward, for the

purpose of," 15.4 Öe◊%eZÄ postposition "aimed at, for the

purpose of," 15.4 Öpa£am "about to commence," with

verbal noun in genitive, 6.2-B Öpaer%/Öpar postposition "on, above,"

15.4 Öpalae•% postposition "on account of,"

16.4 Öpaiê%t haäyA "to arrive [be present],"

19.4 ÖpAy "way, means, method," with

verbal noun in genitive, 6.2-B ÖBey% pronoun "both," 8.3-A à/y/ey% locative case ending, 1.2-G à/à-kAr pronounced lower than "e,"

1.4-A àk suffixed to any number makes that

number less precise, 20.3-E àk Çú "just a few," 20.3-H

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àk rakam "somewhat," 18.4 àk-àk "certain, particular," 18.4 àkaTA nA àkaTA "one or another," 20.2-D àek% . . . tAhAet% "on the one hand . . .

moreover" 20.3-H àek% bael% "it is called," 9.2-C àgana verb "to advance," 11.2-C àet% locative case ending, 1.2-G àman ik% "even to the extent that," 19.4 àes% YAy (nA) "to matter," 10.2-A, 19.4 ä makes interrogative into indefinite,

3.2; emphatic suffix, "also, too," 7.2-E

äóA as auxiliary verb, 10.2-D äpaer%/äpar see Öpaer%/Öpar (^ ) "om"/ meaning "deceased,"

19.4 H in abbreviations, 1.3 M vs. X in spelling, 1.2-K; in abbr., 1.3 kK "A-B-C's," 1.2-N kaõA 6.3; postposition "about," 15.4 kõAÉ fn%É "without question!" 20.4 kaõÄa BASA "colloquial speech," 1.1 kapAlA figuratively, "luck, fortune," 18.4 kaét&k postposition "by," 16.4 -kAr (-ek%r) genitive ending, 12.2-A kAek% bael% "what is called," 9.2-C kAeC% postposition "near, from, to," 15.4 kAC fõ%ek% postposition "from" (human),

15.4 kAraN "because," 3.3, 19.3-C ik%/kata in rhetorical sense, emphatic,

7.2-F ik% jAin% "who knows," 18.4 ik%MabA "or," 19.3-A ik%Cuet%É "at all, in any way," 20.4 ik%… conjunction, 19.3-E; emphatic, 20.4 fk%man karA, fk%man-fk%man karA "to feel ill at

ease, upset," 19.4 fk%nanA "because," 19.3-C •a only conjunct with its own name,

1.4-G Kan emphatic added to verb, 7.2-G KAit%er% postposition "for the sake of,"

15.4

K&ÛTAÂa/˝IÛTAÂa "Christian era," 3.4 fK%et% "tastes," 13.2-C gaN plural suffix, 1.1-B guN multiplication, 5.4; suffixed to

numbers, "X-times," 20.3-G guelo/guil% plural suffix, 8.3-B, 13.3 fg% PAP of YAäyA, with imperatives,

19.2-A fgoTA "whole, entire," with numbers

20.3-F calait% BASA "colloquial speech," 1.1 calA with passives, 9.2-B cail%t BASA "colloquial language," 1.1 cAÉet%%% postposition "compared with,"

15.4 fc%ey%% postposition "compared with," 15.4 fc%ÛTA "effort, attempt," with verbal noun

in genitive, 6.2-B; + karA "to try, attempt, make an effort to," 16.2-C, 17.2

fcO "four," 20.3-B&G CARA postposition "without, except for,"

16.4 jana definite article, human, 20.3 janagaNamana Indian national anthem, 8 jaenÄ%/janÄa "for," etc., 2.3-A; with verbal

noun, 6.2-A; postposition "for," 15.4 jael%r mata "easy, simple, clear," 19.4 jAnA "to know," 7.3, 14.2, 17.3 jAyagA "place," with verbal noun in

genitive, 6.2-B ij% "yes," 9.4 n. ij% nA "no," 9.4 n. TA/iT%, jana, guelo/guil% qualifiers, 8.3-B,

13.3, 20.3; TA = "o'clock," 9.4 ió%k/iê%r karA "to decide to," 16.2-B taõA "for that matter; for instance," 18.4 taer% postposition "for," 15.4 talA, "story, floor," unit of measure,

20.3-B tael% postposition "under, at the base,"

15.4 tA hael%/tAhael% (tAÉel%), taeb%, fto

"then," 18.2-A, 18.3-A tAir%Ka dates of the month, 4.4

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tulÄa postposition "like, equal to," 15.4 i÷ "three," 20.3-G ft-a "three," 20.3-B -fta locative case ending, 1.2-G fto/ta "then," 18.2-A, 18.3-A;

questioning and expressing conviction, 20.4

õAkA as auxiliary verb, 10.2-C; infinitive of, 13.2-A; with preceding infinitive, 15.2-A; in conditional clauses, 18.2-C

fõ%ek% postposition "from," 14.4; "than," 15.4

darakAr "need," with verbal noun in genitive, 6.2-B; contrasted with Öict, 11.3-C

daün postposition "for, due to," 15.4 daZaka "decade," 3.4 ~dAiR% the full-stop or period, 1.3 id%ik% PAP of fd%KA, with imperatives,

19.2-A id%ey%/id%yA postposition "by means of,"

17.4 fd%äyA/fn%äyA as auxiliary verbs, 10.2-B fd%Kaet% "looks," 13.2-C fd%Kaet% ed%Kaet% "immediately," 13.2-A fd%KA/fZonA with infinitive, 14.2; with

paArA/pAäyA, 15.2-C fdir% "delay," as compound verb +

infinitive, 14.2; object in genitive, 17.2

fdo% "two," 20.3-B ŸArA postposition "by, by means of,"

14.4 iŸ%- "two," 20.3-G úarA paRA passive, nominative subj.,

9.2-D úaer% postposition "for, by," 16.4 úaer% nA "cannot contain," 19.4 naäyA negative of verb "to be," 20.2-A nay with verbal noun in genitive, 6.2-C;

"either/or," 20.2-F nA hay/nAhay "or else," 19.3-B; "or,"

20.2-F

nA between reduplicated indefinites, 3.2; can precede verb, 5.3-B, 18.2-D, 20.2-B; between reduplicated infinitives, 13.2-B; with correlative + imperative,19.2-B; negates verb, 20.2-A; "or" in interrogative sentences, 19.3-A, 20.2-C; as filler word, 20.2-E

nAÉ negative in SADHU, 1.1-C; also see fn%É/nAÉ

nAgAd/nAgAt postposition "around," 16.4 nAmatA "multiplication tables," 5.4 nArA poetic, "not to be able," 20.2-A in%/nAÉ negative of completive tenses,

20.2-A in%kaT haÉet% postposition "from" (a

human) in SADHU, 1.1-C, 15.4 in%kaT/in%kaeT% postposition "near," etc., in

SADHU, 1.1-C, 15.4 in%ec% postposition "below, underneath,"

15.4 in%ej reflexive pronoun, 8.2 in%im%–/in%ime%–a postposition "for, on

account of," 15.4 in%ey%/in%yA/laÉyA postposition "with,

concerning, about," 17.4 fn% alternative negative, 20.2-A fn%É/nAÉ with verbal noun in genitive,

6.2-C; negative of ÇC-, 20.2-A fn%äyA as auxiliary verb, 10.2-B nÄAy postposition "like, as, similar to,"

15.4 pae•% postposition "for," 2.3-C, 15.4 paRA with passives, 9.2-D; as auxiliary

verb, 10.2-D paRA ÇeC% "to have read," 19.4 pair%baeét% postposition "instead of," 15.4 para/paer with verbal noun, 6.2-A;

postposition "after, later," 15.4; with conditional conjunctive, 18.3-F

paéYa»a in dependent clauses, "until, till," 5.3-B; postposition "since, from; until, up to; even, too," 5.3-A, 7.2-E, 16.4

pacAet% postposition "behind," 15.4

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pAeC% "lest," 4.3-A pAen% postposition "to, towards, at," 15.4 pArA with passive, 9.2-B; with infinitive,

15.2-B&C pAeZ% postposition "beside, next to," 15.4 fp%Caen%/ip%Caen%/ip%eC% postposition "behind,

back," 15.4 fp%rana verb "to cross over," 11.2-B „ait% postposition "to, towards," 15.4 „aetÄ%ek% pronoun "each, everyone,"

8.3-A „ayAs "effort, endeavor, toil," with verbal

noun in genitive, 6.2-B „aseÆ% postposition "concerning," 14.4 „a˙Ab "proposal," with verbal noun in

genitive, 6.2-B fP%lA as auxiliary verb, 10.2-D baÉ postposition "without, other than,"

16.4 baÆAÂa "the Bangla era," 3.4 badael% postposition "instead of," 15.4 baŒa karA "to put a stop to an action,"

16.2-B b-PalA pronunciation of, 1.4-F baéga "group" of letters of the alphabet,

1.2-J balaet% "called," 13.2-D balaet% YA buJA/fboJAna "what one

understands as," 13.2-D balA bAhulÄa "it goes without saying,"

19.4 bael% 3.3; as passive, 9.2-C; postposition

"as," 16.4; conjunction "because," 19.3-C

basA as auxiliary verb, 10.2-D; irregular present imperative, 1.2-F, 19.2

bA "or," 19.3-A; emphatic, 20.4 bAÉer% postposition "outside, beyond,"

15.4 bAHa/bAhabA expletive, 20.4 bAej% telling time, 9.4-A bAed% postposition "without," 16.4 bAbada/bAbaed% postposition "due to," 14.4 bAeroTA bAej%% idiom, "ruined," 9.4-A, 19.4 ib%nA/ib%en% preposition "without," 16.4

ib%pae•% postposition "against," 15.4 ib%eyoga subtraction, 5.4 ib%rAm (|) 1.3 ib%üeÿ% postposition "against," 15.4 ib%Saey%a% postposition "about," 14.4 ib%saéga (Ha) in abbreviations, 1.3; often

dropped in adverbial suffix, 1.2-L, 12.3-C

buiJ% "I suppose," 18.4 b&«da plural suffix, 1.1-B -fb%k future ending, 1.1-A fb%rana verb "to go out, come out," 11.2-B fb%lA "period of day, time," 9.4-D bÄatIta postposition "except, without,"

16.4 bÄabaêA "arrangements," with verbal noun

in genitive, 6.2-B; "object" of verb in genitive, 17.2

BAgaa with fractions, division, 5.4 iB%taer%/fB%taer% postposition "inside,"

15.4 iB%Õa postposition "except, without," 16.4 fB%taer%/iB%taer% postposition "inside,"

15.4 mata/matana suffix, postposition "like," 9.3;

15.4 maeúÄ% postposition "between, among,"

2.2-B, 15.4; with time expressions, 9.4-B

mAeJ% postposition "between, among," 15.4

mA÷a with verbal noun, 5.2-B; suffix meaning "all, every," 12.4

mAen% "means," 18.4 mArA YAäyA, paRA "to die," 9.2-D mAraPata/mAraPaet%% postposition "via," 14.4 im%el% "together, in concert," 8.3-A YaKaeno paéYa»a "until," 5.3-B Yata•aN paéYa»a "until," 5.3-B YaõA "such as, for instance," 18.4 Yaid% tense restrictions, 18.2-B; copula

verb must be expressed, ÇC- not allowed, 18.2-C; negative precedes verb, 20.2-B

Yaid%ä 18.2-D

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Yaid%bA 18.2-D Yaid%ca 18.2-D YadÄAip% 18.2-D Y-PalA spelling with, 1.2-D;

pronunciation of, 1.4-E; as adjectival suffix, 12.4

y/ey% locative case ending, 1.2-G YA before an indefinite (YA ik%Cu), 3.2-D;

as emphatic, 4.2-D, 20.4 YAÉyA alternative PAP for aig%yA/ig%ey%,

1.1-A YAäyA with passives, 9.2-B, 11.2-D; as

auxiliary, 10.2-A; with infinitive, 14.2

YAHa exclamation, 20.4 YAkaeg% "let it be," imperative with fg%,

18.4, 19.2-A YAek% bael% "it is called," 9.2-C YAet% (YAet% kaer%) "in order that," 4.3-A YAbaö postposition "from, since, until,"

16.4 YAehok/YAÉ ehok "be that as it may,"

18.4 fY% paéYa»a "until," 5.3-B fY% before an indefinite, 3.2-D; as

conjunction, 3.3-B; as correlative and as conjunction paired with tA, 4.2-A; not translated when with interrogative, 4.2-B; indefinite with %É, 4.2-E; negative connotation when paired with fs%, 4.2-F; as emphatic, 20.4

fY%É indefinite, 4.2-E; "as soon as," 20.4 fY%na compared with reduplicated

indefinites + nA, 3.2-B; "so that, in order that, that," 4.3-A; emphasis in commands, 4.3-B; + the present tense expresses desire, 4.3-C; similarity, but less definitive, 4.3-D; vagueness, 4.3-E

fY%man/fY%man úara/fY%man úaün "take for example, for instance," 19.4

fYo see sueYog fYogaa addition, 5.4 rA plural suffix, human, 13.3

rIit%mata "thoroughly," 9.3-C laÉyA/in%ey%/in%yA "with, about," 17.4 lAgA 14.3; measuring time, 9.4-C;

genitive-3rd-person constructions with, 14.3, 17.3

floek% bael% "it is said," 9.2-C ZakAÂa "the Saka era," 3.4 Zatakaa "century," 3.4 ZatakaarA "percentage," 5.4 ZatAMZa "percentage," 5.4 ZatAÂI "century," 3.4 fZ%S karA "to stop doing something,"

16.2-B fZonA/fd%KA with infinitive, 14.2; with

paArA/pAäyA, 15.2-C saMa£A»a postposition "pertaining to,"

16.4 saeÆ%/sAeõ% postposition "with," 15.4 saeÆ% saeÆ% "immediately," 15.4 sae—%ä postposition "in spite of," 16.4 sana "year," 3.4 sabaik%Cu "everything," 3.2-D sab/sakal "all," 8.3 sabAÉ/sakael% "everybody," 8.3 saeb% adverb of time "just now," 8.3-C samayamata "in time," 9.3-C samUha plural suffix, 1.1-B; 12.4 saÈpaeék%% postposition "about," 14.4 saÍaö "the Samvat era," 3.4 saÍaeŒ% pronunciation of, 1.4-F;

postposition "about," 14.4 saih%t% postposition "with" in SADHU,

1.1-C; also see sAeõ%/saeÆ% sAeõ%/saeÆ% postposition "with," 15.4 sAúu BASA "literary language," 1.1 sAmaen% postposition "in front of," 15.4 sAla "year," 3.4 suib%eú%/suib%úA "convenience; ease," with

verbal noun in genitive, 6.2-B, 11.3-C; with infinitive, 14.2

sueYog, fYo "chance, opportunity," with verbal noun in genitive, 6.2-B iê%r/ió%k karA "to decide to," 16.2-B ïayaMa "self," 8.2 ïagéIya/ïaégata see (^ ) "om"/ above

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ïIya "one's own," 8.2 haÉet% postposition "from" in SADHU,

1.1-C, 14.4 haäyA with passives, 9.2-A; as verb "to

be," 11.3; in genitive-3rd-person constructions, 17.3; must appear in conditional clause, 18.2-C

haóAt "suddenly," 20.4 haya postposition "since, ago, for," also

see hala, 16.4; "either/or," 20.2 haey% postposition "for," with genitive,

2.3-B, 15.4; "as," no genitive, 10.3, 16.4; "via," no genitive, 16.4

hala/haya postposition "since, ago, for," 16.4

hasa»a/hala»a (`), 1.2-F, 16.3 hAäyA KAäyA "to get a bit of fresh air,"

19.4 hAäyA badael% YAäyA "to go somewhere for

health reasons," 19.4 hAjAr fhoka "after all, still then," 19.4 ih%ij%rA/ih%jarA/ih%jarI months of the Hijre

year, 2.4; "the Muslim era," 3.4 ih%es%eb%/ih%sAeb% postposition "as," 10.3,

16.4 -hÄa pronounced "jjh," 1.4-E

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ENGLISH INDEX 3-Å•ar/letter verbs, 11.2-D 3rd-person construction, see genitive-

3rd-person construction abbreviations, 1.3 "A-B-C's," 1.2-N ability: infinitive + pArA and pAäyA,

15.2-C addition, arithmetic, 5.4 address, terms of, 6.4, 10.4 adjectives: 12.2; sab and sakal ("all"), 8.3;

adjectival suffixes, 12.2-B, 12.4; adjective made into adverb, 12.3; + lAgA, l7.3

adverbs: 12.3; of time + mata, 9.3 alphabet, "A-B-C's," l.2-N alternative causative markers ä, Ö,

11.2-C alternative verbal noun (with bA), 1.1-A anna, to express fractions/percentage,

5.4 annual holidays, 2.4 "anusvara" (Ma), 1.2-K, 1.3 apostrophe, 1.2-C arithmetic, 5.4 auxiliary verbs, 10.2 @ sound, 1.2-D&E, 1.4-A&E Bangla calendar, 2.4, 3.4 Bangla vs. Bengali, 1.1 Bangladesh, language of, 1.1 base-16 numerals, 5.4 "because," 3.3.-D Bengali vs. Bangla, 1.1 B.S., Bangla Sal (year), 2.4, 3.4 Buddhist holidays, 2.4 Calcutta Bangla, see Kolkata Bangla calendric systems, 3.4 CALIT Bangla, 1.l, Appendices 1&2 "candra-bindu": meaning "deceased,"

19.4

cardinal numbers, 4.4, 5.4, Appendix 3 causative verbs, 11.2, 16.3 C.E., Common Era, 3.3 n., 3.4 Chakma, 2.4 Chittagonian Bangla, 1.1 Chittagong Hill Tracts, 2.4 Christian holidays, 2.4 comparative: fc%ey% and Åep%•A, 1.1-C;

suffix tar, %12.4; postpositions fc%ey%/cAÉet% and fõ%ek%; %15.4

complimentary closings, letter writing, 13.4

compound verbs: with auxiliary verb, 10.2; noun + verb, 17.2

conditional: õAkA, in place of ÇC-, 11.3-D; with Yaid%, 18.2

conditional conjunctive, 18.3 conjunct consonants: oral spelling of 1.2;

pronunciation of, 1.4 conjunctions, 3.3-B&D, 19.3 continual action: infinitive + õAkA,

16.2-C continuous action: 10.2-C; infinitive +

õAkA, 15.2-A contrafactual/factual past conditional,

18.2-B copula verb "to be," 11.3 correlatives: 4.2; in various persons, 2.2;

+ imperatives (+ nA fk%na), 19.2-B; Appendix 2

dates of month, 4.4; months of year, 2.4 dative construction, see genitive-3rd-

person construction day, periods of the, 9.4-D "decide to do something," 16.2-B definite article, see qualifiers dependent clause, 3.3, 4.2 Dhaka Bangla, 1.1 diglossia, 1.1

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division, arithmetic, 5.4 double, see reduplicated "double" causatives, 11.2-A doubling internal consonant: emphasis,

7.2-D Durga Puja, 2.4 Eid, 2.4 either/or, 20.2-F emphasis, 1.3, 7.2, 20.4 English loan-words, 1.2-J, 1.4-E existential verb "to be," 11.3-B&D expletives, 20.4 factual/contrafactual past conditional,

18.2-B fairy tales: no qualifier on "once,"

20.3-C "feel, to": with lAgA, 14.3-A feminine numbers, phases of the moon,

4.4 Firingi, 2.4 foreign words, 1.2-J, 1.4-E, 20.3-D fortnight, 4.4 fractions, 5.4 future: ending -fb%k, 1.1-A; future

imperative with faYn in following clause, 4.3-A; expresses willfulness in Yaid% clause, 18.2-B; future imperative + nA, the negative command, 19.2; Appendix 1

genitive-3rd-person construction: with jAnA 7.3; with lAgA; 14.3; 17.3

government terminology, 7.4 Gregorian calendar, 2.4, 3.4 "hasanta/halanta" (`), 1.2, 16.3 "have, to": the verbal construction, 11.3,

17.3 high vowel, 1.4, 3.3, 11.2-C, 12.2-B Hijre calendar, 2.4, 3.4 Hindu holidays, 2.4 holidays, 2.4 honorific imperative: Ön, àn, 9.4-B n. honorific endings, pronunciation of,

1.4-A "I think that/It would seem that," 3.3-B

imperatives: see future imperative; present imperative

indefinites: in various persons, 2.2-A; 3.2

infinitives: 13.2, 14.2, 15.2, 16.2; verbal noun + genitive + jaenÄ%/janÄa, in place of infinitive, 2.3-A, 6.2-B; verbal noun with the bA ending + fr,% premodern infinitive, 6.2-C; + jaAnA, "to know how to," 7.3; in passives, 9.2-B; telling time, "before the hour," 9.4-A; + pArA, "may, might," 20.2-B; Appendix 1

inherent vowel: spelling, 1.2-E&F; pronunciation, 1.4-B

initial vowels É,Ö,ä used noninitially, 1.2-A

intensive pronouns, 8.2 interjections, 20.4 interrogatives: in various persons, 2.2-B;

spelling of interrogative indicator vs. pronoun ik/kI, 1.2-B; transformed into indefinites, 3.2; ik% and kat,a rhetorically for emphasis, 7.2-F

intonation: for emphasis, 7.2 intransitive verbs vs. passives, 11.3-C inverted syntax: for emphasis, 7.2-B Jain, 2.4 Jew, 2.4 "j-phola" (Ä): spelling, 1.2-D;

pronunciation, 1.4-E; as adjectival suffix, 12.4

kinship terms: used as terms of address and reference, 6.4; actual, 10.4

Kolkata Bangla, 1.1 lengthened consonants: for emphasis,

7.2-D letter writing, 13.1&4 locative case: spelling of, 1.2-G; on

verbal nouns, 5.2-A; on human pronouns, 8.2; optional on asamay and fb%lA, 9.4-B&D; exceptional with the word rAe÷%, 9.4-D n.

low vowel, 1.4, 3.3, 12.2-B lunar fortnight, 4.4

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lunar year, 2.4 mock causatives, 11.2-B Mog, 2.4 months of year, 2.4; dates of month, 4.4 moon, phases of, 4.4 moral obligation, 11.3-C, 15.2-D multiplication tables, arithmetic, 5.4 Muslim holidays, 2.4 Nabadwip, 1.1 nasals, 1.4-J need, with lAgA, 14.3-B negatives: 20.2; nA and fY%na, 4.3; nA and

paéY»a, 5.3-B; reduplicated infinitives and nA, 13.2-B; nA and conditional conjunctive, 18.2-C&D

neither/nor, 20.2-F nonfinite verbal forms (i.e., verbal noun,

infinitive, conditional conjunctive, and PAP), negative of, 20.2-B

noun + genitive, 6.2, 12.2-A numbers: dates of the month, phases of

the moon, 4.4; in percentages, fractions, and base-16 numerals, 5.4; qualifiers with, 20.3; Appendix 3

obligation: internal vs. external, 11.3-C; infinitive + fn%É/ÇeC%, 11.3, 15.2-D

"om"/'candra-bindu," meaning "deceased," 19.4

onomatopoeia, 11.2-D, 16.3 "or," 19.3-A, 20.2-C ordinal numbers, Appendix 3 PAP, see past active particile particles, see qualifiers passive: 9.2; compared with intransitive

verbs, 11.3-C past active participle (PAP): spelling of,

1.2; bael%, 3.3; instead of verbal noun with paéY»/Åbaiú%%, 5.3-B; of 3-Å•ar/letter verbs, either (Éey%) or (à), 11.2-D; PAP used as adjective, 12.2-C; subject of, 13.2-A; reduplicated, 13.2-A n.; + õAkA, 15.2-A n.; negative of, 20.2-B; Appendix 1

past habitual/past conditional: of jAnA, equals English simple past, 7.3;

contrafactual with Yaid%, 18.2-B; Appendix 1

past passive participle, 12.2-D percentage, 5.4 periods of the day, 9.4-D permission: infinitive + pArA / fd%äyA,

15.2-B Perso-Arabic 1.1-C phases of the moon, 4.4 plurals, 1.1-B, 13.3 postpositions: "for," 2.3; "as, called,"

3.3-C; with verbal nouns, 6.2-A; mata, 9.3-B; optional genitive, 14.4; required genitive, 15.4; no required case, 16.4; requiring objective, 17.4

predicate adjective, 2.3-C, 13.2-C prefixes, 11.4; with Arabic words,

1.2-A; numbers "2, 3, 4," 20.3-B&C prepositions: „Ay and ib%nA/ib%en%, 16.4 present imperative: 19.2; spelling, 1.2-F;

high stem for "sit" and "come," 1.2-F, 19.2; honorific, Kolkata Ön, Dhaka àn, 9.4-B n.

pronouns: indefinite and interrogative, 2.2; correlative, 2.2, 4.2; reflexive, intensive, 8.2; "all," human and nonhuman, 8.3; from adjectives, 13.3

pronunciation, 1.4 punctuation, 1.3 qualifiers (TA, iT%, guelo, guil%, and jan),

8.3, 13.3, 20.3 quoted dialog, 1.3 Ramzan (Ramadan), 2.4 reduplicated indefinites: plural, 3.2-A reduplicated infinitives, 13.2-A&B reference, terms of, 6.4, 10.4 reflexive pronouns, 8.2 regional dialects, 1.1-C relative adjective, see correlatives relative pronoun, see correlatives "reph-r," 1.2-M SADHU Bangla, 1.l, 20.2, Appendices

1&2 "sandhi" (juncture) rules, Sanskritic,

11.4

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Sanskrit, 1.1, 11.4, 12.2-B, 12.4 salutations, letter writing, 13.4 seasons of the year, 2.4 semi-vowel ("y") glide, 1.4-D sense perception, verbs of, 15.2-C Shantipur, 1.1 Sikh, 2.4 simple past: 1.1; with jAnA, 7.3; with

lAgA, 14.3-C; Appendix 1 "so and so," 15.3 solar year, 2.4 spelling, 1.2 standard colloquial Bangla, 1.1 strengthened verbal stem vowels, 11.2-A "stop doing, to do, from doing," 16.2-B subject of verbal noun: 5.2-A; 6.2&3; of

infinitive, conditional conjunctive, verbal noun, and PAP, 13.2-A

subjoiner bael%, 3.3-B n. subordinate clause, see dependent clause subtraction, 5.4 suffixes, 12.4; mata, 9.3-C Sylheti Bangla, 1.1

syntax inverted: for emphasis, 7.2-B "tadbhava" words, 1.1-C "tatsama" words, 1.1-C tenses: CALIT and SADHU, 1.1;

historical present, 11.3-A; of the verb "to be," 11.3-C; in Yaid% clause, 18.2-B; Appendix 1

time: telling, specifying, and measuring, 9.4

"to be," verbs, 11.3 transitive verbs with expressed object,

6.2 terms of reference & address, 6.4, 10.4 "try to do something," 16.2-C university terminology, 7.4 verbal noun: + genitive, 6.2, 12.2-A; +

genitive + jaenÄ%/janÄa, in place of infinitive, 2.3-A, 6.2-A; with predicate adjective, 2.3-C; + locative, "due to, because of," 5.2-A; + mA÷a, "immediately upon," 5.2-B; subject of, 5.2-A, 6.2&3,

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APPENDIX 11 VERB (i£%yA/i£%yApad) CONJUGATIONS: CALIT & SADHU CALIT

Verb stem type (C)VC- (C)aC- (C)V- (C)a- (C)V(i)- causative 3-Å•ara Present (baétamAn kAl) -É Çim %Zuin% õAik% id%É KAÉ cAÉ fZ%KAÉ kAmaRAÉ -És tuÉ Zuin%s õAik%s id%s KAs cAs fZ%KAs kAmaRAs -ä tuim% fZoeno õAeko dAä KAä cAä fZ%KAä kAmaRAä -àn it%in% fZoen%n õAek%n fd%n KAn cAn fZ%KAn kAmaRAn -à fs% fZoen% õAek% fd%y KAy cAy fZ%KAy kAmaRAy -àn it%in% fZoen%n õAek%n fd%n KAn cAn fZ%KAn kAmaRAn Future (Baib%SÄaö kAl) -ebo Çim% Zunaebo õAkaebo fd%ebo KAebo cAÉebo fZ%KAebo kAmaRAebo -ib% tuÉ Zunaib% õAkaib% id%ib% KAib% cAÉib% fZ%KAib% kAmaRAib% -eb% tuim% Zunaeb% õAkaeb% fd%eb% KAeb% cAÉeb% fZ%KAeb% kAmaRAeb% -eb%n it%in% Zunaeb%n õAkaeb%n fd%eb%n KAeb%n cAÉeb%n fZ%KAeb%n kAmaRAeb%n -eb% fs% Zunaeb% õAkaeb% fd%eb% KAeb% cAÉeb %fZ%KAeb% kAmaRAeb% -eb%n it%in% Zunaeb%n õAkaeb%n fd%eb%n KAeb%n cAÉeb%n fZ%KAeb%n kAmaRAeb%n Present imperative (baétamAn Ånu≥A) -É Çim% Zuin% õAik% id%É KAÉ cAÉ fZ%KAÉ kAmaRAÉ tuÉ fZon õAk fd %KA cA fZ%KA kAmaRA -ä tuim% fZoeno õAeko dAä KAä cAä fZ%KAä kAmaRAä

-Öni Çpain% Zunun õAkun id%n KAn cAn fZ%KAn kAmaRAn

-Ök fs% Zunuk õAkuk/õAk id%k KAk cAk fZ%KAk kAmaRAk -Ön it%in% Zunun õAkun id%n KAn cAn fZ%KAn kAmaRAn Future imperative (Baib%SÄaö Ånu≥A) -ebo Çim% Zunaebo õAkaebo fd%ebo KAebo cAÉebo fZ%KAebo kAmaRAebo -És tuÉ Zuin%s õAik%s id%s KAs cAs fZ%KAs kAmaRAs -ä tuim% Zueno fõ%eko id%ä fK%ä fc%ä iZ%iK%ä kAmaiR%ä -eb%n Çpain% Zunaeb%n õAkaeb%n fd%eb%n KAeb%n cAÉeb%n fZ%KAeb%n kAmaRAeb%n -eb% fs% Zunaeb% õAkaeb% fd%eb% KAeb% cAÉeb% fZ%KAeb kAmaRAeb% -eb%n it%in% Zunaeb%n õAkaeb%n fd%eb%n KAeb%n cAÉeb%n fZ%KAeb%n kAmaRAeb%n Simple past (ÅtIt kAl)

-lAmii Çim% ZunalAm õAkalAm id%lAm fK%lAm cAÉlAm fZ%KAlAm kAmaRAlAm

-il% tuÉ Zunail õAkail% id%il% fK%il% cAÉil %fZ%KAil% kAmaRAil%

-eliii

tuim% Zunael% õAkael% id%el% fK%el% cAÉel% fZ%KAel% kAmaRAel% -el%n Çpain% Zunael%n õAkael%n id%el%n fK%el%n cAÉel%n fZ%KAel%n kAmaRAel%n

-eloiv fs% Zunaelo õAkaelo id%elo fK%elo cAÉelo fZ%KAelo kAmaRAelo

-el%n it%in% Zunael%n õAkael%n id%el%n fK%el%n cAÉel%n fZ%KAel%n kAmaRAel%n

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Verb stem type (C)VC- (C)aC- (C)V- (C)a- (C)V(i)- causative 3-Å•ara Past habitual/past conditional (in%tÄa „ab&–a ÅtIt)

-tAmv Çim %ZunatAm õAkatAm id%tAm fK%tAm cAÉtAm fZ%KAtAm kAmaRAtAm

-it%s tuÉ Zunait%s õAkait%s id%it%s fK%it%s cAÉit%s fZ%KAit%s kAmaRAit%s -et% tuim% Zunaet% õAkaet% id%et% fK%et% cAÉet% fZ%KAet% kAmaRAet% -et%n Çpain%% Zunaet%n õAkaet%n id%et%n fK%et%n cAÉet%n fZ%KAet%n kAmaRAet%n -eto fs% Zunaeto õAkaeto id%eto fK%eto cAÉeto fZ%KAeto kAmaRAeto -et%n it%in% Zunaet%n õAkaet%n id%et%n fK%et%n cAÉet%n fZ%KAet%n kAmaRAet%n Present continuative (GaTamAn baétamAn)

-iC% Çim% ZunaiC% õAkaiC% id%i∞C% KAi∞C% cAÉiCavi

fZ%KAi∞C% kAmaRAi∞C -iC%s tuÉ ZunaiC%s õAkaiC%s id%i∞C%s KAi∞C%s cAÉiC%s fZ%KAi∞C%s kAmaRAi∞C%s -eCo tuim% ZunaeCo õAkaeCo id%e∞Co KAe∞Co cAÉeCo fZ%KAe∞Co kAmaRAe∞Co -eC%n Çpain%% ZunaeC%n õAkaeC%n id%e∞C%n KAe∞C%n cAÉeC%n fZ%KAe∞C%n kAmaRAe∞C%n -eC% fs% ZunaeC% õAkaeC% id%e∞C% KAe∞C% cAÉeC% fZ%KAe∞C% kAmaRAe∞C% -eC%n it%in% ZunaeC%n õAkaeC%n id%e∞C%n KAe∞C%n cAÉeC%n fZ%KAe∞C%n kAmaRAe∞C%n Past continuative (GaTamAn ÅtIt) -iC%lAm Çim% ZunaiC%lAm õAkaiC%lAm id%i∞C%lAm KAi∞C%lAm cAÉiC%lAm fZ%KAi∞C%lAm kAmaRAi∞C%lAm -iC%il% tuÉ ZunaiC%il% õAkaiC%il% id%i∞C%il% KAi∞C%il% cAÉiC%il fZ%KAi∞C%il% kAmaRAi∞C%il% -iC%el% tuim% ZunaiC%el% õAkaiC%el% id%i∞C%el% KAi∞C%el% cAÉiC%el fZ%KAi∞C%el% %kAmaRAi∞C%el% -iC%el%n Çpain% ZunaiC%el%n õAkaiC%el%n id%i∞C%el%n KAi∞C%el%n cAÉiC%el%n fZ%KAi∞C%el%n kAmaRAi∞C%el%n -iC%elo fs% ZunaiC%elo õAkaiC%elo id%i∞C%elo KAi∞C%elo cAÉiC%elo fZ%KAi∞C%elo kAmaRAi∞C%elo -iC%el%n it%in% ZunaiC%el%n õAkaiC%el%n id%i∞C%el%n KAi∞C%el%n cAÉiC%el%n fZ%KAi∞C%el%n kAmaRAi∞C%el%n Present completive (ÅnadÄatan ÅtIt)

-iC% Çim% Zuen%iC% fõ%ek%iC% id%ey%iC% fK%ey%iC% fc%ey%iC iZ%iK%ey%iC kAmaeR%iC%vii

kAmaiR%ey%iC -iC%s tuÉ Zuen%iC%s fõ%ek%iC%s id%ey%iC%s fK%ey%iC%s fc%ey%iC%s iZ%iK%ey%iC%s kAmaeR%iC%s -eCo tuim% Zuen%eCo fõ%ek%eCo id%ey%eCo fK%ey%eCo fc%ey%eCo iZ%iK%ey%eCo kAmaeR%eC%o -eC%n Çpain% Zuen%eC%n fõ%ek%eC%n id%ey%eC%n fK%ey%eC%n fc%ey%eC%n iZ%iK%ey%eC%n kAmaeR%eC%n -eC% fs% Zuen%eC% fõ%ek%eC% id%ey%eC% fK%ey%eC% fc%ey%eC% iZ%iK%ey%eC% kAmaeR%eC -eC%n it%in% Zuen%eC%n fõ%ek%eC%n id%ey%eC%n fK%ey%eC%n fc%ey%eC%n iZ%iK%ey%eC%n kAmaeR%eC%n Past completive (paero•a ÅtIt)

-iC%lAm Çim% Zuen%iC%lAm fõ%ek%iC%lAm id%ey%iC%lAm fK%ey%iC%lAm fc%ey%iC%lAm iZ%iK%ey%iC%lAm kAmaeR%iC%lAmviii

kAmaiR%ey%iC%lAm -iC%il% tuÉ Zuen%iC%il% fõ%ek%iC%il% id%ey%iC%il% fK%ey%iC%il% fc%ey%iC%il% iZ%iK%ey%iC%il% kAmaeR%iC%il% -iC%el% tuim% Zuen%iC%el% fõ%ek%iC%el% id%ey%iC%el fK%ey%iC%el fc%ey%iC%el% iZ%iK%ey%iC%el% kAmaeR%iC%el% -iC%el%n Çpain% Zuen%iC%el%n fõ%ek%iC%el%n id%ey%iC%el%n fK%ey%iC%el%n fc%ey%iC%el%n iZ%iK%ey%iC%el%n kAmaeR%iC%el%n -iC%elo fs% Zuen%iC%elo fõ%ek%iC%elo id%ey%iC%elo fK%ey%iC%elo fc%ey%iC%elo iZ%iK%ey%iC%elo kAmaeR%iC%elo -iC%el%n it%in% Zuen%iC%el%n fõ%ek%iC%el%n id%ey%iC%el%n fK%ey%iC%el%n fc%ey%iC%el%n iZ%iK%ey%iC%el%n kAmaeR%iC%el%n

PAP Zuen% fõ%ek% id%ey% fK%ey% fc%ey% iZ%iK%ey% kAmaeR%ix

kAmaiR%ey Infinitive Zunaet% õAkaet% id%et% fK%et% cAÉet% fZ%KAet% kAmaRAet% Conditional Zunael% õAkael% id%el% fK%el% cAÉel% fZ%KAel% kAmaRAel%

Verbal noun fZonAx õAkA fd%äyA/ed%yA KAäyA cAäyA fZ%KAeno kAmaRAeno

FZonbA10 õAkabA fd%bA KAbA cAÉbA fZ%KAbA kAmaRAbA

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SADHU

Verb stem type (C)VC- (C)aC- (C)V- (C)a- (C)V(i)- causative 3-Å•ara Present -É Zuin% õAik %haÉ KAÉ cAih%/cAÉ iZ%KAÉ kAmaRAÉ -És Zuin%s õAik%s fhos KAs cAih%s/cAs iZ%KAÉs kAmaRAÉs -ä Zueno õAeko haä KAä cAha/cAä iZ%KAä kAmaRAä -àn Zuen%n õAek%n han/haey%n KAn cAeh%n/cAn iZ%KAn kAmaRAn -à Zuen% õAek% hay KAy cAeh%/cAy iZ%KAy kAmaRAy -àn Zuen%n õAek%n han/haey%n KAn cAeh%n/cAn iZ%KAn kAmaRAn Future -Éebo Zuin%ebo õAik%ebo haÉebo KAÉebo cAih%ebo iZ%KAÉebo kAmaRAÉebo -Éib% Zuin%ib% õAik%ib% haÉib% KAÉib% cAih%ib %iZ%KAÉib% kAmaRAÉib% -Éeb% Zuin%eb% õAik%eb% haÉeb% KAÉeb% cAih%bA/eb %iZ%KAÉbA/eb% kAmaRAÉbA/eb% -Éeb%n Zuin%eb%n õAik%eb%n haÉeb%n KAÉeb%n cAih%eb%n iZ%KAÉeb%n kAmaRAÉeb%n -eb% Zuin%eb% õAik%eb% haÉeb% KAÉeb% cAih%eb %iZ%KAÉeb% kAmaRAÉeb% -Éeb%n Zuin%eb%n õAik%eb%n haÉeb%n KAÉeb%n cAih%eb%n iZ%KAÉeb%n kAmaRAÉeb%n Present imperative -É Zuin% õAik% haÉ KAÉ cAih%/cAÉ iZ%KAÉ kAmaRAÉ Zun õAk ha KA cA iZ%KA kAmaRA -ä Zueno õAeko haä KAä cAha iZ%KAä kAmaRAä -Ön Zunun õAkun han/haÖn KAn/KAÖn cAhun/cAyun iZ%KAn kAmaRAn -Ök Zunuk õAkuk hak/haÖk KAk/KAÖk cAhuk iZ%KAk kAmaRAk -Ön/àn Zunun õAkun han/haÖn KAn/KAÖn cAhun/cAyun iZ%KAn kAmaRAn Future imperative -Éebo Zuin%ebo õAik%ebo haÉebo KAÉebo cAih%ebo iZ%KAÉebo kAmaRAÉebo -És Zuin%s õAik%s has KAs cAih%s/cAs iZ%KAÉs kAmaRAÉs -Éä Zuin%ä õAik%ä haÉä KAÉä cAih%ä iZ%KAÉä kAmaRAÉä -Éeb%n Zuin%eb%n õAik%eb%n haÉeb%n KAÉeb%n cAih%eb%n iZ%KAÉeb%n kAmaRAÉeb%n -Éeb% Zuin%eb% õAik%eb% haÉeb% KAÉeb cAih%eb %iZ%KAÉeb% kAmaRAÉeb% -Éeb%n Zuin%eb%n õAik%eb%n haÉeb%n KAÉeb%n cAih%eb%n iZ%KAÉeb%n kAmaRAÉeb%n Simple past -ÉlAm Zuin%lAm õAik%lAm haÉlAm KAÉlAm cAih%lAm iZ%KAÉlAm kAmaRAÉlAm -Éil% Zuin%il% õAik%il% haÉil% KAÉil% cAih%il %iZ%KAÉil% kAmaRAÉil% -Éel% Zuin%lA õAik%lA haÉlA KAÉlA cAih%lA/el %iZ%KAÉlA %kAmaRAÉlA -Éel%n Zuin%el%n õAik%el%n haÉel%n KAÉel%n cAih%el%n iZ%KAÉel%n kAmaRAÉel%n -Éelo Zuin%elo õAik%elo haÉelo KAÉelo cAih%elo iZ%KAÉelo kAmaRAÉelo -Éel%n Zuin%el%n õAik%el%n haÉel%n KAÉel%n cAih%el%n iZ%KAÉel%n kAmaRAÉel%n Past habitual/conditional -ÉtAm Zuin%tAm õAik%tAm haÉtAm KAÉtAm cAih%tAm iZ%KAÉtAm kAmaRAÉtAm -Éit%s Zuin%it%s õAik%it%s haÉit%s KAÉit%s cAih%it%s iZ%KAÉit%s kAmaRAÉit%s -Éet% Zuin%et% õAik%et% haÉet% KAÉet% cAih%et% iZ%KAÉet% kAmaRAÉet% -Éet%n Zuin%et%n õAik%et%n haÉet%n KAÉet%n cAih%et%n iZ%KAÉet%n kAmaRAÉet%n -Éeto Zuin%eto õAik%eto haÉeto KAÉeto cAih%eto iZ%KAÉeto kAmaRAÉeto -Éet%n Zuin%et%n õAik%et%n haÉet%n KAÉet%n cAih%et%n iZ%KAÉet%n kAmaRAÉet%n

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Verb stem type (C)VC- (C)aC- (C)V- (C)a- (C)V(i)- causative 3-Å•ara Present continuative -Éet%iC% Zuin%et%iC% õAik%et%iC% haÉet%iC% KAÉet%iC% cAih%et%iC %iZ%KAÉet%iC %kAmaRAÉet%iC% -Éet%iC%s Zuin%et%iC%s õAik%et%iC%s haÉet%iC%s KAÉet%iC%s cAih%et%iC%s iZ%KAÉet%iC%s kAmaRAÉet%iC%s -Éet%eCo Zuin%et%eCo õAik%et%eCo haÉet%eCo KAÉet%eCo cAih%et%eCo iZ%KAÉet%eCo kAmaRAÉet%eCo -Éet%eC%n Zuin%et%eC%n õAik%et%eC%n haÉet%eC%n KAÉet%eC%n cAih%et%eC%n iZ%KAÉet%eC%n kAmaRAÉet%eC%n -Éet%eC% Zuin%et%eC% õAik%et%eC% haÉet%eC% KAÉet%eC cAih%et%eC %iZ%KAÉet%eC% kAmaRAÉet%eC% -Éet%eC%n Zuin%et%eC%n õAik%et%eC%n haÉet%eC%n KAÉet%eC%n cAih%et%eC%n iZ%KAÉet%eC%n kAmaRAÉet%eC%n Past continuative -Éet%iC%lAm Zuin%et%iC%lAm õAik%et%iC%lAm haÉet%iC%lAm KAÉet%iC%lAm cAih%et%iC%lAm iZ%KAÉet%iC%lAm kAmaRAÉet%iC%lAm -Éet%iC%il% Zuin%et%iC%il% õAik%et%iC%il% haÉet%iC%il% KAÉet%iC%il% cAih%et%iC%il% iZ%KAÉet%iC%il% kAmaRAÉet%iC%il% -Éet%iC%lA/el Zuin%et%iC%lA õAik%et%iC%lA haÉet%iC%lA KAÉet%iC%lA cAih%et%iC%lA iZ%KAÉet%iC%lA kAmaRAÉet%iC%lA -Éet%iC%el%n Zuin%et%iC%el%n õAik%et%iC%el%n haÉet%iC%el%n KAÉet%iC%el%n cAih%et%iC%el%n iZ%KAÉet%iC%el%n kAmaRAÉet%iC%el%n -Éet%iC%elo Zuin%et%iC%elo õAik%et%iC%elo haÉet%iC%elo KAÉet%iC%elo cAih%et%iC%elo iZ%KAÉet%iC%elo kAmaRAÉet%iC%elo -Éet%iC%el%n Zuin%et%iC%el%n õAik%et%iC%el%n haÉet%iC%el%n KAÉet%iC%el%n cAih%et%iC%el%n iZ%KAÉet%iC%el%n kAmaRAÉet%iC%el%n Present completive -iC% Zuin%yAiC% õAik%yAiC% haÉyAiC% KAÉyAiC% cAih%yAiC %iZ%KAÉyAiC% kAmaiR%yAiC% kAmaRAÉyAiC% -iC%s Zuin%yAiC%s õAik%yAiC%s haÉyAiC%s KAÉyAiC%s cAih%yAiC%s iZ%KAÉyAiC%s kAmaiR%yAiC%s -eCo Zuin%yAeCo õAik%yAeCo haÉyAeCo KAÉyAeCo cAih%yAeCo iZ%KAÉyAeCo kAmaiR%yAeCo -eC%n Zuin%yAeC%n õAik%yAeC%n haÉyAeC%n KAÉyAeC%n cAih%yAeC%n iZ%KAÉyAeC%n kAmaiR%yAeC%n -eC% Zuin%yAeC% õAik%yAeC% haÉyAeC% KAÉyAeC% cAih%yAeC %iZ%KAÉyAeC% kAmaiR%yAeC% -eC%n Zuin%yAeC%n õAik%yAeC%n haÉyAeC%n KAÉyAeC%n cAih%yAeC%n iZ%KAÉyAeC%n kAmaiR%yAeC%n Past completive -iC%lAm Zuin%yAiC%lAm õAik%yAiC%lAm haÉyAiC%lAm KAÉyAiC%lAm cAih%yAiC%lAm iZ%KAÉyAiC%lAm kAmaiR%yAiC%lAm kAmaRAÉyAiC%lAm -iC%il% Zuin%yAiC%il% õAik%yAiC%il% haÉyAiC%il% KAÉyAiC%il% cAih%yAiC%il% iZ%KAÉyAiC%il% kAmaiR%yAiC%il% -iC%lA/el Zuin%yAiC%lA õAik%yAiC%lA haÉyAiC%lA KAÉyAiC%lA cAih%yAiC%lA/el% iZ%KAÉyAiC%lA kAmaiR%yAiC%lA -iC%el%n Zuin%yAiC%el%n õAik%yAiC%el%n haÉyAiC%el%n KAÉyAiC%el%n cAih%yAiC%el%n iZ%KAÉyAiC%el%n kAmaiR%yAiC%el%n -iC%elo Zuin%yAiC%elo õAik%yAiC%elo haÉyAiC%elo KAÉyAiC%elo cAih%yAiC%elo iZ%KAÉyAiC%elo kAmaiR%yAiC%elo -iC%el%n Zuin%yAiC%el%n õAik%yAiC%el%n haÉyAiC%el%n KAÉyAiC%el%n cAih%yAiC%el%n iZ%KAÉyAiC%el%n kAmaiR%yAiC%el%n PAP Zuin%yA õAik%yA haÉyA KAÉyA cAih%yA iZ%KAÉyA kAmaiR%yA kAmaRAÉyA Infinitive Zuin%et% õAik%et% haÉet% KAÉet% cAih%et %iZ%KAÉet% kAmaRAÉet% Conditional Zuin%el% õAik%el% haÉel% KAÉel% cAih%el %iZ%KAÉel% kAmaRAÉel% Verbal noun ZunA õAkA haäyA KAäyA cAhA/cAäyA iZ%KAeno kAmaRAeno i Ön is heard in Kolkata's speech; àn is heard more frequently in Bangladesh. ii lAm is sometimes replaced by lum in Kolkata's speech and by elm in Tagore's writings. iii el is sometimes replaced by lA in Bangladesh. iv elo is sometimes replaced by el in West Bengal. v tAm is sometimes replaced by tum in Kolkata's speech. vi In Kolkata, one often hears cAi∞C% etc., or, in other words, the conjugation of this verb as though it were of the (C)a- type. vii The same applies throughout, i.e., either causative or noncausative-looking PAP stem: kAmaiR%ey%iC%s, etc. viii The same applies throughout, i.e., either causative or noncausative-looking PAP stem: kAmaiR%ey%iC%il%, etc. ix Either causative or noncausative-looking PAP. x The "high" stem vowel—ZunA/ZunbA—is more commonly heard in Dhaka than in Kolkata.

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APPENDIX 22 PRONOUN (saébanAm) DECLENSIONS: CALIT & SADHU PERSONAL PRONOUNS—HUMAN, CALIT Nominative singular plural 1st person Çim% ÇmarA 2nd-per familiar tuÉ ftorA 2nd-per ordinary tuim% ftomarA 2nd-per honorific Çpin% ÇpanArA 3rd-per ordinary à/àÉ1 àrA 3rd-per ordinary ä/äÉ ärA 3rd-per ordinary fs%/fs%É tArA 3rd-per honorific Éin% ^àrA2 3rd-per honorific Öin% ^ärA 3rd-per honorific it%in% ^tArA Genitive singular plural 1st person ÇmAr ÇmAed%r 2nd-per familiar ftor ftoed%r 2nd-per ordinary ftomAr ftomAed%r 2nd-per honorific ÇpanAr ÇpanAed%r 3rd-per ordinary àr àed%r 3rd-per ordinary är äed%r 3rd-per ordinary tAr tAed%r 3rd-per honorific ^àr ^àed%r 3rd-per honorific ^är ^äed%r 3rd-per honorific ^tAr ^tAed%r Objective singular plural 1st person ÇmAek% ÇmAed%r/ÇmAed%raek% 2nd-per familiar ftoek% ftoed%r/ftoed%raek% 2nd-per ordinary ftomAek% ftomAed%r/ftomAed%raek% 2nd-per honorific ÇpanAek% ÇpanAed%r/ÇpanAed%raek% 3rd-per ordinary àek% àed%r/àed%raek% 3rd-per ordinary äek% äed%r/äed%raek% 3rd-per ordinary tAek% tAed%r/tAed%raek% 3rd-per honorific ^àek% ^àed%r/^àed%raek% 3rd-per honorific ^äek% ^äed%r/^äed%raek% 3rd-per honorific ^tAek% ^tAed%r/^tAed%raek%

---------- 1 à/àÉ (this), ä/äÉ (that), and fs%/fs%É (that) are demonstrative adjectives as well as pronouns. 2 In the Dhaka dialect, nasalization of the vowel here becomes a subsequent nasal consonant: ànArA and änArA (nominative); ànAr, änAr, ànAed%r, and änAed%r (possessive); and ànAek%, änAek%, ànAed%r/ànAed%raek%, and änAed%r/änAed%raek (objective).

PERSONAL PRONOUNS—NONHUMAN Nominative singular plural 3rd-per ordinary àTA/àÉTA àguelo/àÉguelo à/àÉ àguil%/àÉguil% 3rd-per ordinary äTA/âTA äguelo/âguelo ä/â äguil%/àÉguil% 3rd-per ordinary fs%TA/fs%ÉTA fsguelo/fs%Éguelo tA/fs%/fs%É3 fsguil%/fsÉguil% Genitive singular plural 3rd-per ordinary àTAr/àÉTAr/àr àguelor/etc. 3rd-per ordinary äTAr/âTAr/är äguelor/etc. 3rd-per ordinary fs%TAr/fs%ÉTAr/tAr fs%guelor/etc. Locative singular plural 3rd-per ordinary àTAy%%/etc. àgueloet%/etc. 3rd-per ordinary äTAet%%/etc. ägueloy/etc. 3rd-per ordinary tAet%/etc. fs%gueloet%%/etc. RELATIVE PRONOUNS—HUMAN Nominative singular plural all persons fY%/fs% YArA/etc. (except 3rd-per hon) iY%in %^YArA Genitive singular plural all persons YAr YAed%r (except 3rd-per hon) ^YAr ^YAed%r Objective singular plural all persons YAek% YAed%r/YAed%raek% (except 3rd-per hon) ^YAek% ^YAed%r/^YAed%raek%

---------- 3 Whereas à and ä can have concrete objects as their referents (e.g., à hae∞C% àkaTA baÉ| "This/It is a book."), fs% when used as a nonhuman pronoun usually has something abstract as its referent (e.g., fs% BAelo kaõA| "That/It is a good idea."). With the encl*tic TA, however, fs%TA, like àTA and äTA, has a concrete object as its referent.

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RELATIVE PRONOUNS—NONHUMAN Nominative singular plural 3rd-per ordinary fY%TA/YA fY%guil% Genitive singular plural 3rd-per ordinary fY%TAr/YAr fY%guil%r Locative singular plural 3rd-per ordinary YAet% fY%guil%ek% INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS—HUMAN Nominative singular plural all persons fk% kArA Genitive singular plural all persons kAr kAed%r Objective singular plural all persons kAek% kAed%r/kAed%raek% INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS—NONHUMAN Nominative singular plural 3rd-person ordinary ik%/kI (ik% ik%/kI kI) Genitive singular plural ik%es%r4 Locative singular plural ik%es%5 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS—HUMAN Nominative singular plural all persons fk%Ö (fk%Ö fk%Ö) Genitive singular plural all persons kAero/kAü (kAero kAero) kAür Objective singular plural all persons kAÖek%% (kAÖek% kAÖek%) kAüek kAekä

---------- 4 The possessive implies "sort" or "type" (e.g., ik%es%r baÉ "what sort of book," as opposed to ik% baÉ "what book"). 5 The locative implies "means" (e.g., ik%es% YAeb% "how will you go").

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS—NONHUMAN Nominative singular plural ik%Cu (ik%Cu ik%Cu) Locative singular plural ik%Cuet%6 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS (See Lesson 8, II.) PERSONAL PRONOUNS—HUMAN, SADHU Nominative singular plural 1st person Çim% ÇmarA 2nd-per familiar tuÉ ftorA 2nd-per ordinary tuim% ftomarA 2nd-per honorific Çpain% ÇpanArA 3rd-per ordinary ÉhA ÉhArA 3rd-per ordinary ÖhA ÖhArA 3rd-per ordinary fs%/fs%É tAhArA 3rd-per honorific it%in% ^tAhArA Genitive singular plural 1st person ÇmAr ÇmAid%eg%r/ÇmAed%r 2nd-per familiar ftor ftoid%eg%r/ftoed%r 2nd-per ordinary ftomAr ftomAid%eg%r/ftomAed%r 2nd-per honorific ÇpanAr ÇpanAid%eg%r/ÇpanAed%r 3rd-per ordinary ÉhAr ÉhAid%eg%r/ÉhAed%r 3rd-per ordinary ÖhAr ÖhAid%eg%r/ÖhAed%r 3rd-per ordinary tAhAr tAhAid%eg%r/tAhAed%r 3rd-per honorific ^tAhAr ^tAhAid%eg%r/^tAhAid%eg%r Objective singular plural 1st person ÇmAek% ÇmAid%gaek% 2nd-per familiar ftoek% ftoid%gaek% 2nd-per ordinary ftomAek% ftomAid%gaek% 2nd-per honorific ÇpanAek ÇpanAid%gaek% 3rd-per ordinary ÉhAek ÉhAid%gaek% 3rd-per ordinary ÖhAek ÖhAid%gaek% 3rd-per ordinary tAhAek% tAhAid%gaek% 3rd-per honorific ^tAhAek% ^tAhAid%gaek%

---------- 6 The locative is used adverbially; see Lesson 20, IV.

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PERSONAL PRONOUNS—NONHUMAN Nominative singular plural 3rd-per ordinary ÉhA ÉhAguil% 3rd-per ordinary ÖhA ÖhAguil% 3rd-per ordinary tAhA tAhAguil% Genitive singular plural 3rd-per ordinary ÉhAr ÉhAguil%r 3rd-per ordinary ÖhAr ÖhAguil%r 3rd-per ordinary tAhAr tAhAguil%r Locative singular plural 3rd-per ordinary ÉhAet% ÉhAguil%et% 3rd-per ordinary ÖhAet% ÖhAguil%et% 3rd-per ordinary tAhAet% tA